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  • 1.
    Alallaq, Sanaria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Department of Biology, College of Science for Women, Baghdad University, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Ranjan, Alok
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Brunoni, Federica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Novak, Ondrej
    Lakehal, Abdellah
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Bellini, Catherine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Institut Jean-Pierre Bourgin, INRAE, AgroParisTech, Universite´ Paris-Saclay, Versailles, France.
    Red Light Controls Adventitious Root Regeneration by Modulating Hormone Homeostasis in Picea abies Seedlings2020In: Frontiers in Plant Science, E-ISSN 1664-462X, Vol. 11, article id 586140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vegetative propagation relies on the capacity of plants to regeneratede novoadventitious roots (ARs), a quantitative trait controlled by the interaction of endogenous factors, such as hormones and environmental cues among which light plays a central role. However, the physiological and molecular components mediating light cues during AR initiation (ARI) remain largely elusive. Here, we explored the role of red light (RL) on ARI in de-rooted Norway spruce seedlings. We combined investigation of hormone metabolism and gene expression analysis to identify potential signaling pathways. We also performed extensive anatomical characterization to investigate ARI at the cellular level. We showed that in contrast to white light, red light promoted ARI likely by reducing jasmonate (JA) and JA-isoleucine biosynthesis and repressing the accumulation of isopentyl-adenine-type cytokinins. We demonstrated that exogenously applied JA and/or CK inhibit ARI in a dose-dependent manner and found that they possibly act in the same pathway. The negative effect of JA on ARI was confirmed at the histological level. We showed that JA represses the early events of ARI. In conclusion, RL promotes ARI by repressing the accumulation of the wound-induced phytohormones JA and CK.

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  • 2. Aubry, Emilie
    et al.
    Dinant, Sylvie
    Vilaine, Francoise
    Bellini, C
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Le Hir, Rozenn
    Lateral Transport of Organic and Inorganic Solutes2019In: PLANTS, E-ISSN 2223-7747, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 20Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic (e.g., sugars and amino acids) and inorganic (e.g., K+, Na+, PO42−, and SO42−) solutes are transported long-distance throughout plants. Lateral movement of these compounds between the xylem and the phloem, and vice versa, has also been reported in several plant species since the 1930s, and is believed to be important in the overall resource allocation. Studies of Arabidopsis thaliana have provided us with a better knowledge of the anatomical framework in which the lateral transport takes place, and have highlighted the role of specialized vascular and perivascular cells as an interface for solute exchanges. Important breakthroughs have also been made, mainly in Arabidopsis, in identifying some of the proteins involved in the cell-to-cell translocation of solutes, most notably a range of plasma membrane transporters that act in different cell types. Finally, in the future, state-of-art imaging techniques should help to better characterize the lateral transport of these compounds on a cellular level. This review brings the lateral transport of sugars and inorganic solutes back into focus and highlights its importance in terms of our overall understanding of plant resource allocation.

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  • 3.
    Aubry, Emilie
    et al.
    Institut Jean-Pierre Bourgin, AgroParisTech, Université Paris-Saclay, Versailles, France; Ecole Doctorale 567 Sciences du Végétal, Univ Paris-Sud, Univ Paris-Saclay ,bat 360, France.
    Hoffmann, Beate
    Institut Jean-Pierre Bourgin, AgroParisTech, Université Paris-Saclay, Versailles, France.
    Vilaine, Françoise
    Institut Jean-Pierre Bourgin, AgroParisTech, Université Paris-Saclay, Versailles, France.
    Gilard, Françoise
    Plateforme Métabolisme-Métabolome, Institute of Plant Sciences Paris-Saclay IPS2, CNRS, Univ Paris Sud, Univ Evry, Univ Paris-Diderot, Rue de Noetzlin, Sorbonne Paris-Cité ,Université Paris-Saclay ,Bâtiment 360, France.
    Klemens, Patrick A W
    Universität Kaiserslautern, Pflanzenphysiologie, Postfach 3049, Kaiserslautern, Germany.
    Guérard, Florence
    Plateforme Métabolisme-Métabolome, Institute of Plant Sciences Paris-Saclay IPS2, CNRS, Univ Paris Sud, Univ Evry, Univ Paris-Diderot, Rue de Noetzlin, Sorbonne Paris-Cité ,Université Paris-Saclay ,Bâtiment 360, France.
    Gakière, Bertrand
    Plateforme Métabolisme-Métabolome, Institute of Plant Sciences Paris-Saclay IPS2, CNRS, Univ Paris Sud, Univ Evry, Univ Paris-Diderot, Rue de Noetzlin, Sorbonne Paris-Cité ,Université Paris-Saclay ,Bâtiment 360, France.
    Neuhaus, H Ekkehard
    Universität Kaiserslautern, Pflanzenphysiologie, Postfach 3049, Kaiserslautern, Germany.
    Bellini, Catherine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Institut Jean-Pierre Bourgin, AgroParisTech, Université Paris-Saclay, Versailles, France.
    Dinant, Sylvie
    Institut Jean-Pierre Bourgin, AgroParisTech, Université Paris-Saclay, Versailles, France.
    Le Hir, Rozenn
    Institut Jean-Pierre Bourgin, AgroParisTech, Université Paris-Saclay, Versailles, France.
    A vacuolar hexose transport is required for xylem development in the inflorescence stem2022In: Plant Physiology, ISSN 0032-0889, E-ISSN 1532-2548, Vol. 188, no 2, p. 1229-1247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Angiosperms, the development of the vascular system is controlled by a complex network of transcription factors. However, how nutrient availability in the vascular cells affects their development remains to be addressed. At the cellular level, cytosolic sugar availability is regulated mainly by sugar exchanges at the tonoplast through active and/or facilitated transport. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), among the genes encoding tonoplastic transporters, SUGAR WILL EVENTUALLY BE EXPORTED TRANSPORTER 16 (SWEET16) and SWEET17 expression has been previously detected in the vascular system. Here, using a reverse genetics approach, we propose that sugar exchanges at the tonoplast, regulated by SWEET16, are important for xylem cell division as revealed in particular by the decreased number of xylem cells in the swt16 mutant and the accumulation of SWEET16 at the procambium-xylem boundary. In addition, we demonstrate that transport of hexoses mediated by SWEET16 and/or SWEET17 is required to sustain the formation of the xylem secondary cell wall. This result is in line with a defect in the xylem cell wall composition as measured by Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy in the swt16swt17 double mutant and by upregulation of several genes involved in secondary cell wall synthesis. Our work therefore supports a model in which xylem development partially depends on the exchange of hexoses at the tonoplast of xylem-forming cells.

