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  • 1.
    Bonita, Ruth
    et al.
    School of Population Health, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand;.
    Brändström, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Linnaeus: Alive and well2011In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 4, p. 5760-2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Clark, Eric
    et al.
    Human Geography, Lund University, Sweden.
    Johnson, Karin
    Department of Economic and Social Geography, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Lundholm, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Island gentrification & space wars: How's the market for island properties? Hysterical.2007In: A world of islands: a island studies reader / [ed] Godfrey Baldacchino, Charlottetown, Canada: Institute of island studies, University of Prince Edward Island, Canada , 2007, p. 483-512Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Edvinsson, Sören
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Do unequal societies cause death among the elderly?: a study of the health effects of inequality in Swedish municipalities, 20062013In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 6, no 1, article id 19116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A lively public and academic debate has highlighted the potential health risk of living in regions and nations characterized by inequality. However, previous research provides an ambiguous picture, with positive association mainly having been found on higher geographical levels. One explanation for this could be that the effect of living in more heterogeneous social settings differs between levels of aggregation. 

    Methods: We examine the association between income inequality (using the Gini coefficient) and all-cause mortality in Swedish municipalities in the age group 65-74. A multi-level analysis is applied and we control for e.g. individual income and average income level in the unicipality. The analyses are based on individual register data on all residents born between 1932 and 1941, and outcomes are measured for the year 2006.

    Results: Lower individual income as well as lower average income level in the municipality of residence increased mortality significantly. We found an association between income inequality and mortality with excessive deaths in unequal municipalities even after controlling for mean income level and personal income. The results from the analysis of individual data differed substantially from analyses using aggregate data.

    Conclusions: Income inequality has a significant association with mortality in the age groups 65 to 75 at municipality level. The association is small compared to many other variables, but it is not negligible. Even in a comparatively equal society like Sweden, we need to consider possible effects of income inequality on mortality at the local level. 

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  • 4.
    Edvinsson, Sören
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Income inequality in Swedish municipalities 1986-2013: Development and regional patterns2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present report, we investigate the patterns and trends of inequality in disposable income in the working-age population in Swedish municipalities 1986-2013. This period coincided with when Sweden changed from very lowlevels of inequality to one with substantially increasing inequality. Incomes has increased in all parts of Sweden, but differences in incomes between municipalities have widened. Asa result, large parts of Sweden have become poorer in a relative, although not in a nominative sense. At the same time, income inequality has increased substantially within as well as between municipalities. Present-day Swedes live in much more unequal environments, both at the national level and in the municipalities. The large city areas, or at least part of them, have had a much more advantageous economic development, but they also became more unequal. We see a division between parts of Sweden; there are clear differentiation tendencies between urban and rural parts, centre and periphery. Another finding is that the relation between mean income and income inequality has changed from the 1980s to the present. This association was negative a couple of decades ago, meaning that inequality was somewhat higher in poorer municipalities. From the 1990s onwards, the association is instead positive – affluent municipalities are more unequal.

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  • 5.
    Edvinsson, Sören
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Neighbourhood inequality as a health risk: Empirical evidence from Swedish registers2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we explore the impact on mortality of income inequality in residential neighbourhoods and municipalities among elderly 65-84 years in the year 2004, using Swedish longitudinal micro-data covering the entire Swedish population for the period 1970 – 2006. Preliminary cross-sectional multi-level analyses are now complemented by longitudinal analyses of long-term residential histories with exposure to equal/unequal municipalities and neighbourhoods and the long-term impact on mortality. We investigate the association between mortality and income inequality at place of residence at different time lags and the effect of a summary measure of previous exposures to environments characterised by different inequality levels. We also compare groups that have different experiences of residential characteristics, i.e. those that have resided in unequal or equal places and those that have changed from equal to unequal residences or vice versa. Preliminary results from a cross-sectional analysis on 2006, show that income inequality in the municipality of residence had an independent effect on mortality in the age group 65-74 years

  • 6.
    Edvinsson, Sören
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Do unequal societies cause death and disease?: A study of the health effects on elderly of inequality in Swedish municipalities, 20062011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A lively public and academic debate has highlighted the potential health risk of living in regions and nations characterized by inequality (Wilkinson and Pickett 2007; 2009). It is argued that inequality may add to increasing health differentials over the life course. However, previous research provides so far an ambiguous picture. One explanation could be that the effect of living in more heterogeneous social settings may differ between levels of aggregation. A hypothesis is that homogeneity is positive on the national or regional level, while on a lower level of aggregation living in homogeneous settings could be detrimental for health, at least in poor neighborhoods.

    In this paper we present the preliminary results of our examination on how residence in unequal versus homogeneous areas is associated with health outcome of elderly people in Sweden. These first results are based on municipality level data on individuals born between 1932 and 1941 and the outcome is measured for the year 2006. Furthermore, we analyze the effect on health of income inequality (measured by Gini-coefficient) as compared to the effect of individual income and the average income level in the area. We analysed the associations both with individual-level and multi-level analysis. Our main finding is that inequality has an independent effect on mortality in the way that unequal municipalities have excessive deaths even after controlling for mean income level and personal income. This result was found not only in the individual-level analysis but also in the multilevel analysis.

