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  • 1. Gomez-Olive, Francesc Xavier
    et al.
    Schröders, Julia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Aboderin, Isabella
    Byass, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit, School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Chatterji, Somnath
    Davies, Justine I.
    Debpuur, Cornelius
    Hirve, Siddhivinayak
    Hodgson, Abraham
    Juvekar, Sanjay
    Kahn, Kathleen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit, School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana.
    Kowal, Paul
    Nathan, Rose
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Razzaque, Abdur
    Sankoh, Osman
    Streatfield, Peter K.
    Tollman, Stephen M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit, School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana.
    Wilopo, Siswanto A.
    Witham, Miles D.
    Variations in disability and quality of life with age and sex between eight lower income and middle-income countries: data from the INDEPTH WHO-SAGE collaboration2017In: BMJ Global Health, E-ISSN 2059-7908, Vol. 2, no 4, article id e000508Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Disability and quality of life are key outcomes for older people. Little is known about how these measures vary with age and gender across lower income and middle-income countries; such information is necessary to tailor health and social care policy to promote healthy ageing and minimise disability.

    Methods: We analysed data from participants aged 50 years and over from health and demographic surveillance system sites of the International Network for the Demographic Evaluation of Populations and their Health Network in Ghana, Kenya, Tanzania, South Africa, Vietnam, India, Indonesia and Bangladesh, using an abbreviated version of the WHO Study on global AGEing survey instrument. We used the eight-item WHO Quality of Life (WHOQoL) tool to measure quality of life and theWHO Disability Assessment Schedule, version 2 (WHODAS-II) tool to measure disability. We collected selected health status measures via the survey instrument and collected demographic and socioeconomic data from linked surveillance site information. We performed regression analyses to quantify differences between countries in the relationship between age, gender and both quality of life and disability, and we used anchoring vignettes to account for differences in interpretation of disability severity.

    Results: We included 43 935 individuals in the analysis. Mean age was 63.7 years (SD 9.7) and 24 434 (55.6%) were women. In unadjusted analyses across all countries, WHOQoL scores worsened by 0.13 points (95% CI 0.12 to 0.14) per year increase in age and WHODAS scores worsened by 0.60 points (95% CI 0.57 to 0.64). WHODAS-II and WHOQoL scores varied markedly between countries, as did the gradient of scores with increasing age. In regression analyses, differences were not fully explained by age, socioeconomic status, marital status, education or health factors. Differences in disability scores between countries were not explained by differences in anchoring vignette responses.

    Conclusions: The relationship between age, sex and both disability and quality of life varies between countries. The findings may guide tailoring of interventions to individual country needs, although these associations require further study.

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  • 2.
    Gustafsson, Per E.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Schröders, Julia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Nilsson, Ingeborg
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Occupational Therapy.
    San Sebastián, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Surviving through solitude: A prospective national study of the impact of the early COVID-19 pandemic and a visiting ban on loneliness among nursing home residents in Sweden2022In: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences, ISSN 1079-5014, E-ISSN 1758-5368, Vol. 77, no 12, p. 2286-2295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Targeted social distancing measures were widely implemented for nursing home residents when the extremely high coronavirus disease 2019 mortality in this setting became apparent. However, there is still scarce rigorous research examining how the pandemic and accompanying social distancing measures affected loneliness in this group. This prospective nationwide Swedish study of nursing home residents aimed to examine the impact on loneliness of the early phase of the pandemic and of a national visiting ban at nursing homes.

    Methods: A panel was selected from a total population survey of all nursing home residents in Sweden March–May 2019 and 2020 (N = 11,782; age range 70–110 years; mean age 88.2 years; 71% women). Prospective pretest–posttest and controlled interrupted time series (ITS) designs were employed, with time trends estimated by date of returned questionnaire. Generalized linear models were used for estimation of effects, adjusting for demographic-, survey-, and health-related covariates.

