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  • 1. Berlin, Martin
    et al.
    Fors Connolly, Filip
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    The Association Between Life Satisfaction and Affective Well-Being2019Ingår i: Journal of Economic Psychology, ISSN 0167-4870, E-ISSN 1872-7719, Vol. 73, s. 34-51Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate the correlation between life satisfaction and affect—two conceptually distinct dimensions of subjective well-being. We propose a simple model that distinguishes between a stable and a transitory component of affect, and which also accounts for measurement error in self-reports of both variables, including current-mood bias effects on life satisfaction judgments. The model is estimated using momentarily measured well-being data, from an experience sampling survey that we conducted on a population sample of Swedes aged 18–50 (n=252). Our main estimates of the correlation between life satisfaction and long-run affective well-being range between 0.78 and 0.91, indicating a stronger convergence between these variables than many previous studies that do not account for measurement issues.

  • 2. Bongard, René
    et al.
    Fors Connolly, Filip
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Johansson Sevä, Ingemar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Hur mår företagaren?: En rapport om välbefinnande och livstillfredsställelse2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 3. Brülde, Bengt
    et al.
    Fors, Filip
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Den svenska ensamheten: om hur olika former av ensamhet påverkar vårt välbefinnande2015Ingår i: Fragment: SOM-undersökningen 2014 / [ed] Annika Bergström, Bengt Johansson, Henrik Oscarsson och Maria Oskarson., Göteborg: SOM-institutet , 2015, s. 47-61Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 4.
    Brülde, Bengt
    et al.
    Institutionen för filosofi, lingvistik och vetenskapsteori, Göteborgs universitet.
    Fors, Filip
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Kan lycka köpas för pengar?: Om konsumtion och lycka2012Ingår i: Konsumtionsrapporten / [ed] Roos, John Magnus, Göteborg: Centrum för konsumtionsvetenskap, Handelshögskolan vid Göteborgs universitet , 2012, s. 23-30Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 5.
    Brülde, Bengt
    et al.
    Institutionen för filosofi, lingvistik och vetenskapsteori, Göteborgs universitet.
    Fors, Filip
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Vad gör ett liv meningsfullt?2014Ingår i: Mittfåra & marginal / [ed] Annika Bergström & Henrik Oscarsson, Göteborg: Göteborgs universitet: SOM-institutet. , 2014, s. 37-49Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 6.
    Brülde, Bengt
    et al.
    Institutionen för filosofi, lingvistik och vetenskapsteori, Göteborgs universitet.
    Fors, Filip
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Är lyckan grön?2013Ingår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 41, nr 2, s. 45-46Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 7.
    Fors Connolly, Filip
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Goossen, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Does Gender Equality Cause Gender Differences in Values?: Reassessing the Gender-Equality-Personality Paradox2020Ingår i: Sex Roles, ISSN 0360-0025, E-ISSN 1573-2762, Vol. 83, s. 101-113Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Gender-Equality-Personality Paradox (GEPP) is the finding that gender differences in personality are at their largest in the most gender equal countries. Previous known studies have not examined this relationship over time. Examining this linkage is crucial to our understanding of gender differences and personality development. In the present study, we contrast evolutionary perspectives predicting a gender divergence in personality due to progression in gender equality against biosocial perspectives predicting convergence. Using data from all eight rounds of the European Social Survey (n = 235,339) across 32 European countries, we report three findings. First, in accordance with the evolutionary perspective, country-level gender equality is positively associated with gender differences in basic human values. Second, in accordance with the biosocial perspective, we find evidence supporting gender convergence in basic human values. Third, contradicting both evolutionary and biosocial assumptions, we find no evidence that gender equality causes gender differences in values. We argue that there is a need to explore alternative explanations to the observed cross-sectional association between gender equality and personality differences, as well as gender convergence in personality over time.