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  • 7.
    Eriksson, Madeleine
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Spatial Otherness and Places of Others: Urban and Rural Imaginaries in Sweden2013In: Justice spatiale et politiques territoriales / [ed] Frédéric Dufaux, Pascale Philifert, Paris: Presses Universitaires de Paris Ouest , 2013Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Agglomeration mobility: Effects of localisation, urbanisation, and scale on job changes2008In: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 40, p. 2419-2434Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Following increased attention being paid to the importance of labour-market processes in relation to knowledge diffusion and learning, this study addresses the influence of agglomeration economies (localisation, urbanisation, and scale) on the propensity to change jobs between and within local labour markets. From the use of longitudinal individual data (1990 ^ 2002), controlling for factors such as age, sex, income, and social relations, the results show that the composition of regional economies influences labour-market dynamism. We identify two cases of intraregional agglomeration mobility, that is, positive effects on job mobility, due to the concentration of similar activities (localisation economies) and the size of the labour market (urbanisation economies). The results also show that localisation economies compensate for regional structural disadvantages connected to small population numbers, as localisation effects in small regions have a significantlypositive effect on intraregional job-mobility rates, even compared with localisation effects in large and diversified metropolitan areas. The results indicate that the concentration of similar activities may be useful for small regions, if high levels of job mobility are crucial for the transfer of knowledge and the performance of firms.

  • 9.
    Fors Connolly, Filip
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Olofsson, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Stattin, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Adjustment of daily activities to restrictions and reported spread of the COVID-19 pandemic across Europe2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses adjustments of daily activities in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic among people aged 50 years and older in Europe, and investigates the extent to which such adjustments are associated with the stringency of governmental restrictions and the overall spread of COVID-19. We use data from the SHARE Corona Survey collected during summer2020, published data on government response stringency, and reported country-specific prevalence and mortality of COVID-19. Our analyses show that older Europeans across the continent have reduced their daily activities quite substantially during the pandemic. However, we observe variation across countries and demographic groups, which may be important to highlight for policymakers. Our explanatory analysis replicates previous studies using mobility data, showing that both restrictions and infections predict a reduction in mobility. Thus, policymakers could potentially rely on both restrictions and voluntary adjustments in order to decrease the spread of the virus. However, it is noteworthy that we find relatively weaker associations with restrictions compared to previous studies using mobility data. One explanation for this discrepancy could be that our study focuses on older people, who face a higher risk of becoming severely ill and therefore have stronger incentives to adjust their behaviours independent of governmental regulations.

  • 10.
    Garvill, Jörgen
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lundholm, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Nöjda så in i Norden?: Motiv och konsekvenser för de som flyttat och stannat i de nordiska länderna2002Book (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Garvill, Jörgen
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Ung, yngre, flyttare: flyttningar och platsanknytning hos unga vuxna2004Report (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Garvill, Jörgen
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Värdet av att flytta och att stanna: om flyttningsbeslut, platsanknytning och livsvärden2000Report (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Garvill, Jörgen
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Värdet av att stanna och värdet av att flytta2002In: Befolkningen spelar roll / [ed] Malmberg, Gunnar, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2002, p. 31-45Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 14. Hedin, Karin
    et al.
    Clark, Eric
    Lundholm, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Neoliberalization of housing in Sweden: gentrification, filtering, and social polarization2012In: Annals of the Association of American Geographers, ISSN 0004-5608, E-ISSN 1467-8306, Vol. 102, no 2, p. 443-463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last twenty-five years, housing policy in Sweden has radically changed. Once forming a pillar of the comprehensive welfare system, abbreviated the “Swedish model,” neoliberal housing politics have established market-governed housing provision with a minimum of state engagement. This shift has had consequences on the social geography of housing conditions. The research reported here analyzes social geographic change in Sweden's three largest cities—Stockholm, Gothenburg, and Malmö—between 1986 and 2001, relating observed patterns of gentrification and filtering to cycles of accumulation and to neoliberalization of housing policies. First, we outline the neoliberalization of Swedish housing policies. We then present an empirical analysis of gentrification and filtering in the three cities, spanning two boom periods (1986–1991, 1996–2001) and a bust period (1991–1996). The data reveal social geographic polarization manifested in the growth of supergentrification and low-income filtering. The analysis also introduces the concept of ordinary gentrification, supporting the move in gentrification research toward a broad generic conception of the process. Political reforms after 2001 are summarized and we argue that these underlie the continued increase in inequality and that the social geographic polarization mapped between 1986 and 2001 has probably intensified during this decade.

  • 15.
    Hjort, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    The Attraction of the Rural - Characteristics of Rural Migrants in Sweden2005In: Rural Migration in Sweden: a new green wave or a blue ripple?, Kulturgeografi, Umeå , 2005Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Hjort, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    The attraction of the rural characteristics of rural migrants in Sweden2006In: Scottish Geographical Journal, Vol. 122, no 1, p. 55-75Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Hjort, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Place attachment and attitudes among young adults in rural and urban spaces2009Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Holm, Einar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Arbete och tillväxt i hela landet: Betydelsen av arbetskraftsmobilisering2004Report (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Holm, Einar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Dynamic microsimulation2000In: Spatial Models and GIS: New Potential and New Models / [ed] A. Stewart Fotheringham and Michael Wegener, London: Taylor & Francis, 2000, p. 143-165Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Holm, Einar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Mäkilä, Kalle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Simulating an entire nation1996In: Microsimulation for urban and regional policy analysis / [ed] Clarke, G.P., London: Pion , 1996, p. 164-186Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Keskitalo, E Carina H
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Wiberg, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Müller, Dieter K
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Pettersson, Örjan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Contrasting arctic and mainstream Swedish descriptions of Northern Sweden: the view from established domestic research2013In: Arctic, ISSN 0004-0843, E-ISSN 1923-1245, Vol. 66, no 3, p. 351-365Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2011, Sweden released its first-ever Arctic strategy, in preparation for taking over the chairmanship of the Arctic Council, an eight-state cooperation organization. The recent political development that will include Sweden more extensively in Arctic regional cooperation makes it relevant to review and comment on the image of the areas involved from a Swedish viewpoint and to improve the often very brief descriptions of northernmost Sweden in Arctic literature. In this paper, we contrast descriptions of the Arctic in the Arctic Human Development Report (AHDR) with descriptions of northern Sweden in established domestic demographic and regional development research. The study shows that many of the assumptions in the first AHDR to the effect that the eight "Arctic" regions are rather directly comparable in fact reveal substantial differences between areas, with northern Sweden standing in sharp contrast to many of the descriptions. Instead of having a population that is very small, young, and rapidly growing because of a high birth rate, northern Sweden is characterized by relatively dense habitation with a stable and aging population of long-term residents. Moreover, it has a very small and relatively integrated indigenous population with largely the same health situation as in Sweden overall. While depopulation and urbanization are evident in its less populated areas, migration from the region is partly directed at the larger regional centres in the area, following a pattern seen in the Western world at large.