    Results: Loneliness prevalence increased from 17% to 19% from 2019 to 2020 (risk ratio, RR (95% confidence interval, CI) = 1.104 (1.060; 1.150)), but which was explained by self-reported health (RR (95% CI) = 1.023 (0.982; 1.066)). No additional impact of the visiting ban on loneliness trends was found in the ITS analyses (RR (95% CI) = 0.984 (0.961; 1.008)).

    Discussion: The moderate but health-dependent increased risk of loneliness, and the lack of impact of the nationwide visiting ban at nursing homes, suggests that this ostensibly vulnerable group of nursing home residents also shows signs of resilience, at least during the early phase of the pandemic.

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  • 3.
    Ivarsson, Anneli
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Kinsman, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Johansson, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Mohamud, Khalif Bile
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Freij, Lennart
    Wall, Stig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Dalmar, Abdirisak Ahmed
    Ibrahim, Abdirashid Omer
    Hagi, Abdisamad Abikar
    Abdi, Abshir Ali
    Hussein, Abdullahi Sheik
    Shirwa, Abdulkadir Mohamed
    Warsame, Amina
    Ereg, Derie Ismail
    Aden, Mohamed Hussain
    Qasim, Maryan
    Ali, Mohamed Khalid
    Elmi, Abdullahi
    Afrah, Abdullahi Warsame
    Sabtiye, Faduma Omar
    Guled, Fatuma Ege
    Ahmed, Hinda Jama
    Mohamed, Halima
    Tinay, Halima Ali
    Mohamud, Kadigia Ali
    Yusuf, Mariam Warsame
    Omar, Mayeh
    Abdi, Yakoub Aden
    Abdulkadir, Yusuf
    Johansson, Annika
    Kulane, Asli Ali
    Schumann, Barbara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Essen, Birgitta
    Kalengayi, Faustine Nkulu
    Elgh, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology.
    Norström, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Lönnberg, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Norder, Helene
    Schröders, Julia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Erlandsson, Kerstin
    Edin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Sahlen, Klas-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Gustafsson, Lars L.
    Persson, Lars-Ake
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Emmelin, Maria
    Hasselberg, Marie
    Klingberg, Marie
    Preet, Raman
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hogberg, Ulf
    Sjostrom, Urban
    Omar, Saif
    Healing the health system after civil unrest2015In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 8, p. 1-4Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 4.
    Ng, Nawi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Kusnato, Hari
    Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
    Wall, Stig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Vaezghasemi, Masoud
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Schröders, Julia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Inequities in child health and nutrition in Indonesia: Policy brief2013In: Evidence for Policy and Implementation, EPI-4, Stockholm: Swedish Agency for International Development Cooperation (SIDA), 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 5.
    Santosa, Ailiana
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Schröders, Julia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Vaezghasemi, Masoud
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Inequality in disability-free life expectancies among older men and women in six countries with developing economies2016In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 70, no 9, p. 855-861Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether the increase in life expectancy (LE) globally is coupled with a postponement of morbidity and disability. Evidence on trends and determinants of disability-free life expectancies (DFLEs) are available in high-income countries but less in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study examines the levels of and inequalities in LE, disability and DFLE between men and women across different age groups aged 50 years and over in six countries with developing economies.

    METHODS: This study utilised the cross-sectional data (n=32 724) from the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, the Russian Federation and South Africa in 2007-2010. Disability was measured with the activity of daily living (ADL) instrument. The DFLE was estimated using the Sullivan method based on the standard period life table and ADL-disability proportions.

    RESULTS: The disability prevalence ranged from 13% in China to 54% in India. The prevalence of disability was highest and occurred at younger age in both sexes in India. Women were more disadvantaged with higher prevalence of disability across all age groups, and the situation was worst among older women in Mexico and the Russian Federation. Though women had higher LE, their proportion of remaining LE free from disability was lower than men.

