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  • 1. Galli, André
    et al.
    Wurz, Peter
    Kallio, Esa
    Ekenbäck, Andreas
    Institutet för rymdfysik (IRF).
    Holmström, Mats
    Institutet för rymdfysik, Kiruna.
    Barabash, Stas
    Institutet för rymdfysik, Kiruna.
    Gregoriev, Alexander
    Futaana, Yoshifumi
    Institutet för rymdfysik, Kiruna.
    Fok, Mei-Ching
    Gunell, H
    The tailward flow of energetic neutral atoms observed at Mars2008In: Journal of Geophysical Research, ISSN 0148-0227, E-ISSN 2156-2202, Vol. 113, article id E12012Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ASPERA-3 experiment on Mars Express provides the first measurements of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) from Mars. These measurements are used to study the global structure of the interaction of the solar wind with the Martian atmosphere. In this study we describe the tailward ENA flow observed at the nightside of Mars. After characterizing energy spectra of hydrogen ENA signals, we present composite images of the ENA intensities and compare them to theoretical predictions (empirical and MHD models). We find that the tailward flow of hydrogen ENAs is mainly generated by shocked solar wind protons. Despite intensive search, no oxygen ENAs above the instrument threshold are detected. The results challenge existing plasma models and constrain the hydrogen exospheric densities and atmospheric hydrogen and oxygen loss rates at low solar activity.

  • 2.
    Lindkvist, Jesper
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna.
    Holmström, Mats
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna.
    Fatemi, Shahab
    Space Sciences Laboratory, UC Berkeley.
    Wieser, Martin
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna.
    Barabash, Stas
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna.
    Ceres interaction with the solar wind2017In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 44, no 5, p. 2070-2077Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The solar wind interaction with Ceres is studied for a high water vapor release from its surface using a hybrid model including photoionization. We use a water vapor production rate of 6 kg/s, thought to be due to subsurface sublimation, corresponding to a detection on 6 March 2013 by the Herschel Space Observatory. We present the general morphology of the plasma interactions, both close to Ceres and on a larger scale. Mass loading of water ions causes a magnetic pileup region in front of Ceres, where the solar wind deflects up to 15 ∘ and slows down by 15%. The global plasma interaction with Ceres is not greatly affected by the source location of water vapor nor on gravity, only on the production rate of water vapor. On a global scale, Ceres has a comet-like interaction with the solar wind with observable perturbations farther than 250 Ceres radii downstream of the body.

  • 3.
    Lindkvist, Jesper
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna.
    Holmström, Mats
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna.
    Khurana, Krishan K.
    Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles.
    Fatemi, Shahab
    Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley.
    Barabash, Stas
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna.
    Callisto plasma interactions: Hybrid modeling including induction by a subsurface ocean2015In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 120, no 6, p. 4877-4889Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By using a hybrid plasma solver (ions as particles and electrons as a fluid), we have modeled the interaction between Callisto and Jupiter's magnetosphere for variable ambient plasma parameters. We compared the results with the magnetometer data from flybys (C3, C9, and C10) by the Galileo spacecraft. Modeling the interaction between Callisto and Jupiter's magnetosphere is important to establish the origin of the magnetic field perturbations observed by Galileo and thought to be related to a subsurface ocean. Using typical upstream magnetospheric plasma parameters and a magnetic dipole corresponding to the inductive response inside the moon, we show that the model results agree well with observations for the C3 and C9 flybys, but agrees poorly with the C10 flyby close to Callisto. The study does support the existence of a subsurface ocean at Callisto.