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  • 22.
    Kulu, Hill
    et al.
    University of St Andrews.
    Lundholm, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Is spatial mobility on the rise or in decline?: An order-specific analysis of the migration of young adults in Sweden2018In: Population Studies, ISSN 0032-4728, E-ISSN 1477-4747, Vol. 72, no 3, p. 323-337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to investigate spatial mobility over time. Research on 'new mobilities' suggests increasing movement of individuals, technology, and information. By contrast, studies of internal migration report declining spatial mobility in recent decades. Using longitudinal register data from Sweden, we calculate annual order-specific migration rates to investigate the spatial mobility of young adults over the last three decades. We standardize mobility rates for educational enrolment, educational level, family status, and place of residence to determine how much changes in individuals' life domains explain changes in mobility. Young adults' migration rates increased significantly in the 1990s; although all order-specific migration rates increased, first migration rates increased the most. Changes in population composition, particularly increased enrolment in higher education, accounted for much of the elevated spatial mobility in the 1990s. The analysis supports neither ever increasing mobility nor a long-term rise in rootedness among young adults in Sweden.

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  • 23.
    Lestari, Septi K.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    de Luna, Xavier
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    A longitudinal study on social support, social participation, and older Europeans' quality of life2021In: SSM - Population Health, ISSN 2352-8273, Vol. 13, article id 100747Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The association between quality of life (QoL) and social relationships is well established. This paper further analyses whether and how participation in social activities as well as providing and receiving social support, independently, are associated with QoL among the older population in 16 European countries. QoL was measured using the CASP-12 scale. The baseline data came from Wave 6 and the outcome from Wave 7 of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). The associations of interest were analysed using multivariable linear regression. The effect of possible non-ignorable dropout was tested. Then, doubly robust estimation and sensitivity analyses for unobserved confounding were performed to evaluate the possible causal interpretation of the associations found. Our findings show that participation in at least one of the socially productive activities was positively associated with QoL at two-year follow-up (Average Causal Effect, ACE: 0.474; 95%CI: 0.361, 0.587). The association was stronger among women, people aged 75+, and those in the Southern European region. Providing social support had a positive association with QoL, but only among people aged 75+ (ACE: 0.410; 95%CI: 0.031, 0.789). Conversely, receiving social support had a negative association (ACE: -0.321; 95%CI: -0.448, -0.195) with QoL, especially for men, people aged 75+, and those in Eastern European countries. Sensitivity analyses for unobserved confounders showed that the associations found cannot be attributed to causal effects.

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  • 24.
    Lestari, Septi K.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    de Luna, Xavier
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute ofMedicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Changes in the provision of instrumental support by older adults in nine European countries during 2004-2015: a panel data analysis2020In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Providing support to others has been shown to be beneficial to older adults. As people age, their health and social relationships change. These changes may also relate to changes in social support provision. We examined the trajectory of instrumental support provision by older people in three European regions throughout 11 years of follow-up. We then examined the extent to which age at baseline, sex, and region (representing welfare state regime) influenced the variations in the trajectory.

    Methods: Data collected from 8354 respondents who had completed at least waves 1 and 6 of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) was analysed. Instrumental support provision was determined from asking a single question regarding whether the respondent provided help personally for people outside their household. Region, sex, and age at baseline were the main predictors tested. We used growth modelling to address the aims of this study.

    Results: The northern European region (Sweden and Denmark) had the highest odds ratio of instrumental support provision. The likelihood of being involved in providing instrumental support decreased by 8% annually (OR: 0.916, 95%CI: 0.893,0.940) over the 11 years of follow-up. Older respondents were less likely to provide instrumental support and their trajectories declined faster than those of the younger respondents. Sex difference in instrumental support provision was more apparent among younger-older people in the southern European region.

    Conclusions: Older European adults are an important source of instrumental support, especially for their families. The probability of instrumental support provision by European older adults declines over time. Age, sex, and welfare state regime predict this trajectory.

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  • 25.
    Lestari, Septi K
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    de Luna, Xavier
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Frailty and types of social relationships among older adults in 17 European countries: A latent class analysis2022In: Archives of gerontology and geriatrics (Print), ISSN 0167-4943, E-ISSN 1872-6976, Vol. 101, article id 104705Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Frailty is a syndrome commonly associated with old age. Social relationships are an essential determinant of frailty progression, and frailty can negatively affect social relationships.