    CONCLUSIONS: There are inequalities in the levels of disability and DFLE among men and women in different age groups among people aged over 50 years in these six countries. Countermeasures to decrease intercountry and gender gaps in DFLE, including improvements in health promotion and healthcare distribution, with a gender equity focus, are needed.

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  • 6.
    Schröders, Julia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Diversity, dynamics and deficits: the role of social networks for the health of aging populations in Indonesia2021Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This thesis takes as a predicate that humans are social animals and as such, that their social networks and health are intrinsically connected. A guiding heuristic of this thesis was the Berkman model which conceptualizes how social networks impact health. Considering social networks as a ‘mesosocial’ level between individuals’ health and larger social structures permits assessments of four processes, or pathways: macro↔meso↔micro. The overall aim of this thesis was to contribute to a better understanding of the role of social networks for the health of aging populations in the Southeast Asian context of Indonesia. This work was divided into four sub-studies (I-IV) aiming to i) review existing evidence on social networks and adult health; ii) assess the health effects of social networks; iii) examine how macro-level conditions affect health behavioral pathways through social networks; and iv) understand the macro-level determinants of social network formations.

    Methods: This thesis employed a mixed methods design integrating evidence syntheses (I) with quantitative (II, III) and qualitative (IV) approaches. The four sub-studies included different conceptual angles on structural, functional and quality aspects of social networks, i.e., network diversity (II), dynamics (III), deficits and loneliness (IV). Following the PRISMA guidelines, a systematic literature review covering the years 2000 to 2015 was conducted. For the two quantitative studies, data on older adults aged 50+ years from the fourth (2007/08) and fifth (2014/15) waves of the Indonesian Family Life Surveys, were analyzed. First, employing an outcome-wide epidemiological approach, evidence for causal effects of social network diversity on 19 outcomes along the disablement process spectrum were evaluated using multivariable regression adjustments, propensity score matching, and instrumental variable analyses. Second, following a systems-approach to conceptualize social networks on four ecological levels, causal mediation analyses were performed to cross-sectionally examine the mediating role of social networks and their dynamics between a latent socioeconomic position indicator and two healthcare utilization outcomes. Also, the socioeconomic patterning of healthcare utilization and network dynamics were analyzed longitudinally, i.e., before and after Indonesia’s Universal Health Coverage implementation. The qualitative study draws on eight focus group discussions with 48 ‘older adult children’. Data were collected in four rural villages in the Gunung Kidul regency during 2016. The theoretical framework was inspired by symbolic interactionism and sensitizing concepts of systemic networks and network deficits, interpersonal emotions, and the social construction of risks. Data were analyzed using Grounded Theory. The final mixed-methods synthesis (I-IV) was based on notions of systems-thinking, ecological transitions theory, and a framework for studying social processes in aging.

    Results: The results showed (i) that despite an increased focus on social determinants of health, in Indonesia, social networks remained an under- and unresearched social determinant of non-communicable diseases and inequalities therein, respectively; (ii) that social network diversity conferred a vast array of strong and long-term – yet heterogeneous and gender-specific – effects across the entire disablement process, i.e. affecting pulmonary health outcomes, proinflammatory processes, physical and cognitive functioning, and disability states; (iii) that both social networks on various ecological levels and their dynamics were socio-economically patterned and mediated the association between socioeconomic position and healthcare utilization outcomes while showing stronger mediating effects after Universal Health Coverage implementation; (iv) that ‘older adult children’ experienced their own aging as a process of ‘bargaining for a sense of security’ which reified how and why loneliness emerged amidst the challenges of social, demographic and epidemiological transitions and how in response to this, unconventional compromises, which affected both their networks of caretakers and the places of old-age care, were being made.