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  • 4.
    Persson, Moa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Futaana, Yoshifumi
    Fedorov, Andrei
    Barabash, Stas
    Return Flows in the Venusian Magnetotail Measured by Venus ExpressManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Persson, Moa
    et al.
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden.
    Futaana, Yoshifumi
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Hans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden.
    Stenberg Wieser, Gabriella
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden.
    Hamrin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Fedorov, Andrei
    IRAP, CNRS, Toulouse, France.
    Zhang, T. L.
    Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Graz, Austria.
    Barabash, Stas
    Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Graz, Austria.
    Heavy Ion Flows in the Upper Ionosphere of the Venusian North Pole2019In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 124, no 6, p. 4597-4607Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the heavy ion density and velocity in the Venusian upper ionosphere near the North Pole, using the Ion Mass Analyzer, a part of the Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms 4, together with the magnetic field instruments on Venus Express. The measurements were made during June-July 2014, covering the aerobraking campaign with lowered altitude measurements (similar to 130 km). The plasma scale heights are similar to 15 km below 150-km altitude and similar to 200 km at 150-400-km altitude. A clear trend of dusk-to-dawn heavy ion flow across the polar ionosphere was found, with speeds of similar to 2-10 km/s. In addition, the flow has a significant downward radial velocity component. The flow pattern does not depend on the interplanetary magnetic field directions nor the ionospheric magnetization states. Instead, we suggest a thermal pressure gradient between the equatorial and polar terminator regions, induced by the decrease in density between the regions, as the dominant mechanism driving the ion flow. Plain Language Summary We have calculated the ion density and velocities in the Venusian polar ionosphere using measurements from the Ion Mass Analyzer on board the Venus Express spacecraft. During June-July 2014 the periapsis was lowered to similar to 130 km, which allowed for measurements down to low altitudes of the ionosphere near the North Pole. The plasma scale heights are similar to 15 km below 150-km altitude and similar to 200 km at 150-400 km, which is similar to what was found near the equatorial region by the Pioneer Venus mission. In addition, there is a clear trend of dusk-to-dawn flow, along the terminator, for the heavy ions. This is surprising, as a general flow from day-to-night is expected for the Venusian ionosphere due to the long nights and significant heating of the dayside upper atmosphere. The interplanetary magnetic field direction does not appear to affect the ion flow pattern. Instead, we propose a thermal pressure gradient as the dominant accelerating mechanism, induced by the decrease in density from the equator toward the pole.

  • 6.
    Persson, Moa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Institutet för Rymdfysik, Kiruna, Sverige.
    Futaana, Yoshifumi
    Institutet för Rymdfysik, Kiruna, Sverige.
    Ramstad, Robin
    Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USA.
    Schillings, Audrey
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Masunaga, Kei
    Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USA.
    Nilsson, Hans
    Institutet för Rymdfysik, Kiruna, Sverige.
    Fedorov, Andrei
    IRAP, CNRS, Toulouse, France.
    Barabash, Stas
    Institutet för Rymdfysik, Kiruna, Sverige.
    Global Venus-Solar wind coupling and oxygen ion escape2021In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 48, no 4, article id e2020GL091213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present‐day Venusian atmosphere is dry, yet, in its earlier history a significant amount of water evidently existed. One important water loss process comes from the energy and momentum transfer from the solar wind to the atmospheric particles. Here, we used measurements from the Ion Mass Analyzer onboard Venus Express to derive a relation between the power in the upstream solar wind and the power leaving the atmosphere through oxygen ion escape in the Venusian magnetotail. We find that on average 0.01% of the available power is transferred, and that the percentage decreases as the available energy increases. For Mars the trend is similar, but the efficiency is higher. At Earth, the ion escape does not behave similarly, as the ion escape only increases after a threshold in the available energy is reached. These results indicate that the Venusian induced magnetosphere efficiently screens the atmosphere from the solar wind.

