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  • 1.
    Appleby, Ralph
    et al.
    The Talented Athlete Scholarship Scheme (TASS), Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom.
    Davis, Paul Anthony
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Davis, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Vickery, Will
    Coaching and Officiating, Sport Australia, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    Preliminary Psychometric Validation of the Teammate Burnout Questionnaire2022In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 13, article id 894308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to provide support for the validation of the Teammate Burnout Questionnaire (TBQ). Athletes from a variety of team sports (N = 290) completed the TBQ and the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ). Confirmatory factor analysis revealed acceptable fit indexes for the three-dimensional models (i.e., physical and emotional exhaustion, sport devaluation, reduced accomplishment) of the TBQ and the ABQ. Multi-trait multi-method analysis revealed that the TBQ and ABQ showed acceptable convergent and discriminant validity. The preliminary validation of the TBQ indicates the utility of the scale to reflect athletes' perceptions of their teammates' burnout and offers researchers the opportunity to quantitatively assess an important aspect of the social environment in the development of athlete burnout.

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  • 2.
    Back, Jenny
    et al.
    School of Health and Welfare, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Solstad, Bård Erlend
    Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway; Norwegian Research Centre for Children and Youth Sports, Oslo, Norway.
    Svedberg, Petra
    School of Health and Welfare, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Johnson, Urban
    School of Health and Welfare, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Ntoumanis, Nikos
    School of Health and Welfare, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden; Danish Centre for Motivation and Behaviour Science, Department of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Department of Educational Studies, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden; Department of Sport and Social Sciences, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    School of Health and Welfare, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden; Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Psychosocial predictors of drop-out from organised sport: a prospective study in adolescent soccer2022In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 19, no 24, article id 16585Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years an increased drop-out rate in adolescents’ soccer participation has been observed. Given the potentially adverse consequences of drop-out from soccer, more information about risk factors for drop-out is warranted. In the current study, Classification and Regression Tree (CRT) analysis was used to investigate demographic and motivational factors associated with an increased risk of drop-out from adolescent soccer. The results of this study indicate that older age, experiencing less autonomy support from the coach, less intrinsic motivation, being female, and lower socioeconomic status are factors associated with an increased risk of drop-out. An interpretation of the results of this study is that coaches play a central part in creating a sports context that facilitates motivation and continued soccer participation. Based on the findings of the current study we propose that soccer clubs implement theoretically informed coach education programs to help coaches adopt autonomy-supportive coaching strategies.

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  • 3.
    Bengtsson, Dennis
    et al.
    School of Health and Welfare, Halmstad University, Kristian IV:s väg 3, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Sports Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Norway.
    Nygren, Jens
    School of Health and Welfare, Halmstad University, Kristian IV:s väg 3, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Ntoumanis, Nikos
    School of Health and Welfare, Halmstad University, Kristian IV:s väg 3, Halmstad, Sweden; Danish Centre of Motivation and Behaviour Science (DRIVEN), Department of Sports Sciences and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    School of Health and Welfare, Halmstad University, Kristian IV:s väg 3, Halmstad, Sweden.
    The effects of interpersonal development programmes with sport coaches and parents on youth athlete outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis2024In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 70, article id 102558Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interpersonal coach-and parent development programmes (CDP and PDP, respectively), have the goal to foster positive youth sport experiences through high-quality relations between coaches, parents, and youth athletes. In this paper we systematically reviewed the extant literature and estimate the overall magnitude of such programmes and how they can inform future interventions. Specifically, we aimed to: (a) conduct a systematic review on the literature of interpersonal CDPs and PDPs within the youth sport context; (b) examine the effects of such interventions on youth athlete outcomes via a meta-analysis. English written peer-reviewed publications and grey literature was identified through electronic search in databases and manual searches of reference lists. By utilising a priori criteria for inclusion and exclusion, 33 studies describing interpersonal CDPs, and PDPs were identified in the systematic review. Studies that presented required data for estimation of Hedge's g effect sizes were included in the meta-analysis (k = 27). By and large, the included studies used a quasi-experimental design (58%), sampled from team sports (79%), and reported several delivery methods (e.g., workshops, audio feedback, observations, peer group discussions) and outcome measures (e.g., anxiety, autonomous motivation, self-confidence). Some interventions were based on the same delivery protocols (e.g., Coach Effectiveness Training, Mastery Approach to Coaching) or theoretical frameworks (e.g., Achievement Goal Theory, Self-Determination Theory). The meta-analysis showed statistically significant small, and medium, effect sizes on a subsample of youth athlete outcomes (e.g., task-related climate, fun and enjoyment, anxiety), indicating that coach interpersonal skills can contribute to positive youth sport experiences. Theory-based interpersonal CDPs and PDPs are recommended to expand the knowledge in this field of research.

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  • 4.
    Bjørke, Ann Christin Helgesen
    et al.
    Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway; Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Buffart, Laurien M.
    Department of Physiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Nijmegen, Netherlands; Exercise Medicine Research Institute, Edith Cowan University, WA, Joondalup, Australia.
    Raastad, Truls
    Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway; Department of Physical Performance, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Demmelmaier, Ingrid
    Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway; Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Nordin, Karin
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Berntsen, Sveinung
    Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway; Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Exploring Moderators of the Effect of High vs. Low-to-Moderate Intensity Exercise on Cardiorespiratory Fitness During Breast Cancer Treatment - Analyses of a Subsample From the Phys-Can RCT2022In: Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, E-ISSN 2624-9367, Vol. 4, article id 902124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The results from the physical training and cancer randomized controlled trial (Phys-Can RCT) indicate that high intensity (HI) strength and endurance training during (neo-)adjuvant cancer treatment is more beneficial for cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF, measured as peak oxygen uptake [VO2peak]) than low-to-moderate intensity (LMI) exercise. Adherence to the exercise intervention and demographic or clinical characteristics of patients with breast cancer undergoing adjuvant treatment may moderate the exercise intervention effect on VO2peak. In this study, the objective was to investigate whether baseline values of VO2peak, body mass index (BMI), time spent in moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), physical fatigue, age, chemotherapy treatment, and the adherence to the endurance training moderated the effect of HI vs. LMI exercise on VO2peak.

    Materials and Methods: We used data collected from a subsample from the Phys-Can RCT; women who were diagnosed with breast cancer and had a valid baseline and post-intervention VO2peak test were included (n = 255). The exercise interventions from the RCT included strength and endurance training at either LMI, which was continuous endurance training at 40–50% of heart rate reserve (HRR), or at HI, which was interval training at 80–90% of HRR, with similar exercise volume in the two groups. Linear regression analyses were used to investigate moderating effects using a significance level of p < 0.10. Statistically significant interactions were examined further using the Johnson–Neyman (J-N) technique and regions of significance (for continuous variables) or box plots with adjusted means of post-intervention VO2peak (for binary variables).

    Results: Age, as a continuous variable, and adherence, dichotomized into < or > 58% based on median, moderated the effect of HI vs. LMI on CRF (B = −0.08, 95% CI [−0.16, 0.01], pinteraction = 0.06, and B = 1.63, 95% CI [−0.12, 3.38], pinteraction = 0.07, respectively). The J-N technique and regions of significance indicated that the intervention effect (HI vs. LMI) was positive and statistically significant in participants aged 61 years or older. Baseline measurement of CRF, MVPA, BMI, physical fatigue, and chemotherapy treatment did not significantly moderate the intervention effect on CRF.

    Conclusion: Women with breast cancer who are older and who have higher adherence to the exercise regimen may have larger effects of HI exercise during (neo-)adjuvant cancer treatment on CRF.

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  • 5.
    Bjørnarå, Helga Birgit
    et al.
    Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Berntsen, Sveinung
    Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    te Velde, Saskia J.
    Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Fyhri, Aslak
    Department of Safety and the Environment, Institute of Transport Economics, Oslo, Norway.
    Isaksen, Ketil
    Division for Model and Climate Analysis, Norwegian Meteorological Institute, Oslo, Norway.
    Deforche, Benedicte
    Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium; Physical Activity, Nutrition and Health Research Unit, Faculty of Physical Education and Physical Therapy, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.
    Andersen, Lars Bo
    Faculty Education, Arts and Sports, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Sogndal, Norway.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Bere, Elling
    Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway; Department of Health and Inequalities, & Centre for Evaluation of Public Health Measures, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway.
    The impact of weather conditions on everyday cycling with different bike types in parents of young children participating in the CARTOBIKE randomized controlled trial2023In: International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, ISSN 1556-8318, E-ISSN 1556-8334, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 128-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge about how weather conditions affect travel behavior in different user groups and contexts is relevant for planners and policymakers to facilitate sustainable transportation systems. We aimed to assess the influence of day-to-day weather on cycling for transportation among parents of young children with access to different bike types (e-bike vs non e-bike) in a natural study setting over nine months. We hypothesized less impact of weather variability on cycling when using an e-bike compared with a non e-bike. A randomized, controlled trial was conducted in Southern Norway. The intervention group (n = 18) was in random order equipped with an e-bike with trailer for child transportation (n = 6), a cargo (longtail) bike (n = 6) and a traditional bike with trailer (n = 6), each for three months. These 18 participants reported cycling on 832 out of 3276 person-days (25%). We used dynamic structural equation modeling for intensive longitudinal data to examine the relations between daily weather conditions, bike type (e-bike vs traditional bike), and cycling (dichotomized daily at yes or no). Air temperature (positively) and wind speed (negatively) were both credible predictors of cycling, whereas the other predictors (precipitation in the morning (yes or no) and presence of snow (yes or no) were not. We added interaction terms between bike type and weather conditions, but none of the interaction terms had a credible effect on cycling. Thus, the relations between weather conditions and cycling were not moderated by bike type among parents of young children.