  • 4.
    Bannoud, Florencia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Bellini, Catherine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Institut Jean-Pierre Bourgin, INRAE, AgroParisTech, Université Paris-Saclay, Versailles, France.
    Adventitious Rooting in Populus Species: Update and Perspectives2021In: Frontiers in Plant Science, E-ISSN 1664-462X, Vol. 12, article id 668837Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Populus spp. are among the most economically important species worldwide. These trees are used not only for wood and fiber production, but also in the rehabilitation of degraded lands. Since they are clonally propagated, the ability of stem cuttings to form adventitious roots is a critical point for plant establishment and survival in the field, and consequently for the forest industry. Adventitious rooting in different Populus clones has been an agronomic trait targeted in breeding programs for many years, and many factors have been identified that affect this quantitative trait. A huge variation in the rooting capacity has been observed among the species in the Populus genus, and the responses to some of the factors affecting this trait have been shown to be genotype-dependent. This review analyses similarities and differences between results obtained from studies examining the role of internal and external factors affecting rooting of Populus species cuttings. Since rooting is the most important requirement for stand establishment in clonally propagated species, understanding the physiological and genetic mechanisms that promote this trait is essential for successful commercial deployment.

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  • 5. Barlier, I
    et al.
    Kowalczyk, M
    Marchant, A
    Ljung, K
    Bhalerao, R
    Bennett, M
    Sandberg, G
    Bellini, C
    The SUR2 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana encodes the cytochrome P450 CYP83B1, a modulator of auxin homeostasis.2000In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 97, no 26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Genetic screens have been performed to identify mutants with altered auxin homeostasis in Arabidopsis. A tagged allele of the auxin-overproducing mutant sur2 was identified within a transposon mutagenized population. The SUR2 gene was cloned and shown to encode the CYP83B1 protein, which belongs to the large family of the P450-dependent monooxygenases. SUR2 expression is up-regulated in sur1 mutants and induced by exogenous auxin in the wild type. Analysis of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) synthesis and metabolism in sur2 plants indicates that the mutation causes a conditional increase in the pool size of IAA through up-regulation of IAA synthesis.

  • 6. Baud, Sébastien
    et al.
    Bellec, Yannick
    Miquel, Martine
    Bellini, Catherine
    Caboche, Michel
    Lepiniec, Loïc
    Faure, Jean-Denis
    Rochat, Christine
    gurke and pasticcino3 mutants affected in embryo development are impaired in acetyl-CoA carboxylase.2004In: EMBO Reports, ISSN 1469-221X, E-ISSN 1469-3178, Vol. 5, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Normal embryo development is required for correct seedling formation. The Arabidopsis gurke and pasticcino3 mutants were isolated from different developmental screens and the corresponding embryos exhibit severe defects in their apical region, affecting bilateral symmetry. We have recently identified lethal acc1 mutants affected in acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACCase 1) that display a similar embryo phenotype. A series of crosses showed that gk and pas3 are allelic to acc1 mutants, and direct sequencing of the ACC1 gene revealed point mutations in these new alleles. The isolation of leaky acc1 alleles demonstrated that ACCase 1 is essential for correct plant development and that mutations in ACCase affect cellular division in plants, as is the case in yeast. Interestingly, significant metabolic complementation of the mutant phenotype was obtained by exogenous supply of malonate, suggesting that the lack of cytosolic malonyl-CoA is likely to be the initial factor leading to abnormal development in the acc1 mutants.