    Objectives: To identify social relationship types among older adults in Europe; to evaluate whether social relationship types differ across European regions; and to assess the association between frailty status and social relationship type.

    Methods: We used data from 56,226 individuals from 17 European countries who participated in Wave 6 of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe. We constructed social relationship types from social relationship variables (contacts frequency, perceived emotional support, participation in social activities, providing and receiving instrumental support) using latent class analysis (LCA). Associations between social relationship types and frailty were examined using multinomial regression analyses integrated with LCA.

    Results: We identified four social relationship types: ‘poor’; ‘frequent and emotionally close’; ‘frequent, emotionally close, and supportive’; and ‘frequent, emotionally close, and active’. Type 3 is also characterised by participation in sport/social clubs (in the northern region) or receiving support (in the eastern region). Participation in volunteering/charity activities (in the central and northern regions) and instrumental support provision (in the northern region) are Type 4′s characteristics as well. In all regions, being frail was associated with less active social relationships (Types 1, 2, and 3) relative to the more ‘active’ type (Type 4).

    Conclusion: Frailty status was associated with social relationship types. The identified types may help tailor intervention programmes for older adults to prevent worsening frailty.

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  • 26.
    Lestari, Septi Kurnia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    de Luna, Xavier
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine. Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Volunteering and instrumental support during the first phase of the pandemic in Europe: the significance of COVID-19 exposure and stringent country’s COVID-19 policy2024In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 24, no 1, article id 99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The COVID-19 control policies might negatively impact older adults’ participation in volunteer work, instrumental support provision, and the likelihood of receiving instrumental support. Studies that quantify changes in these activities and the related factors are limited. The current study aimed to examine the level of volunteering, instrumental support provision and receipt before and during the first phase of the COVID-19 pandemic in Europe and to determine whether older adults’ volunteering, instrumental support provision and receipt were associated with individual exposure to COVID-19 and the stringency of country’s COVID-19 control policy during the first phase of the COVID-19 pandemic.

    Methods: A cross-sectional survey using data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) Corona Survey 1 was designed to focus on community-dwelling Europeans aged ≥50 years. History of participation in volunteering work and instrumental support provision or receipt was assessed from the previous SHARE Wave data. The country’s COVID-19 control policy stringency index (S-Index) was from the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker database. A total of 45,669 respondents from 26 European countries were included in the volunteering analysis. Seventeen European countries were included in the analyses of instrumental support provision (N = 36,518) and receipt (N = 36,526). The multilevel logistic regression model was fitted separately to analyse each activity.

    Results: The level of volunteering and instrumental support provision was lower during the pandemic, but instrumental support receipt was higher. The country S-Index was positively associated with support provision (OR:1.13;95%CI:1.02–1.26) and negatively associated with support receipt (OR:0.69;95%CI:0.54–0.88). Exposure to COVID-19 was positively associated with support receipt (OR:1.64;95%CI:1.38–1.95). COVID-19 exposure on close ones positively associated with volunteering (OR:1.47;95%CI:1.32–1.65), support provision (OR:1.28;95%CI:1.19–1.39), and support receipt (OR:1.25;95%CI:1.15–1.35).

    Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic impacted older Europeans’ volunteering, instrumental support provision, and instrumental support receipt from outside their household. When someone close to them was exposed to COVID-19, older Europeans were likely to receive instrumental support and to volunteer and provide instrumental support. A stricter country’s COVID-19 control policy might motivate older adults to provide instrumental support, but it prevents them from receiving instrumental support from outside their households. 

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  • 27.
    Lundholm, Emma
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Garvill, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Forced or free movers?: The motives, voluntariness and selectivity of interregional migration in the Nordic countries2004In: Population, Space and Place, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 59-72Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Lundholm, Emma
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Between elderly parents and grandchildren: geographic proximity and trends in four generation families2009Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In an ageing society, families may have an important role in the caretaking and well-being of the elderly. Demographic changes have an impact on the size and structure of families; one aspect is how intergenerational support is distributed when there is a need for support to both older and younger generations at the same time. Another vital aspect of the provision of care for the elderly is geographic proximity. This study is oriented towards the potential “both-end carers” i.e. persons who have grandchildren in potential need of care while still having living ageing parents. The incidence of having grandchildren and having living parents at age 55 and the proximity between generations is described using Swedish register data. The results show that the share of 55-year-olds who are grandparents decreased dramatically from 70 to 35 percent between 1990 and 2005. As expected, more 55-year-olds have living parents – a proportion that increased from 37 to 47 percent during this period. As a result of delayed childbearing among the children of these cohorts, the likelihood of belonging to a four-generation family among 55-year-olds has not increased, despite increased longevity. Furthermore, most individuals live within daily reach of their kin and no evidence was found of a trend of increasing geographic distances between generations.