  • 6.
    Blom, Victoria
    et al.
    Department of Physical Activity and Health, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lönn, Amanda
    Department of Physical Activity and Health, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Functional Area Occupational Therapy & Physiotherapy, Allied Health Professionals Function, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, Sweden.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Department of Physical Activity and Health, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kallings, Lena V.
    Department of Physical Activity and Health, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Väisänen, Daniel
    Department of Physical Activity and Health, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hemmingsson, Erik
    Department of Physical Activity and Health, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Research Department, HPI Health Profile Institute, Danderyd, Sweden.
    Wallin, Peter
    Research Department, HPI Health Profile Institute, Danderyd, Sweden.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Department of Physical Activity and Health, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Department of Physical Activity and Health, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Jane Salier
    Department of Physical Activity and Health, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Holmlund, Tobias
    Department of Physical Activity and Health, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekblom-Bak, Elin
    Department of Physical Activity and Health, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lifestyle habits and mental health in light of the two covid-19 pandemic waves in Sweden, 20202021In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 18, no 6, article id 3313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The COVID-19 pandemic has become a public health emergency of international concern, which may have affected lifestyle habits and mental health. Based on national health profile assessments, this study investigated perceived changes of lifestyle habits in response to the COVID-19 pandemic and associations between perceived lifestyle changes and mental health in Swedish working adults. Among 5599 individuals (50% women, 46.3 years), the majority reported no change (sitting 77%, daily physical activity 71%, exercise 69%, diet 87%, alcohol 90%, and smoking 97%) due to the pandemic. Changes were more pronounced during the first wave (April–June) compared to the second (October–December). Women, individuals <60 years, those with a university degree, white-collar workers, and those with unhealthy lifestyle habits at baseline had higher odds of changing lifestyle habits compared to their counterparts. Negative changes in lifestyle habits and more time in a mentally passive state sitting at home were associated with higher odds of mental ill-health (including health anxiety regarding one’s own and relatives’ health, generalized anxiety and depression symptoms, and concerns regarding employment and economy). The results emphasize the need to support healthy lifestyle habits to strengthen the resilience in vulnerable groups of individuals to future viral pandemics and prevent health inequalities in society.

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  • 7.
    Carr, Rachel Margaret
    et al.
    School of Psychology, Curtin University, Perth, Australia; Department of Health Sciences, University of York, York, United Kingdom; Physical Activity and Well-being Research Group, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Quested, Eleanor
    School of Psychology, Curtin University, Perth, Australia; Physical Activity and Well-being Research Group, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie
    School of Psychology, Curtin University, Perth, Australia; Physical Activity and Well-being Research Group, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Prestwich, Andrew
    School of Psychology, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.
    Gucciardi, Daniel Frank
    School of Psychology, Curtin University, Perth, Australia; Physical Activity and Well-being Research Group, Curtin University, Perth, Australia; School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    McVeigh, Joanne
    School of Psychology, Curtin University, Perth, Australia; School of Occupational Therapy, Speech Therapy and Social Work, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Ntoumanis, Nikos
    School of Psychology, Curtin University, Perth, Australia; Physical Activity and Well-being Research Group, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Postnatal Exercise Partners Study (PEEPS): a pilot randomized trial of a dyadic physical activity intervention for postpartum mothers and a significant other2021In: Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine, E-ISSN 2164-2850, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 251-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Research suggests dyadic interventions can increase physical activity; such interventions are untested within postpartum parent couples.

    Methods: A three-armed pilot randomized trial addressed this gap and tested which type of dyadic intervention is most effective. Inactive postpartum mothers and a significant other were recruited in Australia (n = 143 assessed for eligibility) and randomised in a single-blinded fashion (i.e. participants were blinded) to 1 of 3 dyadic conditions involving a single face-to-face session with access to web-based group support: a minimal treatment control (n = 34), collaborative planning group (n = 38), or collaborative planning + need supportive communication group (n = 30). Participants were asked to wear their accelerometers for 8 days and completed self-report measures at baseline, end of intervention (week 4), and follow-up (week 12). We expected dyads in the collaborative planning + need supportive communication group would have the greatest increases in Physical Activity (PA), autonomous motivation, and partners’ need supportive behaviours; and decreases in controlled motivation and controlling partner behaviours.

    Results: Results from 51 dyads using Bayesian actor-partner interdependence models provided some evidence for a small positive effect on total PA at follow-up for postpartum mothers in the collaborative planning group and for partners in the collaborative planning + need supportive communication group. Furthermore, partners in the collaborative planning + need supportive communication group were more likely to engage in some vigorous PA. At follow-up, postpartum mothers in the collaborative planning + need supportive communication group scored lower on personal autonomous reasons.

    Conclusions: The impact of prior specification mean intervention effects need to be interpreted with caution. Progression to a full trial is warranted.

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  • 8. Chan, D. K. C.
    et al.
    Ivarsson, A.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hagger, M. S.
    Inter-item distance changes the predictive power of motivation on health behavior?: a randomised controlled trial2016In: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, E-ISSN 1532-7558, Vol. 23, p. S237-S237Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 9. Chan, Derwin
    et al.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Yang, Sophie
    Chatzisarantis, Nikos
    Hagger, Martin
    Response-Order Effects in Survey Methods: A Randomized Controlled Crossover Study in the Context of Sport Injury Prevention2015In: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology (JSEP), ISSN 0895-2779, E-ISSN 1543-2904, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 666-673Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consistency tendency is characterized by the propensity for participants responding to subsequent items in asurvey consistent with their responses to previous items. This method effect might contaminate the results ofsport psychology surveys using cross-sectional design. We present a randomized controlled crossover studyexamining the effect of consistency tendency on the motivational pathway (i.e., autonomy support → autonomousmotivation → intention) of self-determination theory in the context of sport injury prevention. Athletesfrom Sweden (N = 341) responded to the survey printed in either low interitem distance (IID; consistencytendency likely) or high IID (consistency tendency suppressed) on two separate occasions, with a one-weekinterim period. Participants were randomly allocated into two groups, and they received the survey of differentIID at each occasion. Bayesian structural equation modeling showed that low IID condition had strongerparameter estimates than high IID condition, but the differences were not statistically significant.

  • 10. Chan, Derwin K. C.
    et al.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Yusainy, Cleoputri
    Hikmiah, Ziadatul
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Hagger, Martin S.
    Rhodes, Ryan E.
    Beauchamp, Mark R.
    Consistency tendency and the theory of planned behavior: a randomized controlled crossover trial in a physical activity context2020In: Psychology and Health, ISSN 0887-0446, E-ISSN 1476-8321, Vol. 35, no 6, p. 665-684Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study examined the effects of consistency tendency on the predictive power of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in relation to physical activity behavior.

    Methods: In this randomized controlled cross-over trial, we recruited 770 undergraduate students from Indonesia who were randomly assigned into two groups. Participants completed physical activity versions of TPB measures at T1 (baseline) and T2 (post 1 week), and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire at T3 (post 1 month). At T1 and T2, the TPB questions were either presented in ensemble-order (i.e., consistency tendency supressed) or alternate-order (i.e., consistency tendency facilitated).

    Results: The parameter estimates of the model (CFI > .92, TLI > .90, SRMR < .08, RMSEA < .08) aligned with the tenets of TPB. As compared to ensemble-order, a TPB measured in alternate-order yielded stronger cross-sectional relationships, but this pattern did not appear in the prospective relationships in TPB (i.e., intention/perceived behavioral control and behavior).

    Conclusions: Consistency tendency inflated the factor correlations of cross-sectionally measured TPB variables, but the inflation was not observed in the prospective prediction of behavior. Health psychology questionnaires with items presented in ensemble order may represent a viable means of reducing the confounding effect of consistency tendency.

  • 11.
    Chen, Po Ling
    et al.
    Department of Psychology and Brain Health Research Centre, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand; Brain Research New Zealand, Auckland, New Zealand; Department of Psychology, School of Medicine, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Psychology and Brain Health Research Centre, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand; Brain Research New Zealand, Auckland, New Zealand; Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Machado, Liana
    Department of Psychology and Brain Health Research Centre, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand; Brain Research New Zealand, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Evidence transcranial direct current stimulation can improve saccadic eye movement control in older adults2018In: Vision (Switzerland), E-ISSN 2411-5150, Vol. 2, no 4, article id 42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Ageing is associated with declines in voluntary eye movement control, which negatively impact the performance of daily activities. Therapies treating saccadic eye movement control deficits are currently lacking. To address the need for an effective therapy to treat age-related deficits in saccadic eye movement control, the current study investigated whether saccadic behaviour in older adults can be improved by anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex using a montage that has been proven to be effective at improving nonoculomotor control functions.