  • 7. Bellec, Y.
    et al.
    Harrar, Y.
    Butaeye, C.
    Darnet, S.
    Bellini, C.
    Faure, J. D.
    Pasticcino2 is a protein tyrosine phosphatase-like involved in cell proliferation and differentiation in Arabidopsis2002In: The Plant Journal, ISSN 0960-7412, E-ISSN 1365-313X, Vol. 32, no 5, p. 713-722Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pasticcino2 (pas2) mutant shows impaired embryo and seedling development associated with cell dedifferentiation and proliferation. This process is specifically enhanced in presence of cytokinins leading to callus-like structure of the apical part of the seedling. Cell proliferation concerns localized and stochastic nodules of dividing cells. In absence of cytokinins, cell proliferation leads to small calli on stems but, most often, cell proliferation is associated with post-genital organ fusion. The PAS2 gene was identified by positional cloning. PAS2 expression was found in every plant organ and was not regulated by PAS1 and PAS3 genes. PAS2 encodes the Arabidopsis member of the protein tyrosine phosphatase-like (Ptpl) family, a new PTP family originally described in mice and humans and characterized by a mutated PTP active site. This family of proteins has a yeast homolog that is essential for cell viability. The absence of yeast PAS2 homolog can be functionally replaced by the Arabidopsis PAS2 protein, demonstrating that PAS2 function is conserved between higher and lower eukaryotes.

  • 8. Bellini, C
    Transformation in Lycopersicon esculentum L. (Tomato).1993In: Plant Protoplasts and Genetic Engineering / [ed] Y. Bajaj, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 1993, p. 265-277Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 9. Bellini, C.
    et al.
    Chupeau, M. C.
    Gervais, M.
    Vastra, G.
    Chupeau, Y.
    Importance of myo-inositol, calcium and ammonium for the viability and division of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) protoplasts.1990In: Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture, ISSN 0167-6857, E-ISSN 1573-5044, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 27-37Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10. Bellini, C.
    et al.
    Chupeau, M. C.
    Guerche, P.
    Vastra, G.
    Chupeau, Y.
    Transformation of Lycopersicon peruvianum and Lycopersicon esculentum mesophyll protoplasts by electroporation1989In: Plant Science, ISSN 0168-9452, E-ISSN 1873-2259, Vol. 65, no 1, p. 63-75Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11. Bellini, C.
    et al.
    Delarue, M.Vittorioso, P.Faure, J. D.Prinsen, E.Van Onckelen, H.Barlier, I.Caboche, M.
    Phytohormones and development of lateral roots in Arabidopsis thaliana1998Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 12. Bellini, C.
    et al.
    Giordani, C.
    Lupotto, E.
    Locatelli, F.
    Cuzzoni, E.
    Avogadro, E.
    Castiglione, S.
    Sala, F.
    Stability of a foreign gene in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum  plants during a cycle of dedifferentiation-differentiation1992In: Plant Science, ISSN 0168-9452, E-ISSN 1873-2259, Vol. 82, no 2, p. 193-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Protoplasts of Nicotiana tabacum were transformed with the APH(3’)II gene, which confers kanamycin resistance. Plants resistant to kanamycin were differentiated and 3 of them were chosen at random. These were used to study the stability of the foreign gene after a cycle of dedifferentiation, to produce calli, and differentiation, to produce new plants. The effect of the selective pressure was analyzed by performing dedifferentiation and differentiation in the presence or absence of kanamycin. Inbred plants were also produced from the original transformed plants and used as control. Southern blot analysis of DNA extracted from 66 regenerated plants showed in all cases that no detectable alteration occurred both in gene structure and insertion site. Furthermore the specific activity of the APH(3’)II enzyme was shown to be at high level in all regenerated plants regardless of the fact that they were regenerated in the presence or absence of kanamycin. The results described here are experimental evidence that a hybrid forcing gene is rather stable in a heterologous genome even after dedifferentiation of the transformed plants and differentiation in vitro, i.e. in those conditions known to be correlated with extensive somaclonal variation.