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  • 8.
    Fors Connolly, Filip
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Mediators of Differences Between Employed and Unemployed in Life Satisfaction and Emotional Well-being2022Ingår i: Journal of Happiness Studies, ISSN 1389-4978, E-ISSN 1573-7780, Vol. 23, s. 1637-1651Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that the unemployed has lower life satisfaction than the employed but that their emotional well-being may not differ. The aim is to investigate the role of mediators with bearings on these differences between the employed and unemployed in emotional well-being compared to life satisfaction. Participants were 3,463 employed and 452 unemployed living in five Western countries. They answered questions in an online survey. The results showed that the employed had both higher life satisfaction and emotional well-being. Mediation analysis replicated previous results in that the relationship between unemployment and life satisfaction was mediated by financialsatisfaction. The relationship with emotional well-being was mediated by satisfaction with time use which was higher for the employed than the unemployed. Financial satisfaction was also a mediator of the relationship with emotional well-being, both directly and through satisfaction with time use. Although the unemployed felt lower time pressure than the employed, this factor was not a strong mediator of the relationship with emotional well-being, neither directly nor through satisfaction with time use. A possible explanation for the differences in the results for emotional well-being is that a negative mood is less associated with work than found in previous research.

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  • 9.
    Fors Connolly, Filip
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    The relationships between income, life satisfaction and emotional well-being in European countries differing in wealth2023Ingår i: International Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0020-7594, E-ISSN 1464-066X, Vol. 58, nr 6, s. 594-604Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether income has different relationships to subjective well-being in richer countries compared to poorer ones. We report analyses based on interview data collected in the European Social Survey (n = 72,574) that examine how income relates to life satisfaction (LS) and emotional well-being (EWB) in 28 European countries, varying in gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. Our results indicate that the within-country correlations of income with LS and EWB decrease as GDP per capita increases. Partial correlations controlling for EWB are positive but do not vary with GDP per capita, whereas partial correlations controlling for LS vary inversely with GDP per capita. We hypothesise that the invariant income-LS relationships result from effects of relative income on social comparisons, while the varying income-EWB relationships result from the negative impacts of time scarcity in richer countries and the buffering of negative experiences in poorer ones.

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  • 10.
    Fors Connolly, Filip
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Kulin, Joakim
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Johansson Sevä, Ingemar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Out-of-home activities during the COVID-19 pandemic in Sweden: associations with subjective well-being and the moderating roles of age and personality2024Ingår i: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 226, artikel-id 112678Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the impact of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic on the reduction of frequency of out-of-home activities among Swedes, and its relationship with Subjective Well-Being (SWB), including Life Satisfaction (LS) and Emotional Well-Being (EWB). A considerable decrease in attending cultural events, dining out, shopping, and social activities was observed and to a lesser extent walking and exercise. Reduction in walking and exercise, but none of the other activities, correlated negatively with both LS and EWB. Our study suggests that activity reductions may have similar effects on both dimensions of SWB, rather than the typical finding in previous studies suggesting a stronger influence on EWB. Age moderated the impact of physical activities, indicating that reductions in physical activities were primarily detrimental for older individuals. High Neuroticism was found to moderate the relationship between social activities and SWB, suggesting that decreases in social activities had a slightly negative effect on SWB for people high in Neuroticism.

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  • 11.
    Fors Connolly, Filip
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Johansson Sevä, Ingemar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Social status and life satisfaction in context: a comparison between Sweden and the USA2018Ingår i: International Journal of Wellbeing, E-ISSN 1179-8602, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 110-134Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that social status is an important predictor of life satisfaction (LS). However, researchers have largely focused on the United States, which raises questions about the extent to which the cultural context moderates the relationship between social status and LS. In this paper, we argue that the dominant cultural orientations in society most likely influence the strength of the relationship between social status and LS. Cultural orientations emphasizing competition, achievement and assertiveness should increase the positive influence of social status on LS, while cultural emphases on cooperation, equality and humility instead weakens the effect of status. We therefore analyze the social status-LS relationship in two distinctly different cultural contexts, i.e., Sweden and the United States. Based on theories about national differences in cultural value orientations, we argue that social status should be of more importance in the US compared to in Sweden, since the dominant values and ideals emphasize hierarchy, mastery and masculinity, while the Swedish culture represents an opposite pole by emphasizing egalitarianism, harmony, and femininity. We formulate a number of hypotheses and use survey data to examine the extent to which both social status attainment and social status seeking are related to LS in both countries. The results show that socioeconomic status (income) and sociometric status (perceived respect and admiration in everyday life) have a stronger influence on LS in the US compared to in Sweden. Further, the findings show that social status seeking (low honesty-humility) has a positive relationship to LS in the US, but is negatively related in Sweden. The results also show that gender differences in the relationship between social status and LS are more pronounced in the US compared to in Sweden. We conclude that both the attainment and pursuit of social status are more important for LS in the American cultural context compared to in the Swedish, especially among men. These findings are in line with our expectations, based on the opposing cultural orientations in Sweden and the US. The study contributes to the literature on the relationship between social status and LS, but also to the more general literature on the moderating influence of culture on the predictors of LS.