    Method: The tDCS protocol entailed a 5 cm × 7 cm anodal electrode and an encephalic cathodal reference electrode positioned over the contralateral supraorbital area. In two experiments, healthy older men completed one active (1.5 mA current for 10 min) and one sham stimulation session, with the session order counterbalanced across participants, and eye movement testing following stimulation. In the first experiment, participants rested during the tDCS (offline), whereas in the follow-up experiment, participants engaged in antisaccades during the tDCS (online).

    Results: Analyses revealed improvements in saccadic performance following active anodal tDCS relative to sham stimulation in the online experiment, but not in the offline experiment, which was presumably due to the activation of the relevant networks during tDCS promoting more targeted effects.

    Discussion: These outcomes converge with findings pertaining to nonoculomotor cognitive functions, and provide evidence that tDCS can improve saccadic eye movement control in older adults.

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  • 12. Clement, D.
    et al.
    Ivarsson, A.
    Tranaeus, U.
    Johnson, U.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Investigating the influence of intraindividual changes in perceived stress symptoms on injury risk in soccer2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 1461-1466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown that high levels of stress and stress responsivity can increase the risk of injuries. However, most of the research that has supported this notion has focused on between-person relationships, ignoring the relationships at the within-person level. As a result, the objective of this study was to investigate if within-person changes in perceived stress symptoms over a 1-month time period could predict injury rates during the subsequent 3months. A prospective design with two measurement points (Time 1at the beginning of the season and Time 21month into the season) was utilized. A total of 121 competitive soccer players (85 males and 36 females; M-age=18.39, SD=3.08) from Sweden and the United States completed the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (KPDS) and a demographic sheet at Time 1. The KPDS was also completed at Time 2, and all acute injuries that occurred during the subsequent 3-month period were recorded. A Bayesian latent change scores model was used to determine whether within-person changes in stress symptoms could predict the risk of injury. Results revealed that there was a credible positive effect of changes in stress symptoms on injury rates, indicating that an increase in reported stress symptoms was related to an increased risk for injury. This finding highlights the importance of creating caring and supportive sporting environments and relationships and teaching stress management techniques, especially during the earlier portion of competitive seasons, to possibly reduce the occurrence of injuries.

  • 13.
    Clement, Damien
    et al.
    West Virginia University, WV, Morgantown, United States.
    Tranaeus, Ulrika
    The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johnson, Urban
    Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden; Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Profiles of psychosocial factors: Can they be used to predict injury risk?2022In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 782-788Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The creation of risk profiles using the model of stress and athletic injury (J Appl Sport Psychol. 1998;10(1):5) represents a proposed shift from the reductionism paradigm to the complex sport approach in an attempt to formulate prevention strategies to combat the increasing number of injuries being reported in sporting populations. As a result, the primary purpose of this study was to: (a) identify different risk profiles based on psychosocial factors associated with the Williams and Andersen's model of stress and athletic injury model; and (b) examine potential differences in the frequency of injuries across these risk profiles. A prospective research design was utilized with a sample of 117 competitive soccer players (81 males and 36 females) from Sweden and the United States of America. Data was collected at two time points over the course of three months. At time 1 (beginning of the season) - a demographic information sheet, the Life Event Survey for Collegiate Athletes (LESCA), Sport Competitive Anxiety Test (SCAT), and Brief Cope were administered. At time two (T2), three months after the initial data collection, participants’ traumatic injuries were recorded. Latent profile analysis (LPA) showed that 3 profiles solution showed best fit to data. Players in profile 1 and 2 reported fewer injuries compared to players in profile 3. However, whereas individuals in profile 1 had a lower predictive risk of sustaining an injury when compared to those in profile 3, both profiles had similar anxiety levels and use of coping strategies with differing stress levels. These findings suggest that the interaction between different proposed risk factors might influence injury risk.

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  • 14.
    Davis, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Psychology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Appleby, Ralph
    Davis, Paul
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Reducing the risk of athlete burnout: Psychosocial, sociocultural, and individual considerations for coaches2019In: International journal of sports science & coaching, ISSN 1747-9541, E-ISSN 2048-397X, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 444-452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Past research suggests that athletes' relationships with their coach can act as a risk factor in the development of burnout. Coaching practice may be enhanced through understanding the multidimensional factors that can augment the associations between coach-athlete relationship quality and athlete burnout. The present study explored both individual difference characteristics (gender, age, and sport level) and sociocultural factors (sport type) as moderators of this relationship. Our findings show statistically significant interaction effects for gender and age. Coaches and practitioners working with younger athletes and male performers in particular, are advised to work with strategies aiming to build relationships and reduce the risk of burnout.

  • 15.
    Davis, Paul A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Temporal aspects of affective states, physiological responses, and perceived exertion in competitive cycling time trials2020In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 30, no 10, p. 1859-1868Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Athletes' affective states can vary dramatically before, during, and after competition. Further, intense affect is associated with physiological responses that may amplify biological reactions manifested from the execution of physical tasks underlying performance. Fluctuations in perceptual cues (eg, perceived exertion) and physiological responses (eg, blood lactate, heart rate) can influence performance and vary dramatically in relation to competition. However, the pattern of these fluctuations and potential associations between perceptual cues and biological responses may also diverge during task execution with differential implications for performance. Data collected from highly trained athletes (N = 25;M-age = 25.4) during a competition (ie, maximum total distance) comprised of three 7-minute cycling time trials and were analyzed with longitudinal multilevel modeling. Results showed that affective states were negatively associated with perceived exertion at the within-person level and negatively associated with heart rate at the between-person level within each trial. Blood lactate and heart rate were positively associated at the between-person level, whereas heart rate was positively associated with perceived exertion at the within-person level. The anticipation of more pleasurable affective states predicted less decline in affective states, but not physiological responses, during each trial. Anticipated affective states prior to each trial were also associated with affective states upon its completion. These findings suggest associations among perceptual cues and physiological responses may differ depending on the level of analysis (between- vs. within-person level associations), and anticipated affective states prior to performance may influence affective states during and after task execution.

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  • 16.
    Davis, Paul A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Sport Sciences.
    Sörman, Daniel
    Department of Engineering Psychology, Luleå Technical University, Sweden.
    Carlberg, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rognsvåg, Elise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Sport Sciences. Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Norway.
    The psychophysiological influence of exertion and affect on sport-specific cognitive and physical performance2022In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 25, no 9, p. 764-769Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to examine differences in cognitive and physical performance, affective states, perceived exertion, and physiological responses between trials with cognitive, physical, or combined cognitive and physical load. Design: Randomised cross-over trial.

    Methods: Highly trained competitive orienteers (n = 15 men; n = 10 women) completed three randomised trials comprised of: (1) sport-specific cognitive tests; (2) 35-minute cycling time trial; and (3) combined sport-specific cognitive tests and 35-minute cycling time trial. Measures taken during the trials recorded affective states, perceived exertion, heart rate, blood lactate, cycling watts, as well as working memory, updating, planning and decision making.

    Results: No significant differences in cognitive performance accuracy were observed within or across trials although reaction times improved within trials and were fastest in the combined trial. Blood lactate, heart rate, perceived exertion, negative affective states, and watts were highest in the physical trial.

    Conclusions: The combined load of undertaking sport-specific cognitive tests and a cycling time trial did not influence cognitive performance accuracy. Athletes produced greater watts when completing the physical task independently compared with the combined trial, however psychophysiological responses were worse. Further investigation is warranted to determine whether athletes' attentional focus underpins psychophysiological responses to dual-task sport performance.

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  • 17.
    Davis, Paul Anthony
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Examining associations between affective states and physiological responses before, during, and after competitive cycling time trials2018In: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology (JSEP), ISSN 0895-2779, E-ISSN 1543-2904, Vol. 40, p. S86-S86Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 18. Ekblom-Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Halldin, Mats
    Vikstrom, Max
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gigante, Bruna
    de Faire, Ulf
    Leander, Karin
    Hellenius, Mai-Lis
    Physical activity attenuates cardiovascular risk and mortality in men and women with and without the metabolic syndrome - a 20-year follow-up of a population-based cohort of 60-year-olds2021In: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, ISSN 2047-4873, E-ISSN 2047-4881, Vol. 28, no 12, p. 1376-1385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The purpose of this study was to analyse the association of leisure-time physical activity of different intensities at baseline, and cardiovascular disease incidence, cardiovascular disease mortality and all-cause mortality in a population-based sample of 60-year-old men and women with and without established metabolic syndrome, for more than 20 years of follow-up. A secondary aim was to study which cardiometabolic factors may mediate the association between physical activity and long-term outcomes.

    Methods: A total of 3693 participants (53% women) underwent physical examination and laboratory tests, completed an extensive questionnaire at baseline 1997–1999 and were followed until their death or until 31 December 2017. First-time cardiovascular disease events and death from any cause were ascertained through regular examinations of national registers.