  • 13. Bellini, C.
    et al.
    Guerche, P.
    Spielmann, A.
    Goujaud, J.
    Lesaint, C.
    Caboche, M.
    Genetic analysis of transgenic tobacco plants obtained by liposome-mediated transformation: absence of evidence for the mutagenic effect of inserted sequences in sixty characterized transformants1989In: Journal of Heredity, ISSN 0022-1503, E-ISSN 1465-7333, Vol. 80, no 5, p. 361-367Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14. Bellini, C
    et al.
    Pautot, V
    La transgenèse végétale1995In: Larousse Annuel, France: Larousse , 1995, p. 182-184Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15.
    Bellini, Catherine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Université Paris-Saclay, INRAE, AgroParisTech, Institut Jean-Pierre Bourgin (IJPB), Versailles, France.
    A synthetic auxin for cloning mature trees2024In: Nature Biotechnology, ISSN 1087-0156, E-ISSN 1546-1696Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Bellini, Catherine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Adventious roots2014In: eLS, Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 2014Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The root system of a plant is composed of the primary, lateral and adventitious roots (ARs). Lateral roots always develop from roots, whereas ARs form from stem or leaf‐derived cells. AR formation is part of the normal development of the plant and occurs naturally, like in most monocotyledonous for which they constitute the main root system or in many dicotyledonous species that propagate vegetatively. Adventitious rooting is an essential step for vegetative propagation of economically important horticultural and woody species as it allows clonal propagation and rapid fixation of superior genotypes prior to their introduction into production or breeding programmes. Development of ARs is a complex process that is affected by multiple endogenous and environmental factors, including phytohormones; light; nutritional status; associated stress responses, such as wounding; and genetic characteristics.

  • 17.
    Bellini, Catherine
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Institut Jean-Pierre Bourgin, UMR 1318 INRA-AgroParisTech, Versailles, France.
    Pacurar, Daniel I
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Perrone, Irene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Adventitious roots and lateral roots: similarities and differences2014In: Annual Review of Plant Biology, ISSN 1543-5008, E-ISSN 1545-2123, Vol. 65, p. 639-666Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In addition to its role in water and nutrient uptake, the root system is fundamentally important because it anchors a plant to its substrate. Although a wide variety of root systems exist across different species, all plants have a primary root (derived from an embryonic radicle) and different types of lateral roots. Adventitious roots, by comparison, display the same functions as lateral roots but develop from aerial tissues. In addition, they not only develop as an adaptive response to various stresses, such as wounding or flooding, but also are a key limiting component of vegetative propagation. Lateral and adventitious roots share key elements of the genetic and hormonal regulatory networks but are subject to different regulatory mechanisms. In this review, we discuss the developmental processes that give rise to lateral and adventitious roots and highlight knowledge acquired over the past few years about the mechanisms that regulate adventitious root formation.

  • 18. Bennett, M
    et al.
    Bellini, C
    Van Der Straeten, D
    Integrative biology: dissecting cross talk between plant signaling pathways2005In: Physiologia Plantarum, ISSN 0031-9317, E-ISSN 1399-3054, Vol. 123, p. 109-Article, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 19. Boerjan, W.
    et al.
    Cervera, M. T.
    Delarue, M.
    Beeckman, T.
    Dewitte, W.
    Bellini, C.
    Caboche, M.
    Vanonckelen, H.
    Vanmontagu, M.
    Inze, D.
    Superroot, a recessive mutation in Arabidopsis, confers auxin overproduction1995In: The Plant Cell, ISSN 1040-4651, E-ISSN 1532-298X, Vol. 7, no 9, p. 1405-1419Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have isolated seven allelic recessive Arabidopsis mutants, designated superroot (sur1-1 to sur1-7), displaying several abnormalities reminiscent of auxin effects. These characteristics include small and epinastic cotyledons, an elongated hypocotyl in which the connection between the stele and cortical and epidermal cells disintegrates, the development of excess adventitious and lateral roots, a reduced number of leaves, and the absence of an inflorescence. When germinated in the dark, sur1 mutants did not develop the apical hook characteristic of etiolated seedlings, We were able to phenocopy the Sur1(-) phenotype by supplying auxin to wild-type seedlings, to propagate sur7 explants on phytohormone-deficient medium, and to regenerate shoots from these explants by the addition of cytokinins alone to the culture medium. Analysis by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry indicated increased levels of both free and conjugated indole-3-acetic acid. sur1 was crossed to the mutant axr2 and the altered-auxin response mutant ctr1. The phenotype of both double mutants was additive. The sur1 gene was mapped on chromosome 2 at 0.5 centimorgans from the gene encoding phytochrome B.