  • 29.
    Lundholm, Emma
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Between elderly parents and grandchildren: Geographic proximity and trends in four-generation families2009In: Journal of Population Ageing, ISSN 1874-7884, E-ISSN 1874-7876, ISSN 1874-7876 (Online), Vol. 2, no 3-4, p. 121-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an ageing society, families may have an important role in the caretaking and well-being of the elderly. Demographic changes have an impact on the size and structure of families; one aspect is how intergenerational support is distributed when there is a need for support to both older and younger generations at the same time. Another vital aspect of the provision of care for the elderly is geographic proximity. This study is oriented towards the potential “both-end carers” i.e. persons who have grandchildren in potential need of care while still having living ageing parents. The incidence of having grandchildren and having living parents at age 55 and the proximity between generations is described using Swedish register data. The results show that the share of 55-year-olds who are grandparents decreased dramatically from 70% to 35% between 1990 and 2005. As expected, more 55-year-olds have living parents—a proportion that increased from 37% to 47% during this period. As a result of delayed childbearing among the children of these cohorts, the likelihood of belonging to a four-generation family among 55-year-olds has not increased, despite increased longevity. Furthermore, most individuals live within daily reach of their kin and no evidence was found of a trend of increasing geographic distances between generations.

  • 30.
    Lundholm, Emma
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Gains and losses:  - outcomes of interregional migration in the five Nordic countries2006In: Geografiska Annaler. Series B, Human Geography, ISSN 0435-3684, E-ISSN 1468-0467, Vol. 88, no B1, p. 35-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the outcome of interregional migration in various aspects from the migrants' perspective. It is based on a survey, including 6 000 interregional migrants in the five Nordic countries. The results indicate that interregional migration leads to a positive outcome for most migrants and few people seem to be forced to make decisions including painful tradeoffs. Motives have an effect on what aspects of outcome migrants are satisfied with. The influence of individual migrants' characteristics on migration outcome revealed few significant effects. Migrants claimed to be most satisfied with living conditions and less satisfied with the livelihood after moving. To be satisfied with social conditions turned out to be crucially important for the general outcome of migration.

  • 31.
    Lundholm, Emma
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Sandow, Erika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Income distribution in family networks by gender and proximity2020In: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 26, no 7, article id e2373Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whereas the significance of family networks for support and well‐being has been shown in previous research, few studies have analysed the income distribution within family networks. The aim of this study is to examine income distribution within family networks and how they have changed over time for women and men in different parts of the income distribution and if the incomes are more similar in the geographically proximate family network. The analysis is based on register data and by use of ordinary least squares (OLS) and quantile regressions. The results indicate that men in the lowest income group tend to have become more similar to their family network over time. Gender differences have decreased, possibly as an effect of women's higher labour market participation rate leading to decreased income disparity. This paper contributes by highlighting how the uneven distribution of economic resources in family networks adds to individual's own resources.

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  • 32.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    An empty land?: on population dynamics and ageing in a North European periphery2010In: Europa Regional, ISSN 0943-7142, Vol. 16, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Demographic drivers and future forests2009Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 34.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Metropolitan growth and migration in Peru1988Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: The study deals with the interplay between migration and metropolitan growth in Peru during the last decades. The key question is to what extent Peru's rural-urban migration and rapid urban growth is triggered by opportunities within the formal and informal sectors in the growing metropolis of Lima.

    Aggregated data about migration have been related to information of socioeconomic and geographical conditions in rural and urban areas. Multivariate models of interregional migration are constructed and tested. A study of the life paths of a limited group of migrants has generated hypotheses about causes of migration and the assimilation of migrants in the city.

    Migration is related to historical changes in Peruvian society and to structural and individual conditions affecting migrants.

    The historical transformation of the rural and urban sectors is one important precondition for the increasing rural-urban migration in 20th century Peru, including the declining importance of the traditional socio-economic structure (the hacienda system and the peasant communities), population growth, and the increasing importance of capitalistic forms of exchange and production as well as of interregional interaction and non-agrarian sectors.

    Regional disparities appear to be the most important structural condition affecting migration in Peru, in accordance with the so-called gap-theories, which indicate that changes and conditions in urban areas are more important for temporal and spatial variations in the migration pattern, than corresponding changes in rural areas. Furthermore, young and better educated individuals are overrepresented in the migrant groups and outinigration seems to be highest from rural areas with well-established urban contacts. Urban pull is more important than rural push.

    The study reveals that personal contacts are essential as a generator of migration, for information flows and for the migrants' adaptation to the urban society. In general, the rural-urban migration can be regarded as a rational adaptation to living conditions in rural and urban areas, since most migrants seem to have a higher living standard in the cities in comparison with their former situation in rural areas.

    A significant conclusion is that informal solutions are important for solving migrants' housing and subsistence problems. The informal sector is interpreted as an integrated and often dynamic element in the urban economy, rather than as an indicator of over-urbanization. The study provides empirical support for a conjecture termed metropolitan informal sector pull, in which the informal sector of Lima is a major part of the magnet that pulls people from the rural areas and generates metropolitan growth and migration in Peru.

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    Metropolitan growth and migration in Peru
  • 35.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Time and space in international migration2020In: International migration, immobility and development: multidisciplinary perspectives / [ed] Tomas Hammar, Grete Brochmann, Kristof Tamas, Thomas Faist, Routledge, 2020, p. 21-48Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Longitudinal data for interdisciplinary ageing research: Design of the Linnaeus Database2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 38, no 7, p. 761-767Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rationale: To allow for interdisciplinary research on the relations between socioeconomic conditions and health in the ageing population, a new anonymized longitudinal database – the Linnaeus Database – has been developed at the Centre for Population Studies at Umeå University. This paper presents the database and its research potential.

    Design: Using the Swedish personal numbers the researchers have, in collaboration with Statistics Sweden and the National Board for Health and Welfare, linked individual records from Swedish register data on death causes, hospitalization and various socioeconomic conditions with two databases – Betula and VIP (Västerbottens Intervention Programme) – previously developed by the researchers at Umeå University. Whereas Betula includes rich information about e.g. cognitive functions, VIP contains information about e.g. lifestyle and health indicators.