    Results: Metabolic syndrome prevalence was 23.0%. In metabolic syndrome participants, light physical activity attenuated cardiovascular disease incidence (hazard ratio = 0.71; 95% confidence interval 0.50–1.00) compared to sedentary (reference) after multi-adjustment. Moderate/high physical activity was inversely associated with both cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality, but became non-significant after multi-adjustment. Sedentary non-metabolic syndrome participants had lower cardiovascular disease incidence (0.47; 0.31–0.72) but not significantly different cardiovascular disease (0.61; 0.31–1.19) and all-cause mortality (0.92; 0.64–1.34) compared to sedentary metabolic syndrome participants. Both light and moderate/high physical activity were inversely associated with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in non-metabolic syndrome participants (p<0.05). There were significant variations in several central cardiometabolic risk factors with physical activity level in non-metabolic syndrome participants. Fibrinogen mediated the protective effects of physical activity in non-metabolic syndrome participants.

    Conclusion: Physical activity of different intensities attenuated cardiovascular risk and mortality in 60-year old men and women with metabolic syndrome during a 20-year follow-up.

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  • 19. Ekblom-Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Salier Eriksson, Jane
    Hemmingsson, Erik
    Kallings, Lena V.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Wallin, Peter
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Ekblom, Björn
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Latent profile analysis patterns of exercise, sitting and fitness in adults - Associations with metabolic risk factors, perceived health, and perceived symptoms2020In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 15, no 4, article id e0232210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To identify and describe the characteristics of naturally occurring patterns of exercise, sitting in leisure time and at work and cardiorespiratory fitness, and the association of such profiles with metabolic risk factors, perceived health, and perceived symptoms.

    Methods: 64,970 participants (42% women, 18-75 years) participating in an occupational health service screening in 2014-2018 were included. Exercise and sitting were self-reported. Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated using a submaximal cycle test. Latent profile analysis was used to identify profiles. BMI and blood pressure were assessed through physical examination. Perceived back/neck pain, overall stress, global health, and sleeping problems were self-reported.

    Results: Six profiles based on exercise, sitting in leisure time and at work and cardiorespiratory fitness were identified and labelled; Profile 1 "Inactive, low fit and average sitting in leisure, with less sitting at work"; Profile 2 "Inactive, low fit and sedentary"; Profile 3 "Active and average fit, with less sitting at work"; Profile 4 "Active, average fit and sedentary in leisure, with a sedentary work" (the most common profile, 35% of the population); Profile 5 "Active and fit, with a sedentary work"; Profile 6 "Active and fit, with less sitting at work". Some pairwise similarities were found between profiles (1 and 2, 3 and 4, 5 and 6), mainly based on similar levels of exercise, leisure time sitting and fitness, which translated into similar dose-response associations with the outcomes. In general, profile 1 and 2 demonstrated most adverse metabolic and perceived health, profile 4 had a more beneficial health than profile 3, as did profile 6 compared to profile 5.

    Conclusions: The present results implies a large variation in exercise, sitting, and fitness when studying naturally occurring patterns, and emphasize the possibility to target exercise, sitting time, and/or fitness in health enhancing promotion intervention and strategies.

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  • 20.
    Ekblom-Bak, Elin
    et al.
    Department of Physical Activity and Health, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, PO Box 5626, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Väisänen, Daniel
    Department of Physical Activity and Health, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, PO Box 5626, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekblom, Björn
    Department of Physical Activity and Health, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, PO Box 5626, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Blom, Victoria
    Department of Physical Activity and Health, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, PO Box 5626, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kallings, Lena V.
    Department of Physical Activity and Health, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, PO Box 5626, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hemmingsson, Erik
    Department of Physical Activity and Health, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, PO Box 5626, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Research Department, HPI Health Profile Institute, PO Box 35, 182 11, Danderyd, Sweden.
    Wallin, Peter
    Research Department, HPI Health Profile Institute, PO Box 35, 182 11, Danderyd, Sweden.
    Salier Eriksson, Jane
    Department of Physical Activity and Health, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, PO Box 5626, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Holmlund, Tobias
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Department of Physical Activity and Health, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, PO Box 5626, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Lönn, Amanda
    Department of Physical Activity and Health, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, PO Box 5626, Stockholm, Sweden; Women’s Health and Allied Health Professionals Theme Medical Unit Occupational Therapy and Physiotherapy, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cardiorespiratory fitness and lifestyle on severe COVID-19 risk in 279,455 adults: a case control study2021In: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, E-ISSN 1479-5868, Vol. 18, no 1, article id 135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The impact of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and other lifestyle-related factors on severe COVID-19 risk is understudied. The present study aims to investigate lifestyle-related and socioeconomic factors as possible predictors of COVID-19, with special focus on CRF, and to further study whether these factors may attenuate obesity- and hypertension-related risks, as well as mediate associations between socioeconomic factors and severe COVID-19 risk.

    Methods: Out of initially 407,131 participants who participated in nationwide occupational health service screening between 1992 and 2020, n = 857 cases (70% men, mean age 49.9 years) of severe COVID-19 were identified. CRF was estimated using a sub-maximum cycle test, and other lifestyle variables were self-reported. Analyses were performed including both unmatched, n = 278,598, and sex-and age-matched, n = 3426, controls. Severe COVID-19 included hospitalization, intensive care or death due to COVID-19.

    Results: Patients with more severe COVID-19 had significantly lower CRF, higher BMI, a greater presence of comorbidities and were more often daily smokers. In matched analyses, there was a graded decrease in odds for severe COVID-19 with each ml in CRF (OR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.970 to 0.998), and a two-fold increase in odds between the lowest and highest (< 32 vs. ≥ 46 ml·min−1·kg−1) CRF group. Higher BMI (per unit increase, OR = 1.09, 1.06 to 1.12), larger waist circumference (per cm, OR = 1.04, 1.02 to 1.06), daily smoking (OR = 0.60, 0.41 to 0.89) and high overall stress (OR = 1.36, 1.001 to 1.84) also remained significantly associated with severe COVID-19 risk. Obesity- and blood pressure-related risks were attenuated by adjustment for CRF and lifestyle variables. Mediation through CRF, BMI and smoking accounted for 9% to 54% of the associations between low education, low income and blue collar/low skilled occupations and severe COVID-19 risk. The results were consistent using either matched or unmatched controls.

    Conclusions: Both lifestyle-related and socioeconomic factors were associated with risk of severe COVID-19. However, higher CRF attenuated the risk associated with obesity and high blood pressure, and mediated the risk associated with various socioeconomic factors. This emphasises the importance of interventions to maintain or increase CRF in the general population to strengthen the resilience to severe COVID-19, especially in high-risk individuals.

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  • 21.
    Ekelund, Rebecka
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Sport Sciences.
    Holmström, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Sport Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Department of Educational Studies, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway; Department of Health and Sport, School of Health and Welfare, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Lundqvist, Carolina
    Department of Behavioral Sciences and Learning, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Sport Sciences. Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Interventions for improving mental health in athletes: a scoping review2023In: International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, ISSN 1750-984X, E-ISSN 1750-9858Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this scoping review were to map the current literature on interventions for improving mental health in athletes, identify knowledge gaps, and generate future research questions. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) guided this review. A systematic literature search was conducted in SPORTDiscus, PsycINFO, and SCOPUS and 44 intervention studies met the inclusion criteria. Results showed that 22 studies (50%) implemented cognitive behavioural principles, and the majority of these studies were influenced by various mindfulness programmes. Most studies (93%) included healthy athlete samples, and athletes aged 15–19 were the most examined age group (43%). Only three studies used clinical criteria in their sampling of participants and mediators were examined in two studies. The scarcity of studies examining mediators and subclinical or clinical samples revealed critical knowledge gaps in the literature. Furthermore, the critical appraisal showed that regardless of study design, most studies demonstrated low internal validity. We propose the use of high-quality single-case studies with athletes who experience subclinical or clinical mental health issues, and further investigation of mechanisms of change linking intervention components to outcomes of interest.

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  • 22.
    Ekelund, Rebecka
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Sport Sciences.
    Holmström, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Sport Sciences.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Sport Sciences. Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Mental Health in Athletes: Where Are the Treatment Studies?2022In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 13, article id 781177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, athletes’ mental health has gained interest among researchers, sport practitioners, and the media. However, the field of sport psychology lacks empirical evidence on the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic interventions for mental health problems and disorders in athletes. Thus far, intervention research in sport psychology has mainly focused on performance enhancement using between-subject designs and healthy athlete samples. In the current paper, we highlight three interrelated key issues in relation to treating mental health problems and disorders in athletes. (i) How are mental health and mental health problems and disorders defined in the sport psychology literature? (ii) How are prevalence rates of mental health problems and disorders in athletes determined? (iii) What is known about psychotherapeutic interventions for mental health problems and disorders in athletes? We conclude that the reliance on different definitions and assessments of mental health problems and disorders contributes to heterogeneous prevalence rates. In turn, this limits our understanding of the extent of mental health problems and disorders in athletes. Furthermore, knowledge of the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic interventions for athletes with mental health problems and disorders is scarce. Future research should include athletes with established mental health problems and disorders in intervention studies. We also propose an increased use of N-of-1 trials to enhance the knowledge of effective psychotherapeutic interventions in this population.