  • 20. Bohmert, K.
    et al.
    Camus, I.
    Bellini, C.
    Bouchez, D.
    Caboche, M.
    Benning, C.
    AGO1 defines a novel locus of Arabidopsis controlling leaf development1998In: EMBO Journal, ISSN 0261-4189, E-ISSN 1460-2075, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 170-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An allelic series of the novel argonaute mutant (ago1-1 to ago1-6) of the herbaceous plant Arabidopsis thaliana has been isolated, The ago1 mutation pleotropically affects general plant architecture, The apical shoot meristem generates rosette leaves and a single stem, but axillary meristems rarely develop, Rosette leaves lack a leaf blade but still show adaxial/abaxial differentiation, Instead of cauline leaves, filamentous structures without adaxial/abaxial differentiation develop along the stem and an abnormal inflorescence bearing infertile flowers with filamentous organs is produced, Two independent T-DNA insertions into the AGO1 locus led to the isolation of two corresponding genomic sequences as well as a complete cDNA. The AGO1 locus was mapped close to the marker mi291a on chromosome 1. Antisense expression of the cDNA resulted in a partial mutant phenotype, Sense expression caused some transgenic lines to develop goblet-like leaves and petals, The cDNA encodes a putative 115 kDa protein with sequence similarity tea translation products of a novel gene family present in nematodes as,yell as humans, No specific function has been assigned to these genes, Similar proteins are not encoded by the genomes of yeast or bacteria, suggesting that AGOI belongs to a novel class of genes with a function specific to multicellular organisms.

  • 21.
    Brunoni, Federica
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå Plant Science Centre, Department of Forest Genetics and PlantPhysiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), 90183, Umeå, Sweden.
    Collani, Silvio
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Casanova-Saez, Ruben
    Simura, Jan
    Karady, Michal
    Schmid, Markus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Ljung, Karin
    Bellini, C
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Institut Jean-Pierre Bourgin, INRAE, AgroParisTech, Université Paris-Saclay, 78000, Versailles, France.
    Conifers exhibit a characteristic inactivation of auxin to maintain tissue homeostasis2020In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 226, no 6, p. 1753-1765Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dynamic regulation of the concentration of the natural auxin (IAA) is essential to coordinate most of the physiological and developmental processes and responses to environmental changes. Oxidation of IAA is a major pathway to control auxin concentrations in angiosperms and, along with IAA conjugation, to respond to perturbation of IAA homeostasis. However, these regulatory mechanisms remain poorly investigated in conifers. To reduce this knowledge gap, we investigated the different contributions of the IAA inactivation pathways in conifers. MS-based quantification of IAA metabolites under steady-state conditions and after perturbation was investigated to evaluate IAA homeostasis in conifers. Putative Picea abies GH3 genes (PaGH3) were identified based on a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis including angiosperms and basal land plants. Auxin-inducible PaGH3 genes were identified by expression analysis and their IAA-conjugating activity was explored. Compared to Arabidopsis, oxidative and conjugative pathways differentially contribute to reduce IAA concentrations in conifers. We demonstrated that the oxidation pathway plays a marginal role in controlling IAA homeostasis in spruce. By contrast, an excess of IAA rapidly activates GH3-mediated irreversible conjugation pathways. Taken together, these data indicate that a diversification of IAA inactivation mechanisms evolved specifically in conifers.

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  • 22.
    Brunoni, Federica
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå Plant Science Centre, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ljung, Karin
    Umeå Plant Science Centre, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Bellini, Catherine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Control of root meristem establishment in conifers2019In: Physiologia Plantarum, ISSN 0031-9317, E-ISSN 1399-3054, Vol. 165, no 1, p. 81-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The evolution of terrestrial plant life was made possible by the establishment of a root system, which enabled plants to migrate from aquatic to terrestrial habitats. During evolution, root organization has gradually progressed from a very simple to a highly hierarchical architecture. Roots are initiated during embryogenesis and branch afterward through lateral root formation. Additionally, adventitious roots can be formed post-embryonically from aerial organs. Induction of adventitious roots (ARs) forms the basis of the vegetative propagation via cuttings in horticulture, agriculture and forestry. This method, together with somatic embryogenesis, is routinely used to clonally multiply conifers. In addition to being utilized as propagation techniques, adventitious rooting and somatic embryogenesis have emerged as versatile models to study cellular and molecular mechanisms of embryo formation and organogenesis of coniferous species. Both formation of the embryonic root and the AR primordia require the establishment of auxin gradients within cells that coordinate the developmental response. These processes also share key elements of the genetic regulatory networks that, e.g. are triggering cell fate. This minireview gives an overview of the molecular control mechanisms associated with root development in conifers, from initiation in the embryo to post-embryonic formation in cuttings.