    Population and sample size: The Linnaeus Database includes annually updated socioeconomic information from Statistics Sweden registers for all registered residents of Sweden for the period 1990 to 2006, in total 12,066,478. The information from the Betula includes 4,500 participants from the city of Umeå and VIP includes data for almost 90,000 participants. Both datasets include cross-sectional as well as longitudinal information.

    Potential: Due to the coverage and rich information, the Linnaeus Database allows for a variety of longitudinal studies on the relations between, for instance, socioeconomic conditions, health, lifestyle, cognition, family networks, migration and working conditions in ageing cohorts.

    Conclusions: By joining various datasets developed in different disciplinary traditions new possibilities for interdisciplinary research on ageing emerge.

  • 37.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Pettersson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Distance to elderly parents: Analyses of Swedish register data2007In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 17, no 23, p. 679-704Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, features of and trends in child-parent proximity in Sweden are analyzed using comprehensive register data. The results show that 85% of older parents have adult children within a radius of 50 km, of which 10% live ‘just around the corner’; corresponding figures for adult children are 72% and 5%, respectively. The study gives no indication of increasing intergenerational distances. Results from logistic regressions show that adult children who are well educated, female, older, born in Sweden, who are not parents, who live in densely populated areas, and have siblings are less likely to stay in the same region as their parents.

  • 38.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Sandberg, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Den goda platsen: Platsanknytning och flyttningsbeslut bland unga vuxna i Sverige2005Book (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Mulder, Clara H.
    et al.
    Population Research Centre, University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Lundholm, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Young Adults’ Migration to Cities in Sweden: Do Siblings Pave the Way?2020In: Demography, ISSN 0070-3370, E-ISSN 1533-7790, Vol. 57, p. 2221-2244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Young adult internal migration forms a large share of the influx of people into largecities in the developed world. We investigate the role of the residential locations ofsiblings for young adults’ migration to large cities, using the case of Sweden and itsfour largest cities: Stockholm, Gothenburg, Malmö/Lund, and Uppsala. We use registerdata for the full Swedish-born population of young adults aged 18–28 living in Swedenin the years 2007–2013 and multinomial logistic regression analyses of migrating toeach of the four cities or migrating elsewhere versus not migrating. Our point ofdeparture is the paving-the-way hypothesis, which posits that young adults who havea sibling living at a migration destination are particularly likely to move to thatdestination, more so than to other destinations. Additional hypotheses are related tohaving more than one sibling in the city and to the gender of siblings living at thedestination. We find support for the paving-the-way hypothesis and an additional effectfor having more than one sibling in the city. Having a sibling of the same gender in acity matters more for moving there than having a sibling of the opposite gender.

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  • 40. Mulder, Clara H.
    et al.
    Lundholm, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Young adults' return migration from large cities in Sweden: The role of siblings and parents2020In: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 26, no 7, article id e2354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Living in cities affects young adults' access to education and work. With the use of register data for 2000-2013, we examined the role of having siblings and parents living close by and having siblings and parents living in the area of origin, in young adults' return migration from the four largest cities in Sweden. We found that young adults were less likely to return, and also less likely to migrate elsewhere, if they had siblings or parents living in the city of residence than if this was not the case. If the parents no longer lived in the region of origin, the young adults were very unlikely to return. Young adults were more likely to return if they had siblings living in that region than if they had no siblings or the siblings lived elsewhere. Adverse circumstances such as dropping out of tertiary education, low income, and unemployment were associated with a greater likelihood of return migration.

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  • 41.
    Mulder, Clara
    et al.
    University of Groningen, Netherlands.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Local Ties and Family Migration2014In: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 46, no 9, p. 2195-2211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The migration of couples and families has thus far been approached mainly from human-capital and gender perspectives. In this article, we investigate how the male and female partner’s local ties influence the likelihood of family migration. Our hypotheses are that local ties to work and family strongly decrease the likelihood of migrating; that, given the dominating gender structures, ties to the man’s work are more influential than ties to the woman’s work; and that ties to the woman’s family are more influential than ties to the man’s family. We use data from the ASTRID micro database for Sweden, based on administrative information about the entire Swedish population. Logistic regression analysis was applied to moves that exceeded a distance of 50 kilometers for two-gender couples who did not separate in the period December 2004-December 2005. With regard to the likelihood of migrating, we find marked negative associations in the following: working close to home, the presence of parents and siblings nearby, and whether someone lives near the place of birth. The man’s ties to work seem to be more important to the likelihood of migrating than the woman’s, but we find hardly any gender differences in the impact of ties to family.

  • 42.
    Mulder, Clara
    et al.
    Royal University of Groningen.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Moving related to separation: who moves and to what distance2011In: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 43, no 11, p. 2589-2607Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We address the issue of moving from the joint home on the occasion of separation. Our research question is: To what extent can the occurrence of moves related to separation, and the distance moved, be explained by ties to the location, resources, and other factors influencing the likelihood of moving of persons who separate and their ex-partners? We use data from the unique ASTRID micro database for Sweden, based on administrative information about the entire Swedish population. The methods are logistic regression analysis of moving, and OLS regression of the log-distance moved, for people from two-gender couples who separated during the period 2004 ^ 05. We find marked negative effects of local ties to parents and siblings, work, and the location in general on moving and moving distance. The results concerning resources and other factors influencing moving were less pronounced. Particularly striking was the absence of an effect of education level.