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  • 12.
    Fors Connolly, Filip
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Johansson Sevä, Ingemar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg.
    How does time pressure influence emotional wellbeing?: Investigating the roles of domain satisfaction and neuroticism among small-business owners2020Ingår i: International Journal of Wellbeing, E-ISSN 1179-8602, Vol. 10, nr 2, s. 71-88Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Emotional wellbeing is related to the balance of positive and negative emotions associated with activities at work and in free time. We conjecture that time pressure is a factor reducing positive emotions and amplifying negative emotions, such that it has a negative relationship to emotional wellbeing. We found this to be the case in two studies based on survey data derived from samples of small-business owners in Sweden. In Study 1, the relationship between time pressure and emotional wellbeing is negative for small-business owners as well as for employed wage earners, although at work the former group experience both higher time pressure and higher emotional wellbeing than the latter. No differences in free time between the groups are observed. Study 2 provides support for the hypothesis that, both at work and in free time, domain satisfaction partially mediates the negative relationship between time pressure and emotional wellbeing. Supporting two additional hypotheses, the results indicate that neuroticism has a direct negative relationship with emotional wellbeing, and also an indirect relationship with emotional wellbeing mediated by time pressure, and furthermore moderates the negative relationship between time pressure and emotional wellbeing.

  • 13.
    Fors Connolly, Filip
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Johansson Sevä, Ingemar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Gärling, Tommy
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    How satisfaction with running business and private life are related to small-business owners’ subjective well-being2024Ingår i: Applied Research in Quality of Life, ISSN 1871-2584, E-ISSN 1871-2576, Vol. 19, s. 351-365Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined how satisfaction with aspects of running the business as well as satisfaction with aspects of the private life are related to small-business owners' subjective well-being (SWB). Measures were obtained of both life satisfaction (LS) and emotional well-being (EWB) to investigate possible differences. Questionnaire data from a survey of small-business owners (n=614) showed that in the business domain LS is associated with satisfaction with revenues, EWB with satisfaction with customer and employee contacts, and both LS and EWB with satisfaction with working time. In the private life domain, LS is associated with satisfaction with family and economy and EWB with satisfaction with leisure. Overall, LS has a stronger association than EWB with satisfaction with aspects of private life, while the associations with satisfaction with business aspects are equally strong.

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  • 14.
    Fors Connolly, Filip
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Olofsson, Jenny
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR).
    Josefsson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Statistik. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR).
    Do reductions of daily activities mediate the relationship between COVID-19 restrictions and mental ill-health among older persons in Europe?2024Ingår i: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Previous research has shown that daily activities are crucial for mental health among older people, and that such activities declined during the COVID-19 pandemic. While previous studies have confirmed a link between stringent restrictions and an increase in mental ill-health, the role of daily activities as a mediator in this relationship remains underexplored. We analyzed whether reductions in daily activities mediated the impact of these COVID-19 restrictions on mental ill-health during the pandemic’s initial phase.

    Methods: We used data from Wave 8 SHARE Corona Survey covering 41,409 respondents from 25 European countries and Israel as well as data on COVID-19 restrictions from the Oxford Government Response  Tracker  (OxCGRT).  Multilevel  regression  and  multilevel-mediation  analysis  were  used  to  examine the relationships between restrictions, daily activities and mental ill-health.

    Results: Reductions in walking and shopping showed a notably stronger association with increases in mental ill-health compared to social activities. Furthermore, declines in walking could account for about  a  quarter  of  the  relationship  between  restrictions  and  increased  mental  ill-health,  but  the  mediating effects of the other activates were negligible.

    Conclusions: The study highlights the essential role of maintaining daily activities, particularly walking, to  mitigate  the  negative  psychological  effects  of  pandemic-related  restrictions  among  older  populations in Europe.