  • 23. Camilleri, Christine
    et al.
    Azimzadeh, Juliette
    Pastuglia, Martine
    Bellini, Catherine
    Grandjean, Olivier
    Bouchez, David
    The Arabidopsis TONNEAU2 gene encodes a putative novel protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunit essential for the control of the cortical cytoskeleton.2002In: The Plant Cell, ISSN 1040-4651, E-ISSN 1532-298X, Vol. 14, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Arabidopsis ton2 mutants, abnormalities of the cortical microtubular cytoskeleton, such as disorganization of the interphase microtubule array and lack of the preprophase band before mitosis, markedly affect cell shape and arrangement as well as overall plant morphology. We present the molecular isolation of the TON2 gene, which is highly conserved in higher plants and has a vertebrate homolog of unknown function. It encodes a protein similar in its C-terminal part to B" regulatory subunits of type 2A protein phosphatases (PP2As). We show that the TON2 protein interacts with an Arabidopsis type A subunit of PP2A in the yeast two-hybrid system and thus likely defines a novel subclass of PP2A subunits that are possibly involved in the control of cytoskeletal structures in plants.

  • 24.
    Cardoso, Hélia
    et al.
    MED – Mediterranean Institute for Agriculture, Environment and Development, Institute for Advanced Studies and Research, University of Évora, Évora, Portugal.
    Peixe, Augusto
    MED – Mediterranean Institute for Agriculture, Environment and Development, Department of Plant Science, School of Science and Technology, University of Évora, Évora, Portugal.
    Bellini, Catherine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). INRAE, AgroParisTech, Institut Jean-Pierre Bourgin (IJPB), Université Paris-Saclay, Versailles, France.
    Porfírio, Sara
    Complex Carbohydrate Research Center, University of Georgia Athens, GA, Athens, United States.
    Druege, Uwe
    Erfurt Research Centre for Horticultural Crops, University of Applied Sciences Erfurt, Erfurt, Germany.
    Editorial: Advances on the Biological Mechanisms Involved in Adventitious Root Formation: From Signaling to Morphogenesis2022In: Frontiers in Plant Science, E-ISSN 1664-462X, Vol. 13, article id 867651Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 25. Carol, R. J.
    et al.
    Breiman, A.
    Erel, N.
    Vittorioso, P.
    Bellini, C.
    PASTICCINO1 (AtFKBP70) is a nuclear-localised immunophilin required during Arabidopsis thaliana embryogenesis2001In: Plant Science, ISSN 0168-9452, E-ISSN 1873-2259, Vol. 161, no 3, p. 527-535Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The PASTICCINO1 (PAS1) gene of Arabidopsis thaliana encodes a protein with homology to the FK506-binding protein (FKBP) class of immunophilins. To begin to understand more about the possible function of PAS1, we tested some properties of recombinant PAS1 protein and analysed the expression of the gene in Arabidopsis embryos and cell cultures and in tobacco cells. In pas1-1/+ heterozygote embryos the pas1-1 allele is expressed at very low levels in all cells, but it is misexpressed in the pas1-1 homozygote mutant at the same stage. Anti-PAS1 affinity-purified antibodies recognise a 70 kDa protein from dividing cell cultures of Arabidopsis. In indirect immunofluorescence, the same antibodies label the nuclei of dividing tobacco BY-2 cells. In a protease-coupled assay, recombinant PAS1 protein has low peptidylprolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) activity, which is inhibited by the immunosuppressive drugs FK506 and rapamycin, but not by cyclosporin. PAS1 also binds calmodulin in vitro. This data suggests the importance of the correctly regulated production of functional PAS1 protein, a likely nuclear-localised FKBP, for the correct development of the plant embryo. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 26. Castelain, Mathieu
    et al.
    Le Hir, Rozenn
    Bellini, Catherine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    The non-DNA-binding bHLH transcription factor PRE3/bHLH135/ATBS1/TMO7 is involved in the regulation of light signaling pathway in Arabidopsis2012In: Physiologia Plantarum, ISSN 0031-9317, E-ISSN 1399-3054, Vol. 145, no 3, p. 450-460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plant basic Helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins are transcription factors that are involved in many developmental mechanisms, including light signaling and hormone homeostasis. Some of them are non-DNA-binding proteins and could act as dominant negative regulators of other bHLH proteins by forming heterodimers, in a similar way to animal inhibitor of DNA-binding proteins. It has been recently reported that several non-DNA-binding bHLHs are involved in light signaling (KDR/PRE6), gibberellic acid signaling (PRE1/BNQ1/bHLH136) or brassinosteroid signaling (ATBS1). Here we report that Arabidopsis lines overexpressing the PRE3/bHLH135/ATBS1/TMO7 gene are less responsive to red, far-red and blue light than wild-type which is likely to explain the light hyposensitive phenotype displayed when grown under white light conditions. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we show that the expression of PRE3 and KDR/PRE6 genes is regulated by light and that light-related genes are deregulated in the PRE3-ox lines. We show that PRE3 is expressed in the shoot and root meristems and that PRE3-ox lines also have a defect in lateral root development. Our results not only suggest that PRE3 is involved in the regulation of light signaling, but also support the hypothesis that non-DNA-binding bHLH genes are promiscuous genes regulating a wide range of both overlapping and specific regulatory pathways.