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  • 23.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Department of Health, Education, and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Norway.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Research and Development Unit, Sundsvall Hospital, Region Västernorrland, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Vega-Mendoza, Mariana
    Department of Health, Education, and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ljungberg, Jessica K.
    Department of Health, Education, and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Occupational cognitive complexity and episodic memory in old age2021In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 89, article id 101598Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate occupational cognitive complexity of main lifetime occupation in relation to level and 15-year change in episodic memory recall in a sample of older adults (≥ 65 years, n = 780). We used latent growth curve modelling with occupational cognitive complexity (O*NET indicators) as independent variable. Subgroup analyses in a sample of middle-aged (mean: 49.9 years) men (n = 260) were additionally performed to investigate if a general cognitive ability (g) factor at age 18 was predictive of future occupational cognitive complexity and cognitive performance in midlife. For the older sample, a higher level of occupational cognitive complexity was related to a higher level of episodic recall (β = 0.15, p < .001), but the association with rate of change (β = 0.03, p = .64) was not statistically significant. In the middle-aged sample, g at age 18 was both directly (β = 0.19, p = .01) and indirectly (via years of education after age 18, ab = 0.19) predictive of midlife levels of occupational cognitive complexity. Cognitive ability at age 18 was also a direct predictor of midlife episodic recall (β = 0.60, p ≤ 0.001). Critically, entry of the early adult g factor attenuated the association between occupational complexity and cognitive level (from β = 0.21, p = .01 to β = 0.12, p = .14). Overall, our results support a pattern of preserved differentiation from early to late adulthood for individuals with different histories of occupational complexity.

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  • 24.
    Fahrenholtz, Ida Lysdahl
    et al.
    Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Melin, Anna Katarina
    Department of Sport Science, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Kalmar, Sweden.
    Wasserfurth, Paulina
    Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Logue, Danielle
    Sport Ireland Institute, National Sports Campus, Dublin, Ireland.
    Garthe, Ina
    The Norwegian Olympic and Paralympic Committee and Confederation of Sport, Oslo, Norway.
    Koehler, Karsten
    Department of Sport and Health Sciences, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany.
    Gräfnings, Maria
    Department of Medical Science, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck
    Centre for Telepsychiatry, Mental Health Services in the Region of Southern Denmark, Department of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.
    Madigan, Sharon
    Sport Ireland Institute, National Sports Campus, Dublin, Ireland.
    Torstveit, Monica Klungland
    Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Risk of low energy availability, disordered eating, exercise addiction, and food intolerances in female endurance athletes2022In: Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, E-ISSN 2624-9367, Vol. 4, article id 869594Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S) is a complex syndrome describing health and performance consequences of low energy availability (LEA) and is common among female endurance athletes. Various underlying causes of LEA have been reported, including disordered eating behavior (DE), but studies investigating the association with exercise addiction and food intolerances are lacking. Therefore, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between DE, exercise addiction and food intolerances in athletes at risk of LEA compared to those with low risk. Female endurance athletes, 18–35 years, training ≥5 times/week were recruited in Norway, Sweden, Ireland, and Germany. Participants completed an online-survey comprising the LEA in Females Questionnaire (LEAF-Q), Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI), Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q), and questions regarding food intolerances. Of the 202 participants who met the inclusion criteria and completed the online survey, 65% were at risk of LEA, 23% were at risk of exercise addiction, and 21% had DE. Athletes at risk of LEA had higher EDE-Q and EAI scores compared to athletes with low risk. EAI score remained higher in athletes with risk of LEA after excluding athletes with DE. Athletes at risk of LEA did not report more food intolerances (17 vs. 10%, P = 0.198), but were more frequently reported by athletes with DE (28 vs. 11%, P = 0.004). In conclusion, these athletes had a high risk of LEA, exercise addiction, and DE. Exercise addiction should be considered as an additional risk factor in the prevention, early detection, and targeted treatment of RED-S among female endurance athletes.

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  • 25.
    Ford, Paul R.
    et al.
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United .
    Carling, Christopher
    Institute of Sports Performence, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, United Kingdom, and LOSC Lille Métropole Football Club, Medical Lille, France.
    Garces, Marco
    Universidad del Futbol y Ciencias del Deporte, Pachuca FC, Pachuca, Mexico, .
    Marques, Mauricio
    PUC Minas/Brazilian Football Confederation (CBF), Brazilian School of Football (EBF), Belo Horizonte, Brazil.
    Miguel, Carlos
    Faculty of Sports, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Farrant, Andrew
    Right to Dream Academy, Accra, Ghana.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Moreno, Jansen
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom.
    Le Gall, Franck
    LOSC Lille Métropole Football Club, Medical Lille, France.
    Holmström, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Salmela, John H.
    School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
    Williams, Mark
    School of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom,.
    The developmental activities of elite soccer players aged under-16 years from Brazil, England, France, Ghana, Mexico, Portugal and Sweden2012In: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 30, no 15, p. 1653-1663Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The developmental activities of 328 elite soccer players aged under-16 years from Brazil, England, France, Ghana, Mexico, Portugal and Sweden were examined using retrospective recall in a cross-sectional research design. The activities were compared to the early diversification, early specialisation, and early engagement pathways. Players started their involvement in soccer at approximately 5 years of age. During childhood, they engaged in soccer practice for a mean value of 185.7, s ¼ 124.0 h _ year71, in soccer play for 186.0, s ¼ 125.3 h _ year71, and in soccer competition for 37.1, s ¼ 28.9 h _ year71. A mean value of 2.3, s ¼ 1.6 sports additional to soccer were engaged in by 229 players during childhood. Players started their participation in an elite training academy at 11 to 12 years of age. During adolescence, they engaged in soccer practice for a mean value of 411.9, s ¼ 184.3 h _ year71, in soccer play for 159.7, s ¼ 195.0 h _ year71, and in soccer competition for 66.9, s ¼ 48.8 h _ year71. A mean value of 2.5, s ¼ 1.8 sports other than soccer were engaged in by 132 players during this period. There were some relatively minor differences between countries, but generally the developmental activities of the players followed a mixture of the early engagement and specialisation pathways, rather than early diversification.

  • 26.
    Garn, Alex C.
    et al.
    School of Kinesiology, Louisiana State University, LA, Baton Rouge, United States.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Sports Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    University students’ daily motivation regulation: within- and between-level relations to academic functioning2024In: Educational Psychology, ISSN 0144-3410, E-ISSN 1469-5820, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 227-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated daily motivation regulation as a multilevel mediator of undergraduate students’ intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and academic functioning. Undergraduate students (N = 124) completed measures on motivation, motivation regulation, and study time for 10 consecutive days leading up to a statistics exam. Bayesian multilevel mediation models were used to examine motivation regulation as a mediator between motivation and daily study time at the within-person level and exam performance at the between-person level. Within-person findings revealed motivation regulation mediated the relation between both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and study time although the indirect effect was substantially stronger for extrinsic motivation. Between-person findings did not support mediation between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation and exam performance. Specifically, none of the motivation or motivation regulation factors predicted students’ exam performance. It appears that motivation regulation typically stems from extrinsic motivation and is more closely associated with process-oriented rather than product-oriented academic functioning.

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  • 27. Gjesdal, Siv
    et al.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Psychology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Solstad, Bård E.
    Ommundsen, Yngvar
    A study of coach-team perceptual distance concerning the coach-created motivational climate in youth sport2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 132-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether coach-team perceptual distance regarding the coach-created motivational climate related to achievement goal orientations and affective responses. To this end, we used polynomial regression analysis with response surface methodology. The sample consisted of 1359 youth soccer players (57.8% male; M-age = 11.81 years, SD = 1.18), belonging to 87 different teams (M-size = 16.47), and 87 coaches (94.6% male, M-age = 42 years, SD = 5.67). Results showed that team perceptions of a coach-created mastery climate were positively related to team-rated task goal orientation and enjoyment, whereas team perceptions of a coach-created performance climate were positively related to team-rated ego goal orientation and anxiety, and negatively related to team-rated enjoyment. When the coach and the team were in perceptual agreement, the outcomes increased as both coach and team perceptions of the climate increased. In situations of perceptual disagreement, the most negative effects were seen when the coach held a more favorable perception of the motivational climate compared to the team. The findings highlight the importance of perceptual agreement between the coach and his/her team, contributing to the literature focusing on the effects of the coach-created motivational climate.

  • 28.
    Gredin, N. Viktor
    et al.
    School of Health and Welfare, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Back, Jenny
    School of Health and Welfare, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Johnson, Urban
    School of Health and Welfare, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Svedberg, Petra
    School of Health and Welfare, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Solstad, Bård Erlend
    Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    School of Health and Welfare, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden; Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Exploring psychosocial risk factors for dropout in adolescent female soccer2022In: Science and medicine in football, ISSN 2473-3938, E-ISSN 2473-4446, Vol. 6, no 5, p. 668-674Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: We examined the manner in which age, participation in other sports, socioeconomic status, perceived sport competence, achievement goal orientations, and perceived motivational climate may interact to predict the risk of dropout among adolescent female soccer players.

    Methods: Self-reported data from 519 female soccer players between 10 and 19 years of age (M = 13.41, SD = 1.77) were analysed using a person-centred approach to uncover the interactions among risk factors and their relative predictability of dropout.