  • 43.
    Ng, Nawi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Global and Public Health, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institution of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Edvinsson, Sören
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Income inequality and old-age mortality in Sweden: do regional development and lagged effect matter?2020In: Health and Place, ISSN 1353-8292, E-ISSN 1873-2054, Vol. 64, article id 102384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We designed a retrospective cohort study for exploring the impact of municipality-level income inequality, based on the Gini 1986, 2004 indices, on all-cause old-age mortality among the older Swedish population during 2005-2009. We controlled for the confounding effects of individual and regional correlates and the lag effects of inequality by using multilevel logistic regression. The effects of income inequality were not consistent across age cohorts and, among the youngest cohorts, were negligible. This study reiterates that individual-level economics rather than the immediate or lagged effects of income inequality matter more for old-age mortality, even after controlling for individual and regional factors.

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  • 44.
    Ng, Nawi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Global Health, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Santosa, Ailiana
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Global Health, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Living alone and mortality among older people in Västerbotten County in Sweden: a survey and register-based longitudinal study2020In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 20, article id 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Living alone is increasingly common and has been depicted as an important cause of mortality. We examined the association between living alone and mortality risks among older men and women in northern Sweden, by linking two unique longitudinal datasets.

    METHODS: We used the Linnaeus database, which links several population registers on socioeconomic and health. This register-based study included 22,226 men and 23,390 women aged 50 and 60 years in Västerbotten County who had participated in the Västerbotten Intervention Program (VIP) during 1990-2006, with a total of 445,823 person-years of observation. We conducted Cox-proportional hazard regression to assess the risk of living alone on the mortality that was observed between 1990 and 2015, controlling for socio-demographic factors, chronic disease risk factors and access to social capital.

    RESULTS: Older men and women who lived alone with no children at home were at a significantly higher risk of death compared to married/cohabiting couples with children at home (with an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.38, 95% CI of 1.26-1.50 in men and 1.27, 95% CI of 1.13-1.42 in women). Living alone was an even stronger factor than the well-established chronic disease risk factors and a lack of access to social capital.

    CONCLUSIONS: A significant association between living alone and mortality among the older adult population in Sweden was observed. Providing good social support for older people is important in preventing the negative health impact of living alone.

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  • 45.
    Norberg, Margareta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Broström, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Use of moist smokeless tobacco (snus) and the risk of development of alcohol dependence: a cohort study in a middle-aged population in Sweden.2015In: Drug And Alcohol Dependence, ISSN 0376-8716, E-ISSN 1879-0046, Vol. 149, p. 151-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Convincing evidence shows that smoking is associated with alcohol dependence (AD) and a positive correlation between snus and alcohol consumption was previously shown in cross-sectional studies. We performed a longitudinal evaluation of the risk of snus users to develop AD.

    METHODS: A cohort study in Västerbotten County, Sweden, linked individual data on socioeconomic situation and health survey data from 21,037 men and women (46.5% men). AD was defined by the CAGE questionnaire and evaluated at baseline 1991-1997 and again after 10 years. The risk of developing AD was assessed using logistic regression analysis and propensity score matching.

    RESULTS: 2370 men and 430 women used snus and were without AD at baseline. Over the 10-year period, 499 men and 257 women developed AD, among whom 191 and 26, respectively, were baseline snus users. The crude relative risks of AD for male and female snus users compared to non-users were 1.8 with 95% CI (1.5, 2.2) and 2.9 (2.0, 4.3), respectively. Adjusted logistic regression showed a positive dose-response relationship between snus use and risk of AD. Analyses involving propensity score matching revealed 33 and 17 new cases of AD in men and women, respectively, after 10 years given 1000 men and 1000 women without AD had been baseline snus users rather than non-users. Results for current, previous and never smokers were similar.

    CONCLUSIONS: The use of snus is prospectively associated with an increased risk of AD with a dose-response relationship that is independent of smoking status.

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  • 46.
    Norberg, Margareta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Broström, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Who is using snus? - Time trends, socioeconomic and geographic characteristics of snus users in the ageing Swedish population2011In: BMC Public Health, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 11, p. 929-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of smoking in Sweden has decreased in recent decades, and is now among the lowest in the world. During the same period, the use of Swedish moist oral snuff, a smokeless tobacco called snus, has increased. Few studies have evaluated time trends of the socioeconomic and geographic characteristics of snus users in Sweden. This paper contributes to filling that gap.

    METHODS: This study utilized the Linnaeus Database, which links national registers with comprehensive individual data on socioeconomic status (SES) to health data from a large ongoing health survey, the Västerbotten Intervention Programme (VIP). The VIP targets the entire middle-aged population of Västerbotten county at ages 40, 50 and 60 years with yearly cross-sectional surveys including self-reported data on tobacco habits. Time trends of snus use among 92,563 VIP-participants across different areas of residence and smoking groups were investigated graphically. Logistic regression was performed to estimate the associations between SES and geographical variables and current use versus non-use of snus.

    RESULTS: Overall, in parallel to decreasing smoking, the increasing trend of snus use in this middle-aged population continues, particularly in 40-year-olds. In both genders, the highest prevalence of snus use was observed among previous smokers. The prevalence of snus use also increased over time among smokers, and was consistently higher compared to those who had never smoked. Among males - both those who had never smoked and previous smokers - low education (OR 1.21, 95%CI 1.06-1.40 and OR 1.28, 95%CI 1.14-1.43), living alone (OR 1.16, 95%CI 1.07-1.27 and OR 1.13, 95%ci 1.04-1.23), low income and living in rural areas was associated with using snus, while this was not seen among male current smokers. Among women, living alone was associated with using snus irrespective of smoking habits. Among female smokers, the OR for snus use increased with higher education.