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  • 15.
    Fors Connolly, Filip
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Olofsson, Jenny
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR).
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR).
    Stattin, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Adjustment of daily activities to restrictions and reported spread of the COVID-19 pandemic across Europe2021Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses adjustments of daily activities in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic among people aged 50 years and older in Europe, and investigates the extent to which such adjustments are associated with the stringency of governmental restrictions and the overall spread of COVID-19. We use data from the SHARE Corona Survey collected during summer2020, published data on government response stringency, and reported country-specific prevalence and mortality of COVID-19. Our analyses show that older Europeans across the continent have reduced their daily activities quite substantially during the pandemic. However, we observe variation across countries and demographic groups, which may be important to highlight for policymakers. Our explanatory analysis replicates previous studies using mobility data, showing that both restrictions and infections predict a reduction in mobility. Thus, policymakers could potentially rely on both restrictions and voluntary adjustments in order to decrease the spread of the virus. However, it is noteworthy that we find relatively weaker associations with restrictions compared to previous studies using mobility data. One explanation for this discrepancy could be that our study focuses on older people, who face a higher risk of becoming severely ill and therefore have stronger incentives to adjust their behaviours independent of governmental regulations.

  • 16.
    Fors, Filip
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Lycklig?: Sju studier om välbefinnandets och livstillfredsställelsens bestämningsfaktorer2012Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Mänsklig livskvalitet definieras ofta i termer av lycka. Människors lycka kan i sin tur delas upp i två komponenter, en mer kognitiv och utvärderande form av lycka som går under benämningen livstillfredsställelse samt en mer känslomässig form av lycka som går under benämningen affektivt välbefinnande. Den empiriska lyckoforskningen syftar till att kartlägga vilka faktorer som påverkar människors livstillfredsställelse och affektiva välbefinnande. Trots att lyckoforskningen syftar till att förstå vilka faktorer som påverkar både dessa två former av lycka har nästan alla tidigare studier ensidigt studerat vad som påverkar människors livstillfredsställelse. Huruvida livstillfredsställelsen och välbefinnandets bestämningsfaktorer skiljer sig åt, samt om det finns vissa faktorer som är av särskilt relevans för välbefinnandet, är således oklart utifrån tidigare forskning. Avhandlingens första och huvudsakliga frågeställning kretsar kring att försöka besvara dessa frågor. Mer specifikt undersöks hur individens socioekonomiska status, sociala relationer, hälsa, fritidsaktiviteter, personlighetsdrag och samhällskontext relaterar till lyckans två komponenter. Dessa frågeställningar analyseras med hjälp av statistisk data från European Social Survey och den svenska SOM-undersökningen.

    Resultaten i avhandlingen pekar på att sambanden mellan olika bestämningsfaktorer och individens livstillfredsställelse respektive välbefinnande systematiskt skiljer sig åt. Först och främst visar sig flera viktiga aspekter av individens socioekonomiska status, sociala relationer och samhällskontext samvariera starkare med livstillfredsställelsen jämfört med välbefinnandet. Aspekter av individens hälsa och personlighet uppvisar å andra sidan starkare samband med välbefinnandet jämfört med livstillfredsställelsen.

    Vid sidan av att undersöka huruvida livstillfredsställelsen och välbefinnandets bestämningsfaktorer skiljer sig åt syftar avhandlingen också till att besvara om individens personlighetsdrag och värderingar påverkar vilken betydelse de yttre livsvillkoren har för hennes livstillfredsställelse och välbefinnande. Avhandlingens resultat pekar på att både individens personlighetsdrag och värderingar påverkar betydelsen av en rad olika livsvillkor.  

    Sammanfattningsvis pekar avhandlingens resultat på att studiet av människors lycka bör nyanseras genom att individens livstillfredsställelse och välbefinnande studeras separat. Vidare kan studiet av individuella skillnader i personlighetsdrag och värderingar ge en utökad förståelse för hur olika yttre livsvillkor påverkar individens livstillfredsställelse och välbefinnande. Dessa insikter bidrar i sin tur till viktig kunskap om hur människors livstillfredsställelse och välbefinnande kan främjas både på ett individuellt och samhälleligt plan.