    Conclusion: The results explicated several previously less understood pathways and particularly spoke to the so-called ‘downstream experiences’, ‘upstream questions’, and offered a holistic perspective. Notions of ‘transitions’ within different levels collectively conveyed an understanding that such transitions created risks, and that networks played a crucial interstitial role in both cushioning or exacerbating effects of and on these risks. The final mixed-methods synthesis allowed a comprehensive view on various dimensions of social networks and enabled a multi-contextual and multi-dimensional integration of findings. Collective insights were distilled into two main discussion points which were divided based on their ‘upstream’ and ‘downstream‘ foci. The first explicated the macro-social phenomena that appeared in this thesis i.e., epidemiological transitions, population aging, social change, and discussed – with a focus on network diversity, dynamics and deficits – the meso-social effects on and of such macro-level transitions. The later elucidated both the ‘social network-health’ nexus by explicating the ‘Janus face’ of social networks, as well as the transitions in the interplay of formal and informal social networks and their implications for old-age care. After presenting methodological considerations, the thesis concludes with selected implications for research, policy, and practice which emphasize on strengthening social network research in low and middle-income countries, addressing the precarious conditions of older adult women in rural economies, and promoting the role of the healthcare system.

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  • 7.
    Schröders, Julia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Dewi, Fatwa Sari Tetra
    Nilsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Nichter, Mark
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Effects of social network diversity in the disablement process: a comparison of causal inference methods and an outcome-wide approach to the Indonesian Family Life Surveys, 2007-20152020In: International Journal for Equity in Health, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Social networks (SN) have been proven to be instrumental for healthy aging and function as important safety nets, particular for older adults in low and middle-income countries (LMICs). Despite the importance of interpreting health outcomes in terms of SN, in many LMICs – including Indonesia – epidemiological studies and policy responses on the health effects of SN for aging populations are still uncommon. Using outcome-wide multi-method approaches to longitudinal panel data, this study aims to outline more clearly the role of SN diversity in the aging process in Indonesia. We explore whether and to what degree there is an association of SN diversity with adult health outcomes and investigate potential gender differences, heterogeneous treatment effects, and effect gradients along disablement processes.

    Methods: Data came from the fourth and fifth waves of the Indonesian Family Life Survey fielded in 2007–08 and 2014–15. The analytic sample consisted of 3060 adults aged 50+ years. The primary exposure variable was the diversity of respondents’ SN at baseline. This was measured through a social network index (SNI), conjoining information about household size together with a range of social ties with whom respondents had active contact across six different types of role relationships. Guided by the disablement process model, a battery of 19 outcomes (8 pathologies, 5 impairments, 4 functional limitations, 2 disabilities) were included into analyses. Evidence for causal effects of SN diversity on health was evaluated using outcome-wide multivariable regression adjustment (RA), propensity score matching (PSM), and instrumental variable (IV) analyses.

    Results: At baseline, 60% of respondents had a low SNI. Results from the RA and PSM models showed greatest concordance and that among women a diverse SN was positively associated with pulmonary outcomes and upper and lower body functions. Both men and women with a high SNI reported less limitations in performing activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental ADL (IADL) tasks. A high SNI was negatively associated with C-reactive protein levels in women. The IV analyses yielded positive associations with cognitive functions for both men and women.

    Conclusions: Diverse SN confer a wide range of strong and heterogeneous long-term health effects, particularly for older women. In settings with limited formal welfare protection, intervening in the SN of older adults and safeguarding their access to diverse networks can be an investment in population health, with manifold implications for health and public policy.

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  • 8.
    Schröders, Julia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Nichter, Mark
    School of Anthropology, College of Social and Behavioral Sciences, The University of Arizona, AZ, Tucson, United States.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Nilsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Dewi, Fatwa Sari Tetra
    Department of Health Behavior, Environment and Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Nursing, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia.
    ‘The Devil’s Company’: A Grounded Theory Study on Aging, Loneliness and Social Change Among ‘Older Adult Children’ in Rural Indonesia2021In: Frontiers in Sociology, E-ISSN 2297-7775, Vol. 6, article id 659285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: As a consequence of rising life expectancies, many families are no longer made up of one, but two simultaneously aging generations. This elderly parent–older adult child (OAC) dyad has emerged as a newly overserved yet little explored demographic phenomenon. Studies on this intergenerational aging dyad and the possible ramifications of when caregivers are simultaneously aging with care-receivers are scarce, especially in low and middle-income countries. This study explored the process by which rural Indonesian OACs experience their own aging, thereby gaining insights into how this newly evolving reality impacts the traditional ways of old-age care provision.