  • 27. Chardon, Fabien
    et al.
    Bedu, Magali
    Calenge, Fanny
    Klemens, Patrick A. W.
    Spinner, Lara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Clement, Gilles
    Chietera, Giorgiana
    Leran, Sophie
    Ferrand, Marina
    Lacombe, Benoit
    Loudet, Olivier
    Dinant, Sylvie
    Bellini, Catherine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Neuhaus, H. Ekkehard
    Daniel-Vedele, Francoise
    Krapp, Anne
    Leaf Fructose Content Is Controlled by the Vacuolar Transporter SWEET17 in Arabidopsis2013In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 697-702Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In higher plants, soluble sugars are mainly present as sucrose, glucose, and fructose [1]. Sugar allocation is based on both source-to-sink transport and intracellular transport between the different organelles [2,3] and depends on actual plant requirements [4]. Under abiotic stress conditions, such as nitrogen limitation, carbohydrates accumulate in plant cells [5]. Despite an increasing number of genetic studies [6, 7], the genetic architecture determining carbohydrate composition is poorly known. Using a quantitative genetics approach, we determined that the carrier protein SWEET17 is a major factor controlling fructose content in Arabidopsis leaves. We observed that when SWEET17 expression is reduced, either by induced or natural variation, fructose accumulates in leaves, suggesting an enhanced storage capacity. Subcellular localization of SWEET17-GFP to the tonoplast and functional expression in Xenopus oocytes showed that SWEET17 is the first vacuolar fructose transporter to be characterized in plants. Physiological studies in planta provide evidence that SWEET17 acts to export fructose out of the vacuole. Overall, our results suggest that natural variation in leaf fructose levels is controlled by the vacuolar fructose transporter SWEET17. SWEET17 is highly conserved across the plant kingdom; thus, these findings offer future possibilities to modify carbohydrate partitioning in crops.

  • 28.
    Chardon, Fabien
    et al.
    Université Paris-Saclay, INRAE, AgroParisTech, Institut Jean-Pierre Bourgin (IJPB), Versailles, France.
    De Marco, Federica
    Université Paris-Saclay, INRAE, AgroParisTech, Institut Jean-Pierre Bourgin (IJPB), Versailles, France.
    Marmagne, Anne
    Université Paris-Saclay, INRAE, AgroParisTech, Institut Jean-Pierre Bourgin (IJPB), Versailles, France.
    Le Hir, Rozenn
    Université Paris-Saclay, INRAE, AgroParisTech, Institut Jean-Pierre Bourgin (IJPB), Versailles, France.
    Vilaine, Françoise
    Université Paris-Saclay, INRAE, AgroParisTech, Institut Jean-Pierre Bourgin (IJPB), Versailles, France.
    Bellini, Catherine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Université Paris-Saclay, INRAE, AgroParisTech, Institut Jean-Pierre Bourgin (IJPB), Versailles, France.
    Dinant, Sylvie
    Université Paris-Saclay, INRAE, AgroParisTech, Institut Jean-Pierre Bourgin (IJPB), Versailles, France.
    Natural variation in the long-distance transport of nutrients and photoassimilates in response to N availability2022In: Journal of plant physiology (Print), ISSN 0176-1617, E-ISSN 1618-1328, Vol. 273, article id 153707Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phloem and xylem tissues are necessary for the allocation of nutrients and photoassimilates. However, how the long-distance transport of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) is coordinated with the central metabolism is largely unknown. To better understand how the genetic and environmental factors influence C and N transport, we analysed the metabolite profiles of phloem exudates and xylem saps of five Arabidopsis thaliana accessions grown in low or non-limiting N supply. We observed that xylem saps were composed of 46 or 56% carbohydrates, 27 or 45% amino acids, and 5 or 13% organic acids in low or non-limiting N supply, respectively. In contrast, phloem exudates were composed of 76 or 86% carbohydrates, 7 or 18% amino acids, and 5 or 6% organic acids. Variation in N supply impacted amino acid, organic acid and sugar contents. When comparing low N and non-limiting N, the most striking differences were variations of glutamine, aspartate, and succinate abundance in the xylem saps and citrate and fumarate abundance in phloem exudates. In addition, we observed a substantial variation of metabolite content between genotypes, particularly under high N. The content of several organic acids, such as malate, citrate, fumarate, and succinate was affected by the genotype alone or by the interaction between genotype and N supply. This study confirmed that the response of the transport of nutrients in the phloem and the xylem to N availability is associated with the regulation of the central metabolism and could be an adaptive trait.