    Results: Perceived motivational climate was identified as the main predictor, where relatively lower levels of mastery climate were associated with a higher dropout tendency (absolute risk reduction [ARR] = 12.2% ±6.1% [95% CL]). If combined with relatively lower levels of mastery climate, then relatively lower levels of perceived sport competence were related to higher dropout risks (ARR = 16.5% ±9.5%), whereas, in combination with relatively higher levels of mastery climate, then relatively lower levels of ego-orientated achievement goals were associated with higher dropout rates (ARR = 10.8% ±12.6%).

    Conclusions: Our findings afford novel insights into the interactions between, and the relative importance of, various risk factors for dropout in adolescent female soccer. This knowledge may be useful for soccer associations, clubs, and coaches when developing guidelines and strategies that aim to foster young females’ sustained participation in organised soccer.

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  • 29. Gucciardi, Daniel F.
    et al.
    Zhang, Chun-Qing
    Ponnusamy, Vellapandian
    Si, Gangyan
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Cross-Cultural Invariance of the Mental Toughness Inventory Among Australian, Chinese, and Malaysian Athletes: A Bayesian Estimation Approach2016In: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology (JSEP), ISSN 0895-2779, E-ISSN 1543-2904, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 187-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this study were to assess the cross-cultural invariance of athletes' self-reports of mental toughness and to introduce and illustrate the application of approximate measurement invariance using Bayesian estimation for sport and exercise psychology scholars. Athletes from Australia (n = 353, M-age = 19.13, SD = 3.27, men = 161), China (n = 254, M-age = 17.82, SD = 2.28, men = 138), and Malaysia (n = 341, M-age = 19.13, SD = 3.27, men = 200) provided a cross-sectional snapshot of their mental toughness. The cross-cultural invariance of the mental toughness inventory in terms of (a) the factor structure (configural invariance), (b) factor loadings (metric invariance), and (c) item intercepts (scalar invariance) was tested using an approximate measurement framework with Bayesian estimation. Results indicated that approximate metric and scalar invariance was established. From a methodological standpoint, this study demonstrated the usefulness and flexibility of Bayesian estimation for single-sample and multigroup analyses of measurement instruments. Substantively, the current findings suggest that the measurement of mental toughness requires cultural adjustments to better capture the contextually salient (emic) aspects of this concept.

  • 30. Gustafsson, H.
    et al.
    Sagar, S. S.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fear of failure, psychological stress, and burnout among adolescent athletes competing in high level sport2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 27, no 12, p. 2091-2102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate fear of failure in highly competitive junior athletes and the association with psychological stress and burnout. In total 258 athletes (152 males and 108 females) ranged in age from 15 to 19years (M=17.4years, SD=1.08) participated. Athletes competed in variety of sports including both team and individual sports. Results showed in a variable-oriented approach using regression analyses that one dimension, fear of experiencing shame and embarrassment had a statistically significant effect on perceived psychological stress and one dimension of burnout, reduced sense of accomplishment. However, adopting a person-oriented approach using latent class analysis, we found that athletes with high levels of fear failure on all dimensions scored high on burnout. We also found another class with high scores on burnout. These athletes had high scores on the individual-oriented dimensions of fear of failure and low scores on the other oriented fear of failure dimensions. The findings indicate that fear of failure is related to burnout and psychological stress in athletes and that this association is mainly associated with the individual-oriented dimensions of fear of failure.

  • 31. Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Carlin, Maicon
    Podlog, Leslie
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Motivational profiles and burnout in elite athletes: A person-centered approach2018In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 35, p. 118-125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to assess the link between elite athletes' motivational profiles and burnout using a person-centered approach. Participants were 391 Spanish elite athletes (201 males and 190 females), aged 16-30 years who completed questionnaires measuring demographic information, self-determined motivation, and athlete burnout. Latent profile analysis resulted in a five profile solution labeled: amotivation (Class 1), low motivation (Class 2), moderately autonomous motivation (Class 3), amotivated and moderately controlled motivation (Class 4), and highly motivated (Class 5). While no significant differences were found in emotional/physical exhaustion, Class 4 (amotivated and moderately controlled motivation) scored higher than classes 2 (low motivation), 3 (moderately autonomous motivation), and 5 (highly motivated) on a Reduced sense of Accomplishment and Sport Devaluation. Findings are discussed in relation to Self-Determination Theory, suggesting that the quality of one's motivation may be equally, if not more important than the quantity of motivation in determining subsequent health, well-being, and performance outcomes.

  • 32. Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Hill, Andrew
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wagnsson, Stefan
    Profiles of perfectionism, parental climate, and burnout among competitive junior athletes2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 26, no 10, p. 1256-1264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research suggests that groups of athletes can be identified that differ in terms of perfectionism and perceptions of achievement climate. Moreover, these groups also differ in terms of burnout symptoms. The purpose of the current study was to extend this research by examining whether discernable groups can be identified based on scores of perfectionism and perceptions of parent-initiated climate and, then, whether these groups differ in terms of burnout. Two-hundred and thirty-seven Swedish junior athletes (124 male and 113 female aged 16-19) from a variety of sports completed measures of athlete burnout, multidimensional perfectionism, and parent-initiated motivational climate. Latent profile analysis identified four groups: non-perfectionistic athletes in a task-oriented climate, moderately perfectionistic athletes in a task-oriented climate, highly perfectionistic athletes in a task-oriented climate, and highly perfectionistic athletes in a mixed climate. The latter two groups reported higher levels of burnout in comparison to other groups. The findings suggest that junior athletes high in perfectionism may be at comparatively greater risk to burnout and that this may especially be the case when they perceive their parents to emphasize concerns about failure and winning without trying one's best.

  • 33.
    Hassmén, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lundkvist, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Linelius Ljungman, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lyft fram ledarens ljusa sidor2013In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, no 4, p. 32-34Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 34.
    Haugen, Tommy
    et al.
    Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Peters, Derek M.
    School of Allied Health Community, University of Worcester, MA, Worchester, United Kingdom.
    Ommundsen, Yngvar
    Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway; Department of Sport and Social Sciences, Norwegian School of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway.
    Martin, Luc J.
    School of Kinesiology and Health Studies, Queen’s University, Kingston, Canada.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Høigaard, Rune
    Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Psychometric Evaluation of the Norwegian Versions of the Modified Group Environment Questionnaire and the Youth Sport Environment Questionnaire2021In: Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, ISSN 1091-367X, E-ISSN 1532-7841, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 365-378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to translate the modified Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ) and the Youth Sport Environment Questionnaire (YSEQ) into Norwegian, examine the factor structure and reliability of the scales through independent clusters model confirmatory factor analysis (ICM-CFA) and exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM), and examine differential item functioning (DIF) as a function of sex. Three-hundred-and-thirty-three athletes (M(SD)age  = 18.7(2.60) years; 33% females) completed the GEQ. Three-hundred-and-three athletes (M(SD)age  = 15.0(1.48) years; 26% females) completed the YSEQ. Results indicated acceptable fit indices for a four-factor, a second-order two-factor (task and social), and a second order one-factor ESEM model for the GEQ. Cross-loadings and high latent factor correlations are issues in need of attention. The study supported the structural validity and reliability of the Norwegian YSEQ, with no major differences between the ICM-CFA and ESEM. No evidence of DIF as a function of sex was identified in either of the scales.

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  • 35. Henning, Georg
    et al.
    Bjalkebring, Par
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Psychology & AgeCap, University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Psychology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Thorvaldsson, Valgeir
    Johansson, Boo
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Changes in within- and between-person associations between basic psychological need satisfaction and well-being after retirement (vol 79, pg 151, 2019)2019In: Journal of Research in Personality, ISSN 0092-6566, E-ISSN 1095-7251, Vol. 80, p. 97-97Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36. Henning, Georg
    et al.
    Bjälkebring, Pär
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Psychology & AgeCap, University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Psychology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Thorvaldsson, Valgeir
    Johansson, Boo
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Changes in within- and between-person associations between basic psychological need satisfaction and well-being after retirement2019In: Journal of Research in Personality, ISSN 0092-6566, E-ISSN 1095-7251, Vol. 79, p. 151-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Satisfaction of the basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness is associated with higher well-being. However, little is known about change or stability in this association over the life span. We therefore investigated changes in the association between well-being and basic psychological need satisfaction in the retirement transition. Data was drawn from four waves of the Health, Aging, and Retirement Transitions in Sweden (HEARTS) study (N = 5,074, M (age) = 63.16; 53.61% female). Multi-level models were conducted and the analyses revealed evidence for continuity as well as systematic changes in within- and between-person associations across the retirement transition. Our findings demonstrate the benefits of applying a longitudinal design and a life span perspective on basic psychological need satisfaction.