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    Lycklig?
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    Errata
  • 17.
    Fors, Filip
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Lyckligare och lyckligare dag för dag?2016Ingår i: Utblick: Sverige i en internationell jämförelse / [ed] Filip Fors och Jenny Olofsson, Umeå: Sociologiska institutionen, Umeå Universitet , 2016, s. 51-62Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 18.
    Fors, Filip
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Nya mått på välfärd och livskvalitet i samhället: Underlagsrapport 4 till Framtidskommissionen2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 19.
    Fors, Filip
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Brülde, Bengt
    Har vi det bättre på jobbet eller på fritiden?2017Ingår i: Larmar och gör sig till: SOM-undersökningen 2016 / [ed] Ulrika Andersson, Jonas Ohlsson, Henrik Oscarsson och Maria Oskarson, Göteborg: SOM-institutet, Göteborgs universitet , 2017, s. 211-222Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I det här kapitlet undersöker vi hur det är ställt med välbefinnandet och meningsfullheten på arbetet och på fritiden, i dagens Sverige. Våra data pekar på att den del av svenska folket som förvärvsarbetar mår bättre på fritiden än på arbetet, medan upplevelsen av meningsfullhet snarare är starkare på jobbet än på fritiden. Någon fullständig förklaring till människors välbefinnande och meningsfullhet – på jobbet och på fritiden – kan vi inte ge, men våra begränsade analyser visar bland annat att företagare har högre välbefinnande och meningsfullhet på jobbet, medan höga inkomster framför allt är förknippade med högre välbefinnande och meningsfullhet på fritiden. Vi kan också se att individer som motionerar mycket på sin fritid upplever både högre välbefinnande och meningsfullhet på fritiden, men inte på arbetet. Avslutningsvis finner vi att fritiden tycks vara viktigare än jobbet för de som förvärvsarbetar: graden av välbefinnande och meningsfullhet på fritiden spelar en betydligt större roll för hur nöjda svenskarna är med sina liv som helhet, jämfört med hur mycket välbefinnande och meningsfullhet de upplever på arbetet.

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  • 20.
    Fors, Filip
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Brülde, Bengt
    Institutionen för filosofi, lingvistik och vetenskapsteori, Göteborgs universitet.
    Varför arbetslösa mår sämre2012Ingår i: I framtidens skugga / [ed] Lennart Weibull, Henrik Oscarsson & Annika Bergström, Göteborg: SOM-institutet, Göteborgs universitet , 2012, 56, s. 247-260Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 21.
    Fors, Filip
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Brülde, Bengt
    Institutionen för filosofi, lingvistik och vetenskapsteori, Göteborgs universitet.
    Välbefinnande och livstillfredsställelse i dagens Sverige2011Ingår i: Lycksalighetens ö / [ed] Sören Holmberg, Lennart Weibull och Henrik Oscarsson, Göteborg: SOM-institutet, Göteborgs universitet , 2011, 52, s. 349-364Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 22.
    Fors, Filip
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Umeå University.
    Johansson Sevä, Ingemar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Agreeableness, extraversion and life satisfaction: investigating the mediating roles of social inclusion and status2021Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 62, nr 5, s. 752-762Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine inclusion and status as potential mediators in the relationships between extraversion and agreeableness, on the one hand, and life satisfaction, on the other hand. Previous research has shown that agreeableness is less strongly related to life satisfaction compared to extraversion. We argue that the relatively weak association between agreeableness and life satisfaction is due to the fact that, even though this personality trait is positively related to inclusion, it is only weakly related to status. Using structural equation modeling (SEM) and survey data from Australia, Denmark and Sweden, we test five hypotheses about the linkages between these personality traits, inclusion, status and life satisfaction. Our results show that both extraversion and agreeableness are positively associated with life satisfaction and that this association is much stronger for extraversion. Furthermore, our results show that extraversion is reliably associated with both inclusion and status, whereas agreeableness is a reliable predictor of inclusion but not of status. Turning to our mediation analysis, our main results demonstrate that the relationship between extraversion and life satisfaction is fully mediated by both inclusion and status, whereas the relationship between agreeableness and life satisfaction is partially mediated by inclusion. Our mediation analysis further shows that agreeableness has a negative direct effect on life satisfaction over and above the positive indirect effect through inclusion. Our findings highlight the role of both inclusion and status as important mediators in the relationships between extraversion and agreeableness, on the one hand, and life satisfaction, on the other hand.