    CONCLUSIONS: A disadvantaged social profile and also higher prevalence in rural areas is observed among male snus users who had never smoked or were previous smokers. Among male smokers there was no association between SES and use of snus. The prevalence of snus use among women is increasing, but is still considerably lower than that of men. The association between snus and SES characteristics is less pronounced among women, although snus is clearly linked to living alone. These patterns should be taken into consideration in tobacco control policies.

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  • 47.
    Olofsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Fors Connolly, Filip
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Josefsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Stattin, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Sociodemographic factors and adjustment of daily activities during the COVID-19 pandemic – findings from the SHARE Corona Survey2023In: Journal of Aging & Social Policy, ISSN 0895-9420, E-ISSN 1545-0821Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, older people across Europe have adjusted their daily activities as personal risk avoidance and as an amendment to policy recommendations and restrictions. In this study, we use multilevel logistic regressions to examine to what extent sociodemographic factors are associated with activity reduction among the older population (50+) in Europe and whether these associations are moderated by governmental policy responses to COVID-19. By combining data for~35,000 respondents from the SHARE Corona Survey on reported changes in daily activities and stringency of restrictions at the national level, we find that older age, poorer health and being female versus male were (consistently) associated with greater activity reduction across all activities both in countries with weak and in those with strong restrictions. Associations between education, employment and living situation, on the one hand, and activity reduction, on the other, were weaker and less consistent. We conclude that differences between sociodemographic groups are rather similar for countries with weak and those with strong restrictions and hence argue that group-specific policy recommendation are relevant independent of stringency recommendations.

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  • 48.
    Olofsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    When will the Russians come?: On Post-Soviet immigration and integration in Sweden2011In: International migration (Geneva. Print), ISSN 0020-7985, E-ISSN 1468-2435, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 93-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this paper is one of the paradoxes of international migration: the unexpectedly low level of migration between neighbouring countries with large macro-economic differentials; in this case migration from the former Soviet republics to Sweden. In line with Faist (2000), one assumption in the study is that the dynamics of international migration are strongly influenced by the emergence of a transnational social space. Based on a database (ASTRID) containing individual information about all residents in Sweden for the period 1986–2003, the study includes an analysis of migration in relation to the transnational social space -- its bridging and adaptive functions -- including labour market integration, family situation, intermarriage, population circulation and the spatial clustering of immigrants.

    The study reveals an over-representation of female immigrants and a high frequency of intermarriage among women migrants. Moreover, a changing migrant composition over the past decades was found, including a growing number of students, whereas the empirical analyses indicate a rather weak labour market position among immigrants from former Soviet republics. However, the position of recently arrived migrants has been enhanced over time, and migrants who stay for longer periods attain a stronger position on the labour market. The analyses also show an increasing number of highly educated persons among immigrants from the former Soviet republics. Furthermore, migrants from the former Soviet republics who move to Sweden tend to remain rather than return. In addition, the empirical analysis shows only minor tendencies of spatial clustering among the migrants. In sum, the study indicates that the lack of a more developed transnational social space may explain the rather low level of migration but also that the changing mobility patterns could represent an initial phase of a denser transnational social space that may trigger higher migration rates between the former Soviet republics and Sweden in the near future.

  • 49.
    Olofsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Äldre europeérs sociala nätverk2016In: Utblick: Sverige i en internationell jämförelse / [ed] Filip fors och Jenny Olofsson, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2016, 1, p. 63-78Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    En fråga som hamnat i debattens fokus berör äldres sociala nätverk och hur familjebaserat stöd och omsorg fungerar i olika länder. Måste familj och informella nätverk ta större ansvar när de äldre blir fler och försörjningsbördan i Europa blir allt tyngre? Eller är dagens sociala nätverk för glesa och för geografiskt spridda för att fungera som stöd till de äldre? Har kanske nätverk av vänner och släktingar tappat en del av sin roll när offentliga institutioner tagit över ansvar för de äldres försörjning och omsorg? Fungerar de sociala nätverken möjligen bättre för de äldre i samhällen där familjen ännu har huvudansvaret?

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    Äldre européers sociala nätverk
  • 50.
    Olofsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Health disparities in Europe’s ageing population: the role of social network2018In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 1445498Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous research suggests that the social network may play very different roles in relation to health in countries with differing welfare regimes. 

    Objective: The study aimed to assess the interplay between social network, socioeconomic position, and self-rated health (SRH) in European countries. 

    Methods: The study used cross-sectional data on individuals aged 50+ from the fourth wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and includes data from 16 countries. The outcome is poor SRH. All analyses are adjusted for age and stratified by gender. 

    Results: Low satisfaction with the social network was associated with poor SRH among women in all country groups, but predicted poor SRH among males in West/Central and Eastern Europe only. The results from the multivariable analysis showed an increased likelihood of poor SRH among those with relatively lower education, as well as among those with low satisfaction with the social network (women from all country groups and men from Western/Central and Eastern Europe). However, the results from interaction analysis show that poor SRH for those with lower relative position in educational level was greater among those with higher satisfaction with the social network among male and female participants from Northern Europe. The health of individuals who are highly satisfied with their social network is more associated with socioeconomic status in Northern Europe. 

    Conclusions: This study highlights the significance of social network and socioeconomic gradients in health among the elderly in Europe.

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