    Methods: This study has a qualitative design and draws on eight focus group discussions with 48 community-dwelling OACs (23 men, 25 women; mean age 64 years) in four rural villages in the Yogyakarta Special Region, Indonesia. The theoretical framework was largely inspired by symbolic interactionism aided by the sensitizing concepts of social network deficits, interpersonal emotions, and the social construction of risks. Data were analyzed using Grounded Theory as outlined by Corbin and Strauss.

    Results: Respondents’ accounts reflected four categories: 1) aging in a welt of chronic insecurity; 2) OACs: a generation “betwixt and between” expected demands and unmet expectations; 3) landscapes of loneliness; and 4) compromising against conventions. As depicted in a conceptual model, these categories interrelated with each other and were linked by a core category, “bargaining for a sense of security”, which collectively summarized a process by which OACs’ experienced their own course of aging.

    Conclusion: Our study provided insights into how and why loneliness emerged amidst the challenges of social and demographic transformations and how in response to this unconventional compromises were made, which affect both the networks of caretakers and the places of old-age care. It is doing so by including the perspectives of rural Indonesian OACs. The results showed how multiple intersecting negative experiences constrained the aging experiences of OACs and produced precarious aging trajectories. Our findings highlight the importance of old-age loneliness as an emerging public health and social problem by discussing how intrinsically this emotion was interwoven with social life.

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  • 9. Schröders, Julia
    et al.
    Nichter, Mark
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Nilsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Tetra Dewi, Fatwa Sari
    “The devil’s company”: A grounded theory study on aging, loneliness, and social change among ‘older adult children’ in rural IndonesiaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Schröders, Julia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Sutton, Caroline
    Co-Action Publishing, Järfälla, Sweden.
    Global Health in Action: a call for pictures2016In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 30772Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 11. Schröders, Julia
    et al.
    Tetra Dewi, Fatwa Sari
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Socioeconomic position and healthcare utilization in Indonesia: the mediating role of social networks and network dynamics before and after Universal Health Coverage implementationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Schröders, Julia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Wall, Stig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hakimi, Mohammad
    Dewi, Fatwa Sari Tetra
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Nichter, Mark
    Nilsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Kusnanto, Hari
    Rahajeng, Ekowati
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    How is Indonesia coping with its epidemic of chronic noncommunicable diseases?: A systematic review with meta-analysis2017In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 6, article id e0179186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Chronic noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) have emerged as a huge global health problem in low- and middle-income countries. The magnitude of the rise of NCDs is particularly visible in Southeast Asia where limited resources have been used to address this rising epidemic, as in the case of Indonesia. Robust evidence to measure growing NCD-related burdens at national and local levels and to aid national discussion on social determinants of health and intra-country inequalities is needed. The aim of this review is (i) to illustrate the burden of risk factors, morbidity, disability, and mortality related to NCDs; (ii) to identify existing policy and community interventions, including disease prevention and management strategies; and (iii) to investigate how and why an inequitable distribution of this burden can be explained in terms of the social determinants of health.

    METHODS: Our review followed the PRISMA guidelines for identifying, screening, and checking the eligibility and quality of relevant literature. We systematically searched electronic databases and gray literature for English- and Indonesian-language studies published between Jan 1, 2000 and October 1, 2015. We synthesized included studies in the form of a narrative synthesis and where possible meta-analyzed their data.