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  • 23.
    Fors, Filip
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Johansson Sevä, Ingemar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Gärling, Tommy
    University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    The Bigger the Better? Business Size and Small-Business Owners’ Subjective Well-Being2021Ingår i: Journal of Happiness Studies, ISSN 1389-4978, E-ISSN 1573-7780, Vol. 22, s. 1071-1088Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Business growth is often portrayed as an important outcome for small-business owners. Few empirical studies have however examined whether there is a positive relationship between business size and different dimensions of small-business owners’ subjective well-being. In a large cross-sectional sample (n = 1089) of small-business owners from Sweden, we investigate the relationship between business size and the two main components of subjective well-being, life satisfaction and emotional well-being. By means of structural equation modelling, we determine the importance of business size for subjective well-being by focusing on potential advantages (financial satisfaction) and disadvantages (time pressure) related to business size. The results show that there is no overall relationship between business size and life satisfaction, but a weak negative relationship between business size and emotional well-being. However, in a subsequent mediation analyses we find that these findings largely can be explained by the fact that financial satisfaction and time pressure relate to subjective well-being in opposite directions and thus cancel each other out. The results of the mediation analysis also reveal differences across the two components of subjective well-being. We here find that financial satisfaction is more important for small-business owners’ life satisfaction while time pressure is more important for their emotional well-being.

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  • 24.
    Fors, Filip
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Kulin, Joakim
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Bringing Affect Back In: Measuring and Comparing Subjective Well-being across Countries2016Ingår i: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 127, nr 1, s. 323-339Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, researchers and policymakers have paid increasing attention to cross-country comparisons of subjective well-being. Whereas classical theories of quality of life emphasize the central role of affective well-being (i.e., whether a person feels good or bad), previous comparative studies have focused almost exclusively on life satisfaction (i.e., cognitive evaluations of life). This study brings affect into the comparative study of subjective well-being, constructing a new measurement instrument that captures both the affective and cognitive dimensions of subjective well-being. Using European Social Survey data and multi-group confirmatory factor analysis, we estimate latent country means for the two dimensions and compare country rankings across the two measures. The results reveal important differences in country rankings depending on whether one focuses on affective well-being or life satisfaction. We identify crucial differences among top-ranking countries and, perhaps even more importantly, considerable differences in rankings among more moderately ranking countries. In a second step, we compare and evaluate the single-item measures commonly used in previous research with the results based on our new measures. We conclude by discussing our results in relation to previous studies, and in terms of their possible implications for future research and for policymakers bent on improving national levels of subjective well-being. 

  • 25.
    Fors, Filip
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Olofsson, JennyUmeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR).
    Utblick: Sverige i en internationell jämförelse2016Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens globaliserade värld spelar jämförelser mellan länder en allt mer framträdande roll. Inom den komparativa samhällsforskningen försöker forskare förklara och förstå likheter och skillnader mellan olika länder utifrånen mängd skilda teman och områden och den här boken ger ett smakprov på hur sådana skillnader och likheter kan beskrivas och förstås. Hur kommer det sig till exempel att människor är mer främlingsfientliga i vissa länder än i andra? Varför skiljer sig åsikter om jämställdhet inom familjen så mycket mellan länder? Stämmer det att människor blir allt mindre religiösa i takt med att länder moderniseras? Ökar eller minskar välbefinnandet över tid i Europas länder? Hur utvecklas livsvillkor och hälsa för den äldre befolkningen i Europa? Med hjälp av tre av världens främsta komparativa surveyundersökningar –European Social Survey (ESS), International Social Survey Programme (ISSP), samt The Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) –försöker författarna till boken besvara dessa frågor.

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  • 26.
    Frech, Johannes
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Fors Connolly, Filip
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    The worst off in Europe - country differences and trends over time in (low) life satisfaction2024Ingår i: International Journal of Sociology, ISSN 0020-7659, E-ISSN 1557-9336Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, policymakers and researchers have shown increased interest in subjective well-being across countries. While previous research primarily focused on country averages, measuring the distribution of subjective well-being through standard deviation has become more frequent. This article introduces a new approach to assess subjective well-being: focusing on the “worst off," or the group with the lowest levels of well-being. Based on several ethical and political theories, this measure is deemed the most relevant when assessing well-being levels in society. The study constructs new measures of low subjective well-being (the bottom 10%) to evaluate differences across countries, changes over time, and associations with economic growth, using data from 33 European countries from 2002 to 2018. The findings indicate significant variations in well-being for the worst off across countries, with improvements observed in almost all countries studied, particularly in Poland, Germany, and the Czech Republic. Improvements are generally larger for the worst off compared to the general population. Furthermore, both GDP per capita and financial satisfaction are positively associated with the subjective well-being of the worst off, both over time and when countries are compared cross-sectionally. The implications of these findings for future research and benchmarking quality of life are discussed.