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  • 7.
    Pontoni, Angèle
    et al.
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden.
    Shimoyama, Manabu
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden.
    Futaana, Yoshifumi
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden.
    Fatemi, Shahab
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Poppe, A.R.
    Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, CA, Berkeley, United States.
    Wieser, Martin
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden.
    Barabash, Stas
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden.
    Simulations of Energetic Neutral Atom Sputtering From Ganymede in Preparation for the JUICE Mission2022In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 127, no 1, article id e2021JA029439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Jovian magnetospheric plasma irradiates the surface of Ganymede and is postulated to be the primary agent that changes the surface brightness of Ganymede, leading to asymmetries between polar and equatorial regions as well as between the trailing and leading hemispheres. As impinging ions sputter surface constituents as neutrals, ion precipitation patterns can be remotely imaged using the Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENA) measurement technique. Here we calculate the expected sputtered ENA flux from the surface of Ganymede to help interpret future observations by ENA instruments, particularly the Jovian Neutrals Analyzer (JNA) onboard the JUpiter ICy moon Explorer (JUICE) spacecraft. We use sputtering models developed based on laboratory experiments to calculate sputtered fluxes of H2O, O2, and H2. The input ion population used in this study is the result of test particle simulations using electric and magnetic fields from a hybrid simulation of Ganymede's environment. This population includes a thermal component (H+ and O+ from 10 eV to 10 keV) and an energetic component (H+, O++, and S+++ from 10 keV to 10 MeV). We find a global ENA sputtering rate from Ganymede of 1.42 × 1027 s−1, with contributions from H2, O2, and H2O of 34%, 17%, and 49% respectively. We also calculate the energy distribution of sputtered Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENAs), give an estimate of a typical JNA count rate at Ganymede, and investigate latitudinal variations of sputtered fluxes along a simulated orbit track of the JUICE spacecraft. Our results demonstrate the capability of the JNA sensor to remotely map ion precipitation at Ganymede.

  • 8.
    Ramstad, Robin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna.
    Barabash, Stas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna.
    Futaana, Yoshifumi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna.
    Nilsson, Hans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna.
    Holmström, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna.
    Global Mars-solar wind coupling and ion escape2017In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 122, no 8, p. 8051-8062Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Loss of the early Martian atmosphere is often thought to have occurred due to an effective transfer of the solar wind energy through the Martian induced magnetic barrier to the ionosphere. We have quantified the coupling efficiency by comparing the power of the heavy ion outflow with the available power supplied by the upstream solar wind. Constraining upstream solar wind density nsw, velocity vsw, and EUV intensity IEUV/photoionizing flux FXUV in varying intervals reveals a decrease in coupling efficiency, k,with solar wind dynamic pressure as ∝ pdyn−0.74±0.13 and with FXUV as k ∝ FXUV−2.28±0.30. Despite the decreasein coupling efficiency, higher FXUV enhances the cold ion outflow, increasing the total ion escape rate as Q(FXUV) = 1010(0.82 ± 0.05)FXUV. The discrepancy between coupling and escape suggests that ion escapefrom Mars is primarily production limited in the modern era, though decreased coupling may lead to an energy-limited solar wind interaction under early Sun conditions.

  • 9.
    Zhang, Qi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden.
    Holmström, Mats
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden.
    Wang, Xiao-Dong
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Hans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden.
    Barabash, Stas
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden.
    The influence of solar irradiation and solar wind conditions on heavy ion escape at MarsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Zhang, Qi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden.
    Holmström, Mats
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden.
    Wang, Xiao-Dong
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Hans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden.
    Barabash, Stas
    Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden.
    The influence of solar irradiation and solar wind conditions on heavy ion escape from Mars2023In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 128, no 10, article id e2023JA031828Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We apply a recently proposed method to estimate heavy ion escape from Mars. The method combines in situ observations with a hybrid plasma model, which treats ions as particles and electrons as a fluid. With this method, we investigate how solar upstream conditions, including solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation, solar wind dynamic pressure, and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) strength and cone angle, affect the heavy ion loss. The results indicate that the heavy ion escape rate is greater in high EUV conditions. The escape rate increases with increasing solar wind dynamic pressure, and decreases as the IMF strength increases. The ion escape rate is highest when the solar wind is parallel to the IMF and lowest when they are perpendicular. The plume escape rate decreases when the solar wind convective electric field increases.

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