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  • 37.
    Henning, Georg
    et al.
    German Centre of Gerontology (DZA), Berlin, Germany.
    Segel-Karpas, Dikla
    Department of Gerontology, University of Haifa, Israel.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Norway.
    Huxhold, Oliver
    German Centre of Gerontology (DZA), Berlin, Germany.
    Subjective well-being across the retirement transition - historical differences and the role of perceived control2022In: Psychology and Aging, ISSN 0882-7974, E-ISSN 1939-1498, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 388-400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given substantial cohort differences in psychosocial functioning, for example in perceived control, and ongoing pension reforms, the context of retirement has changed over the last decades. However, there islimited research on the consequences of such developments on historical differences in subjective wellbeing(SWB) in the retirement transition. In the present study, we investigated historical differences inchange in life satisfaction and positive affect across the retirement transition. We further included perceivedcontrol as a predictor of change in well-being. Analyses were based on subsamples of retirees among threenationally representative samples of the German Ageing Survey (1996; 2002; 2008) and their respectivefollow-ups 6 years later. Results showed historical improvements in preretirement positive affect (i.e., latersamples had higher preretirement levels). Contrastingly, earlier samples showed a larger increase in positiveaffect across the retirement transition compared to later samples. No historical differences were found in lifesatisfaction. Perceived control showed no historical improvement and did not seem to contribute tohistorical differences in subjective well-being. Nevertheless, we found that the association of perceivedcontrol and positive affect increased over historical time. The results showed that the historical contextseems to play a role in the experience of retirement, and that it is helpful to distinguish between cognitive–evaluative and affective components of well-being

  • 38. Henning, Georg
    et al.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Psychology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Bielak, Allison A. M.
    Bjälkebring, Par
    Gow, Alan J.
    Kivi, Marie
    Muniz-Terrera, Graciela
    Johansson, Boo
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Towards an active and happy retirement?: Changes in leisure activity and depressive symptoms during the retirement transition2021In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 621-631Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Retirement is a major life transition in the second half of life, and it can be associated with changes in leisure activity engagement. Although theories of retirement adjustment have emphasized the need to find meaningful activities in retirement, little is known about the nature of changes in leisure activity during the retirement transition and their association with mental health.

    Methods: Based on four annual waves of the 'Health, Aging and Retirement Transitions in Sweden' study, we investigated the longitudinal association of leisure activity engagement and depressive symptoms using bivariate dual change score models. We distinguished intellectual, social, and physical activity engagement.

    Results: We found increases in all three domains of activity engagement after retirement. Although level and change of activity and depressive symptoms were negatively associated, the coupling parameters were not significant, thus the direction of effects remains unclear.

    Conclusion: The results highlight the need to consider the role of lifestyle changes for retirement adjustment and mental health.

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  • 39.
    Henning, Georg
    et al.
    German Centre of Gerontology, Berlin, Germany.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ebener, Melanie
    University of Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Levels and change in autonomous and controlled work motivation in older workers: The role of proximity to retirement and sense of community at work2023In: Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, ISSN 0963-1798, E-ISSN 2044-8325, Vol. 96, no 1, p. 33-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies suggest a preretirement disengagement process from work, which includes reduced work motivation. In this study, we investigated changes in autonomous and controlled work motivation over two years among participants of the Health, Aging and Retirement Transition in Sweden (HEARTS) study. We found stability in both types of motivation; however, those who retired after the study period showed more distinct declines in autonomous motivation. A stronger sense of community at work was related to level, but not change in autonomous motivation. Intra-individual fluctuations in the expected retirement age did not predict work motivation or vice versa. Future studies are needed to better understand the antecedents and consequences of preretirement declines in autonomous work motivation.

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  • 40. Henning, Georg
    et al.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Psychology and AgeCap, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Psychology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hansson, Isabelle
    Kivi, Marie
    Johansson, Boo
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Preretirement Work Motivation and Subsequent Retirement Adjustment: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective2019In: Work, Aging and Retirement, ISSN 2054-4642, E-ISSN 2054-4650, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 189-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research grounded in self-determination theory confirms the importance of different types of work motivation for well-being and job performance. Less is known about the role of work motivation at the end of one's working life and its association with adjustment to retirement. We investigated the association between preretirement work motivation and retirement adjustment in a subsample of the Health, Aging and Retirement Transitions in Sweden (HEARTS) study. We included participants (n = 572) who retired between two annual waves in this longitudinal study. Retirement adjustment was operationalized as change between waves in satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs (autonomy, competence, and relatedness). The association between preretirement work motivation and retirement adjustment varied depending on the subdimension of motivation (intrinsic, identified, introjected, external, or amotivation), type of transition (full vs. partial), and the particular need (autonomy, competence, and relatedness). In line with our expectations, low intrinsic work motivation was associated with gains in autonomy satisfaction for full-time retirees, which may be interpreted as a relief from dissatisfying jobs. Among those who continued to work, high intrinsic motivation was related to increases in relatedness satisfaction, that is, retirees who were intrinsically motivated for their work seem to benefit from continuing to work in retirement. In contrast to our expectations, amotivation before retirement was associated with gains in relatedness satisfaction for those continuing to work. Our results highlight the complexity of retirement and the need to study postretirement adjustment as a multifaceted and multidirectional process.

  • 41.
    Henriksson, Anna
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Strandberg, Emelie
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Mazzoni, Anne-Sophie
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sjövall, Katarina
    Faculty of Health Sciences, Kristianstad University, Kristianstad, Sweden.
    Börjeson, Sussanne
    Department of Oncology and Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Raastad, Truls
    Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway; Department of Physical Performance, Norwegian School of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway.
    Demmelmaier, Ingrid
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Berntsen, Sveinung
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Nordin, Karin
    Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Does inflammation markers or treatment type moderate exercise intensity effects on changes in muscle strength in cancer survivors participating in a 6-month combined resistance- and endurance exercise program?: Results from the phys-can trial2023In: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation, E-ISSN 2052-1847 , Vol. 15, no 1, article id 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Resistance exercise has a beneficial impact on physical function for patients receiving oncological treatment. However, there is an inter-individual variation in the response to exercise and the tolerability to high-intensity exercise. Identifying potential moderating factors, such as inflammation and treatment type, for changes in muscle strength is important to improve the effectiveness of exercise programs. Therefore, we aimed to investigate if inflammation and type of oncological treatment moderate the effects of exercise intensity (high vs. low-moderate) on muscular strength changes in patients with breast (BRCA) or prostate cancer (PRCA).

    Methods: Participants with BRCA (n = 286) and PRCA (n = 65) from the Physical training and Cancer study (Phys-Can) were included in the present study. Participants performed a combined resistance- and endurance exercise program during six months, at either high or low-moderate intensity. Separate regression models were estimated for each cancer type, with and without interaction terms. Moderators included in the models were treatment type (i.e., neo/adjuvant chemotherapy—yes/no for BRCA, adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (ADT)—yes/no for PRCA)), and inflammation (interleukin 6 (IL6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα)) at follow-up.

    Results: For BRCA, neither IL6 (b = 2.469, 95% CI [− 7.614, 12.552]) nor TNFα (b = 0.036, 95% CI [− 6.345, 6.418]) levels moderated the effect of exercise intensity on muscle strength change. The same was observed for chemotherapy treatment (b = 4.893, 95% CI [− 2.938, 12.724]). Similarly, for PRCA, the effect of exercise intensity on muscle strength change was not moderated by IL6 (b = − 1.423, 95% CI [− 17.894, 15.048]) and TNFα (b = − 1.905, 95% CI [− 8.542, 4.732]) levels, nor by ADT (b = − 0.180, 95% CI [− 11.201, 10.841]).

    Conclusions: The effect of exercise intensity on muscle strength is not moderated by TNFα, IL6, neo/adjuvant chemotherapy, or ADT, and therefore cannot explain any intra-variation of training response regarding exercise intensity (e.g., strength gain) for BRCA or PRCA in this setting.

    Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02473003.

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  • 42.
    Hjelte, Jan
    et al.
    Department of Support and Development, Umeå Municipality, Umeå, Sweden.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Westerberg, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Youth jobs: young peoples' experiences of changes in motivation regarding engagement in occupations in the Swedish public sector2018In: International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, ISSN 0267-3843, E-ISSN 2164-4527, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 36-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on the influence of a programme with the purpose of increasing young people’s motivation to engage in professions with labour shortages in the Swedish public sector. The data collection methods used were qualitative and quantitative. The study shows that employment quality (skills, learning opportunities and social interaction) is essential to young people in relation to labour market interventions targeted at professions with labour shortages in the public sector. There appears to be heterogeneity in how young people value different factors. In addition, the motivational profile of young people seems to be an evolving process, but also in what way participation in a programme with focus on professions with labour shortages may contribute to such changes. The results indicate that, when planning a programme aimed at young people, individual differences should be taken into account in order to motivate them to work in professions with labour shortages.

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  • 43.
    Holmquist, Sofie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ntoumanis, Nikos
    Danish Centre for Motivation and Behaviour Science, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark; School of Health and Welfare, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Schéle, Ingrid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Dimensionality, invariance, and nomological network of the Need Satisfaction and Frustration Scale (NSFS): an extensive psychometric investigation in a Swedish work cohort2023In: Journal of Personality Assessment, ISSN 0022-3891, E-ISSN 1532-7752Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study evaluated the dimensionality, measurement invariance, and nomological network of the Need Satisfaction and Frustration Scale (NSFS) in a sample of Swedish workers. Using confirmatory factor analysis, exploratory structural equation modeling, and bifactor modeling, 30 different measurement models were evaluated cross-sectionally (n = 2123) and longitudinally (n = 1506). Measurement invariance was tested across gender and time. The nomological network of the NSFS was examined through its relations with life satisfaction and cognitive weariness. The findings supported a first-order six-factor ESEM model and measurement invariance of the Swedish version of the NSFS. Need satisfaction was positively related to life satisfaction and unrelated to cognitive weariness. Need frustration was negatively related to life satisfaction and positively related to cognitive weariness. The present study supported a six-factor structure of the Swedish NSFS, which appears suitable for assessing changes over time and gender differences in ratings.