    RESULTS: On the basis of deductive qualitative content analysis, 130 included citations were grouped into seven topic areas: risk factors; morbidity; disability; mortality; disease management; interventions and prevention; and social determinants of health. A quantitative synthesis meta-analyzed a subset of studies related to the risk factors smoking, obesity, and hypertension.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings echo the urgent need to expand routine risk factor surveillance and outcome monitoring and to integrate these into one national health information system. There is a stringent necessity to reorient and enhance health system responses to offer effective, realistic, and affordable ways to prevent and control NCDs through cost-effective interventions and a more structured approach to the delivery of high-quality primary care and equitable prevention and treatment strategies. Research on social determinants of health and policy-relevant research need to be expanded and strengthened to the extent that a reduction of the total NCD burden and inequalities therein should be treated as related and mutually reinforcing priorities.

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  • 13.
    Schröders, Julia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Wall, Stig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Kusnanto, Hari
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Millennium Development Goal Four and Child Health Inequities in Indonesia: A Systematic Review of the Literature2015In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 5, article id e0123629Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 calls for reducing mortality of children under-five years by two-thirds by 2015. Indonesia is on track to officially meet the MDG 4 targets by 2015 but progress has been far from universal. It has been argued that national level statistics, on which MDG 4 relies, obscure persistent health inequities within the country. Particularly inequities in child health are a major global public health challenge both for achieving MDG 4 in 2015 and beyond. This review aims to map out the situation of MDG 4 with respect to disadvantaged populations in Indonesia applying the Social Determinants of Health (SDH) framework. The specific objectives are to answer: Who are the disadvantaged populations? Where do they live? And why and how is the inequitable distribution of health explained in terms of the SDH framework?

    Methods and Findings We retrieved studies through a systematic review of peer-reviewed and gray literature published in 1995-2014. The PRISMA-Equity 2012 statement was adapted to guide the methods of this review. The dependent variables were MDG 4-related indicators; the independent variable "disadvantaged populations" was defined by different categories of social differentiation using PROGRESS. Included texts were analyzed following the guidelines for deductive content analysis operationalized on the basis of the SDH framework. We identified 83 studies establishing evidence on more than 40 different determinants hindering an equitable distribution of child health in Indonesia. The most prominent determinants arise from the shortcomings within the rural health care system, the repercussions of food poverty coupled with low health literacy among parents, the impact of low household decision-making power of mothers, and the consequences of high persistent use of traditional birth attendants among ethnic minorities.

    Conclusion This review calls for enhanced understanding of the determinants and pathways that create, detain, and overcome inequities in child health in resource constraint settings like Indonesia and the promotion of actionable health policy recommendations and tailored investments.

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  • 14.
    Tarekegne, Fitsum Eyayu
    et al.
    Mailman School of Public Health, Centre for International Programs, Columbia University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Schröders, Julia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Stewart Williams, Jennifer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Research Centre for Generational Health and Ageing, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, Australia.
    Sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics associated with self-reported diagnosed diabetes mellitus in adults aged 50+ years in Ghana and South Africa: results from the WHO-SAGE wave 12018In: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care, ISSN 2052-4897, Vol. 6, no 1, article id e000449Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The objective is to identify and describe thesociodemographic and behavioral characteristics of adults,aged 50 years and over, who self-reported having beendiagnosed and treated for diabetes mellitus (DM) in Ghanaand South Africa.

    Research design and methods: This is a cross-sectionalstudy based on the WHO Study on global AGEing and adulthealth (SAGE) wave 1. Information on sociodemographicfactors, health states, risk factors and chronic conditionsis captured from questionnaires administered in face-tofaceinterviews. Self-reported diagnosed and treated DM isconfirmed through a ‘yes’ response to questions regarding1having previously been diagnosed with DM, and2 havingtaken insulin or other blood sugar lowering medicines.Crude and adjusted logistic regressions test associationsbetween candidate variables and DM status. Analysesinclude survey sampling weights. The variance inflationfactor statistic tested for multicollinearity.