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  • 27. Gärling, Tommy
    et al.
    Ettema, Dick
    Fors Connolly, Filip
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Friman, Margareta
    Olsson, Lars E.
    Review and assessment of self-reports of travel-related emotional wellbeing2020Ingår i: Journal of Transport & Health, ISSN 2214-1405, E-ISSN 2214-1413, Vol. 17, artikel-id 100843Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Travel behavior research has only started to address how travel affects emotional wellbeing. The development of measurement methods is an important goal of this research.

    Methods: A review and assessment of methods of measuring travel-related emotional wellbeing is presented guided by a conceptual framework specifying what is measured (cognitive evaluations, emotional responses, or moods), the way it is measured (proactively, instantaneously, or retrospectively), and when it is measured (before, during, or after travel). Anticipated, current, residual and recalled moods are the objects of the measurement. Only studies of commuting or other types of daily travel are addressed.

    Results: We find that no research has measured anticipated moods, some research has measured current moods before, after and during travel, and most research has measured recalled moods.

    Conclusions: The most valid and reliable method is to measure current mood instantaneously at several points in time, before, during, and after travel. A measure of emotional wellbeing can then be obtained by objective aggregation. An approximate more feasible method is to retrospectively measure recalled moods for a given specified time period that may not only include travel. The available methods for measuring recalled moods have acceptable psychometric properties but research is needed to validate these methods by comparing the results to an objective aggregation of instantaneous measures of current mood at different points in time.

  • 28.
    Gärling, Tommy
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Fors, Filip
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Satisfaction with travel and the relationship to well-being2021Ingår i: International encyclopedia of transportation: volume 7, Transport psychology, transport sustainability and health / [ed] Vickerman, Roger, Elsevier, 2021, 1, s. 177-181Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 29. Gärling, Tommy
    et al.
    Gamble, Amelie
    Fors, Filip
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Emotional Well-Being Related to Time Pressure, Impediment to Goal Progress, and Stress-Related Symptoms2016Ingår i: Journal of Happiness Studies, ISSN 1389-4978, E-ISSN 1573-7780, Vol. 17, nr 5, s. 1789-1799Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose that emotional well-being in everyday life is partially related to the balance of positive and negative affect associated with everyday routine activities. Factors that interfere with positive affect associated with such activities would therefore have negative impacts on emotional well-being. Supporting that time pressure is one such factor, we find in Study 1 for a representative sample of Swedish employees (n = 1507) answering a survey questionnaire that emotional well-being has a negative relationship to time pressure. In Study 2 we test the hypothesis that the negative effect of time pressure on emotional well-being is jointly mediated by impediment to goal progress and time stress. In another survey questionnaire a sample of Swedish employees (n = 240) answered retrospective questions about emotional well-being at work and off work, experienced impediment to goal progress, experienced time pressure, and stress-related symptoms. Statistical mediation analyses supported the proposed hypothesis.

  • 30.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Eger, Maureen A.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Bohman, Andrea
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Fors Connolly, Filip
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    A New Approach to the Study of Tolerance: Conceptualizing and Measuring Acceptance, Respect, and Appreciation of Difference2020Ingår i: Social Indicators Research, ISSN 0303-8300, E-ISSN 1573-0921, Vol. 147, s. 897-919Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous empirical research on tolerance suffers from a number of shortcomings, the most serious being the conceptual and operational conflation of (in)tolerance and prejudice. We design research to remedy this. First, we contribute to the literature by advancing research that distinguishes analytically between the two phenomena. We conceptualize tolerance as a value orientation towards difference. This definition—which is abstract and does not capture attitudes towards specific out-groups, ideas, or behaviors—allows for the analysis of tolerance within and between societies. Second, we improve the measurement of tolerance by developing survey items that are consistent with this conceptualization. We administer two surveys, one national (Sweden) and one cross-national (Australia, Denmark, Great Britain, Sweden, and the United States). Results from structural equation models show that tolerance is best understood as a three-dimensional concept, which includes acceptance of, respect for, and appreciation of difference. Analyses show that measures of tolerance have metric invariance across countries, and additional tests demonstrate convergent and discriminant validity. We also assess tolerance’s relationship to prejudice and find that only an appreciation of difference has the potential to reduce prejudice. We conclude that it is not only possible to measure tolerance in a way that is distinct from prejudice but also necessary if we are to understand the causes and consequences of tolerance.