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  • 44.
    Holmström, Stefan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Talent Development Environment and its Impact on Athletes Motivation2013In: The 5th International Conference on Self-Determination Theory (SDT) / [ed] Richard Ryan and Edward Deci, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing interest in different sports to optimize talent development, and the purpose of this study was to clarify the impact of the environment on psychological aspects of talent development, following the work of Martindale and colleagues (Martindale et al., 2010; Wang, Sproule, McNeill, Martindale, & Lee, 2011). This was done by examining athletes perceptions of key features in their talent development environment with the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire and its’ impact on important factors, such as perceived competence, fear of failure, and motivation. The participants (age 16-19 years) in this study were playing team sports on junior elite level, and were enrolled at Swedish sport academies. The results showed positive relationships between a positive talent development environment, competence, and autonomous motivation, as well as positive relationships between an adverse environment, fear of failure, and controlled motivation. These findings highlight differential effects of environmental factors on athletes’ development.

  • 45.
    Holmström, Stefan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Davidsson, P.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hagström, A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Långström, J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fallby, J.
    Swedish Football Association.
    The talent development environments in two Scandinavian soccer academies’2012In: 3rd World Conference on Science and Soccer, 14-16 May 2012, Ghent, Belgium, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current research on psychological aspects of talent development has tended to focus on individual athletes and their micro-environments. In this study the talent development environments of a Swedish and a Danish soccer academy were examined, each club with a history of successfully producing top-level senior athletes from among its juniors. The aim was to explore and compare the clubs work on individual development within specifically defined areas (managing competition, career transitions, introduction of new players, injuries, challenges and support in life, school and family).

     

    Method: A qualitative methodology was used and semi-structured interviews were conducted with a total of 17 participants: four players and three leaders of the Swedish Club, and three players and seven leaders from the Danish club.

     

    Results and Conclusion: In both the Swedish and Danish club have a specified goal that the youth academy should prioritize individual development before the outcome of the game. Work on the development of the players individual skills are organized in different ways in the Swedish and Danish club. The Danish club has a much clearer structure on how to work with individual development, they use development plans in greater degree, plans which is anchored with the players and a more individualized training plans for the player's position and needs. Both clubs stresses the importance of developing the whole individual, not just play soccer characteristics, but also school work and the wellbeing of the individual player. The combination of soccer practice and school work was one thing that players from both clubs highlighted as challenging and stressful.

  • 46.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Centrum för Forskning om Välfärd, Hälsa och Idrott, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden; Department of Psychology, Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Andersen, Mark B.
    Centrum för Forskning om Välfärd, Hälsa och Idrott, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Johnson, Urban
    Center of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science and the Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Things We Still Haven't Learned (So Far)2015In: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology (JSEP), ISSN 0895-2779, E-ISSN 1543-2904, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 449-461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) is like an immortal horse that some researchers have been trying to beat to death for over 50 years but without any success. In this article we discuss the flaws in NHST, the historical background in relation to both Fisher's and Neyman and Pearson's statistical ideas, the common misunderstandings of what p < .05 actually means, and the 2010 APA publication manual's clear, but most often ignored, instructions to report effect sizes and to interpret what they all mean in the real world. In addition, we discuss how Bayesian statistics can be used to overcome some of the problems with NHST. We then analyze quantitative articles published over the past three years (2012-2014) in two top-rated sport and exercise psychology journals to determine whether we have learned what we should have learned decades ago about our use and meaningful interpretations of statistics.

  • 47. Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Johnson, Urban
    Andersen, Mark B.
    Tranaeus, Ulrika
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Psychosocial Factors and Sport Injuries: Meta-analyses for Prediction and Prevention2017In: Sports Medicine, ISSN 0112-1642, E-ISSN 1179-2035, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 353-365Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Several studies have suggested that psychosocial variables can increase the risk of becoming injured during sport participation. Objectives The main objectives of these meta-analyses were to examine (i) the effect sizes of relationships between the psychosocial variables (suggested as injury predictors in the model of stress and athletic injury) and injury rates, and (ii) the effects of psychological interventions aimed at reducing injury occurrence (prevention). Methods Electronic databases as well as specific sport and exercise psychology journals were searched. The literature review resulted in 48 published studies containing 161 effect sizes for injury prediction and seven effect sizes for injury prevention. Results The results showed that stress responses (r = 0.27, 80 % CI [0.20, 0.33]) and history of stressors (r = 0.13, 80 % CI [0.11, 0.15]) had the strongest associations with injury rates. Also, the results from the path analysis showed that the stress response mediated the relationship between history of stressors and injury rates. For injury prevention studies, all studies included (N = 7) showed decreased injury rates in the treatment groups compared to control groups. Conclusion The results support the model's suggestion that psychosocial variables, as well as psychologically, based interventions, can influence injury risk among athletes.

  • 48.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Högskolan Halmstad.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fallby, Johan
    Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Högskolan Halmstad.
    Johnson, Urban
    Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Högskolan Halmstad.
    Borg, Elin
    Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Högskolan Halmstad.
    Johansson, Gunnar
    Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle, Högskolan Halmstad.
    The predictive ability of the talent development environment on youth elite football players' well-being: a person-centered approach2015In: Psychology of Sport And Exercise, ISSN 1469-0292, E-ISSN 1878-5476, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 15-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the predictive ability of perceived talent development environment (TDE) on the well-being of youth elite football players.

    Design: A field-based longitudinal design was employed.

    Method: The participants were 195 Swedish youth elite football players between 13 and 16 years of age enrolled at Swedish football academies. The players responded to questionnaires regarding their perceptions of their TDE, perceived stress, and well-being in the beginning of the competitive season 2012 (T1). On two more occasions, six and 12 months later, the players completed the stress and well-being questionnaires.

    Results: A latent class analysis, based on the TDEQ sub-scale scores at T1, revealed three classes of players with different perceptions of their TDE (one high quality, one moderate quality, and one poor qualityclass). A second-order multivariate latent growth curve model (factor-of-curves model) showed that the class of players perceiving the lowest TDE quality, experienced higher initial level of stress and lower initial level of well-being at T1 compared to the other two classes. Moreover, there were no significant differences in slopes for neither stress nor well-being between classes (the initial difference between the three groups, in well-being, remained stable over time).

    Conclusion: The results indicate that players perceiving their TDE as supporting and focusing on long term development seem to be less stressed and experience higher well-being than other players. Hence, in addition to facilitate sport-specific development and performance among youth athletes, high quality TDEs may be important for youth elite athletes' general well-being.

  • 49. Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Josefsson, Karin
    Hoglind, Sten
    Lindwall, Magnus
    Associations between physical activity and core affects within and across days: a daily diary study2021In: Psychology and Health, ISSN 0887-0446, E-ISSN 1476-8321, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 43-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to investigate (a) if daily physical activity at the within-person level is related to four different core affects the same evening, (b) if core affects in the evening predict physical activity the following day, and (c) if physical activity predicts core affects the following day.

    Design: A total of 166 university students were asked to complete the affect and physical activity measures once a day (in the evening), for seven days. Bivariate unconditional latent curve model analyses with structured residuals were performed to investigate the relations within days and across days between the core affects and physical activity.

    Main outcome measures: Core affects and physical activity.

    Results: Physical activity had positive within-day associations with pleasant-activated and pleasant-deactivated core affects and a negative within-day association with unpleasant-deactivated affective responses. There were, however, no statistically significant relations between core affects and physical activity across days.

    Conclusion: These results highlight that the measurement interval might be an important factor that influences the association between core affects and physical activity behaviors.

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  • 50. Ivarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Tranaeus, Ulrika
    Johnson, Urban
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Negative psychological responses of injury and rehabilitation adherence effects on return to play in competitive athletes: a systematic review and meta-analysis2017In: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine, E-ISSN 1179-1543, Vol. 8, p. 27-32Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research offers evidence that psychological factors influence an injured athlete during the rehabilitation process. Our first objective was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the results from all published studies that examined the relationships among negative affective responses after sport injuries, rehabilitation adherence, and return to play (RTP). The second objective was to use a meta-analytic path analysis to investigate whether an indirect effect existed between negative affective responses and RTP through rehabilitation adherence. This literature review resulted in seven studies providing 14 effect sizes. The results from the meta-analysis showed that negative affective responses had a negative effect on successful RTP, whereas rehabilitation adherence had a positive effect on RTP. The results from the meta-analytic path analysis showed a weak and nonsignificant indirect effect of negative affective responses on RTP via rehabilitation adherence. These results underline the importance of providing supportive environments for injured athletes to increase the chances of successful RTP via a decrease in negative affective responses and increase in rehabilitation adherence.

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