    Results: In this nationally representative sample ofadults aged 50 years and over in Ghana, after adjustingfor the effects of sex, residence, work status, bodymass index, waist-hip and waist-height ratios, smoking,alcohol, fruit and vegetable intake and householdwealth, WHO-SAGE survey respondents who were older,married, had higher education, very high-risk waistcircumference measurements and did not undertakehigh physical activity, were significantly more likelyto report diagnosed and treated DM. In South Africa,respondents who were older, lived in urban areas andhad high-risk waist circumference measurements weresignificantly more likely to report diagnosed andtreated DM.

    Conclusions: Countries in sub-Saharan Africa arechallenged by unprecedented ageing populations andtransition from communicable to non-communicablediseases such as DM. Information on those who arealready diagnosed and treated needs to be combinedwith estimates of those who are prediabetic or, as yet,undiagnosed. Multisectoral approaches that includesocioculturally appropriate strategies are needed toaddress diverse populations in SSA countries.

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  • 15.
    Teferi, Henok Mulatu
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Schröders, Julia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Contributing factors for urban-rural inequalities in unmet need for family planning among reproductive-aged women in Ethiopia: a Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analysis2023In: BMC Women's Health, E-ISSN 1472-6874, Vol. 23, no 1, article id 158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Unmet need for family planning (FP) is a global public health concern, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. In Ethiopia, although several studies have assessed unmet needs for FP, there have only been few empirical investigations into regional inequalities and their contributory factors. This study assessed urban-rural inequalities in unmet FP needs among reproductive-aged women in Ethiopia and particularly examined the contribution of material, cultural-behavioral, and psychosocial factors therein.

    METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted among 8811 reproductive-aged women derived from the nationally representative 2019 Ethiopian Performance Monitoring for Action (PMA) data. The outcome variable was unmet need for FP. The exposure variable was place of residence (urban or rural). Contributing factors were categorized into material, psychosocial and cultural-behavioral factors. Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition analysis was used to assess urban-rural inequalities in unmet need for FP as well as to disentangle the contributory factors in percentage points.

    RESULT: In our study, 13.8% of reproductive-aged women in Ethiopia reported unmet FP needs. Urban-rural inequalities therein accounted for 6.8% points. Disparities in FP needs between urban and rural areas were mostly explained by psychosocial factors (81.0%) followed by material (21.0%), and cultural-behavioral (3.2%) factors. While women who were living with a partner (39.1%, p < 0.01) and multiparas (51%, p < 0.01) contributed to increasing inequalities, attending family planning counseling services with a healthcare provider (-1.7%, p = 0.03) reduced the gap in unmet need for FP between urban and rural areas. Women from the poorest and poor category contributed 14.1% (p = 0.02) and 11.1% (p = 0.04), respectively. Being from a Muslim religion also contributed to the disparity by 7.3% (p < 0.01).

    CONCLUSION: This study showed that among reproductive-aged women in Ethiopia, inequalities in unmet FP needs show distinct urban-rural patterning. Most inequalities could be attributed to psychosocial factors, mainly parity and marital status, followed by material and cultural-behavioral factors. Policymakers should target these modifiable psychosocial factors to reduce urban-rural inequalities in unmet need for FP in Ethiopia.

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  • 16.
    Trang, Phan Minh
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Schumann, Barbara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Rocklöv, Joacim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Schröders, Julia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Nilsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    The influence of heatwaves on mental and behavioral disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysisManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Wall, Stig
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Emmelin, Maria
    Department of Social Medicine and Global Health, Lund University, Lund, Sweden..
    Krantz, Ingela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Nilsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Norström, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Schröders, Julia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Stewart Williams, Jennifer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Östergren, Per-Olof
    Department of Social Medicine and Global Health, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Global Health Action at 15 – revisiting its rationale2021In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 1965863Article in journal (Refereed)
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