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  • 31.
    Kulin, Joakim
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Johansson Sevä, Ingemar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Hjerm, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Fors, Filip
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Umeå universitet.
    Oro över coronapandemin i det svenska samhället: [Worry about the coronavirus pandemic in Sweden]2021Ingår i: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, E-ISSN 2002-066X, Vol. 58, nr 1-2, s. 77-102Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att öka kunskapen om människors oro över coronapandemin i Sverige. Vi använder enkätdata (n=3 040) för att studera 1) hur utbredd oron är, 2) vad den mer konkret består i, 3) hur den varierar mellan olika demografiska och socioekonomiska grupper, 4) huruvida oron kan förklaras av faktorer som personlighet, livsåskådning, tillit och riskuppfattningar, samt 5) vilka konsekvenser oron får för människors sociala kontakter, livskvalitet, beteenden och åsikter om samhällets åtgärder för att minska smittspridningen. Resultaten visar att det finns en utbredd oro över coronapandemin i Sverige och att denna främst bottnar i en oro för den egna eller familjemedlemmars hälsa. Dessutom varierar oron mellan grupper: framför allt äldre personer men även kvinnor och låginkomsttagare uppvisar jämförelsevis en högre grad av oro. Det finns ett flertal faktorer som förklarar den upplevda oron, men särskilt riskuppfattningar förklarar en stor andel av variationen mellan individer samt skillnader mellan olika grupper. De som oroar sig mer uppger också att de i större utsträckning följer myndigheternas rekommendationer och har minskat sina sociala aktiviteter samt upplever en försämrad livskvalitet under coronapandemin.

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  • 32.
    Olofsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR).
    Fors Connolly, Filip
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    Josefsson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Statistik. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR).
    Stattin, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Sociodemographic factors and adjustment of daily activities during the COVID-19 pandemic – findings from the SHARE Corona Survey2023Ingår i: Journal of Aging & Social Policy, ISSN 0895-9420, E-ISSN 1545-0821Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, older people across Europe have adjusted their daily activities as personal risk avoidance and as an amendment to policy recommendations and restrictions. In this study, we use multilevel logistic regressions to examine to what extent sociodemographic factors are associated with activity reduction among the older population (50+) in Europe and whether these associations are moderated by governmental policy responses to COVID-19. By combining data for~35,000 respondents from the SHARE Corona Survey on reported changes in daily activities and stringency of restrictions at the national level, we find that older age, poorer health and being female versus male were (consistently) associated with greater activity reduction across all activities both in countries with weak and in those with strong restrictions. Associations between education, employment and living situation, on the one hand, and activity reduction, on the other, were weaker and less consistent. We conclude that differences between sociodemographic groups are rather similar for countries with weak and those with strong restrictions and hence argue that group-specific policy recommendation are relevant independent of stringency recommendations.

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  • 33.
    Scheel-Hincke, Lasse L.
    et al.
    Department of Public Health, Unit for Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Biodemography, University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Fors Connolly, Filip
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Olofsson, Jenny
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR).
    Andersen-Ranberg, Karen
    Department of Public Health, Unit for Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Biodemography, University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Two Nordic countries with different approaches to handling the COVID-19 pandemic: a comparison of Sweden and Denmark2023Ingår i: Social, health, and economic impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic and the epidemiological control measures: first results from SHARE Corona Waves 1 and 2 / [ed] Axel Börsch-Supan; Anita Abramowska-Kmon; Karen Andersen-Ranberg; Agar Brugiavini; Agnieszka Chłoń-Domińczak; Florence Jusot; Anne Laferrère; Howard Litwin; Šime Smolić; Guglielmo Weber, Walter de Gruyter, 2023, s. 281-290Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 34.
    Stattin, Mikael
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Fors, Filip
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Arbete, pensionering och hälsa bland äldre i Europa2016Ingår i: Utblick: Sverige i en internationell jämförelse / [ed] Filip Fors och Jenny Olofsson, Umeå: Sociologiska Institutionen, Umeå Universitet , 2016, s. 119-134Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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