  • 29. Chupeau, MC
    et al.
    Bellini, C.
    Guerche, P.
    Maisonneuve, B.
    Vastra, G.
    Chupeau, Y.
    Transgenic plants of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) obtained through electroporation of protoplasts1989In: Nature Biotechnology 1989, Vol. 7, no 5, p. 503-508Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30. Contesto, Celine
    et al.
    Milesi, Sandrine
    Mantelin, Sophie
    Zancarini, Anouk
    Desbrosses, Guilhem
    Varoquaux, Fabrice
    Bellini, Catherine
    Kowalczyk, Mariusz
    Touraine, Bruno
    The auxin-signaling pathway is required for the lateral root response of Arabidopsis to the rhizobacterium Phyllobacterium brassicacearum2010In: Planta, ISSN 0032-0935, E-ISSN 1432-2048, Vol. 232, no 6, p. 1455-1470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plant root development is highly responsive both to changes in nitrate availability and beneficial microorganisms in the rhizosphere. We previously showed that Phyllobacterium brassicacearum STM196, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria strain isolated from rapeseed roots, alleviates the inhibition exerted by high nitrate supply on lateral root growth. Since soil-borne bacteria can produce IAA and since this plant hormone may be implicated in the high nitrate-dependent control of lateral root development, we investigated its role in the root development response of Arabidopsis thaliana to STM196. Inoculation with STM196 resulted in a 50% increase of lateral root growth in Arabidopsis wild-type seedlings. This effect was completely abolished in aux1 and axr1 mutants, altered in IAA transport and signaling, respectively, indicating that these pathways are required. The STM196 strain, however, appeared to be a very low IAA producer when compared with the high-IAA-producing Azospirillum brasilense sp245 strain and its low-IAA-producing ipdc mutant. Consistent with the hypothesis that STM196 does not release significant amounts of IAA to the host roots, inoculation with this strain failed to increase root IAA content. Inoculation with STM196 led to increased expression levels of several IAA biosynthesis genes in shoots, increased Trp concentration in shoots, and increased auxin-dependent GUS staining in the root apices of DR5::GUS transgenic plants. All together, our results suggest that STM196 inoculation triggers changes in IAA distribution and homeostasis independently from IAA release by the bacteria.

  • 31. Cowling, R. J.
    et al.
    Vittorioso, P.
    Faure, J. D.
    Caboche, M.
    Bellini, C.
    The role of PASTICCINO1, an FKBP-like protein, in plant development1999Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The pasticcino (pas) mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana were identified due to their abnormal response to cytokinins. These mutants fall into 3 complementation groups: pas1 (2 alleles), pas2 (1 allele) and pas3 (4 alleles). The mutants all have excessive and disorganised cell divisions leading to extra cell layers in the hypocotyl, abnormal apical meristems, and rosettes with fused vitreous leaves. This cell proliferation effect is exaggerated in the presence of cytokinins. The PAS1 gene was cloned via a T-DNA insertion; it encodes for a protein with similarities to FK506-binding proteins (FKBPs), a class of immunophilins. Like other large FKBPs the PAS1 protein has several putative FKBP domains, a tetratricopeptide repeat domain and a calmodulin binding motif. PAS1 also has conserved nuclear localisation signals. Although the presence of immunophilins has been demonstrated in plants, their functions are unknown. PAS1 is the first plant immunophilin-like gene to be disrupted and suggests a role for PAS 1 in the control of plant cell division.

  • 32. Creusot, F.
    et al.
    Fouilloux, E.
    Dron, M.
    Lafleuriel, J.
    Picard, G.
    Billault, A.
    Lepaslier, D.
    Cohen, D.
    Chaboute, M. E.
    Durr, A.
    Fleck, J.
    Gigot, C.
    Camilleri, C.
    Bellini, C.
    Caboche, M.
    Bouchez, D.
    The CIC YAC library: Sizing of the clones and determination of clones carrying repeated DNA sequences.1995In: The Plant Journal, ISSN 0960-7412, E-ISSN 1365-313X, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 763-770Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new Arabidopsis thaliana (ecotype Columbia) genomic library has been constructed in Yeast Artificial Chromosomes: the CIC library (for CEPH, INRA and CNRS). Optimization of plant culture conditions and protoplast preparation allowed the recovery of large amounts of viable protoplasts. Mechanical shearing of DNA was minimized by isolation of DNA from protoplasts embedded in agarose. Cloning of large inserts was favored by including two successive size fractionation steps (after partial EcoRI digestion and after ligation with the vector arms), which selected DNA fragments larger than 350 kb. The library consists of 1152 clones with an average insert size of 420 kb. Clones carrying chloroplast DNA and various nuclear repeated sequences have been identified. Twenty-one per cent of the clones are found to contain chloroplast DNA. Therefore, the library represents around four nuclear genome equivalents. The clones containing 5S rDNA genes, 18S-25S rDNA sequences and the 180 bp paracentromeric repeated element account for 3.6%, 8.9% and 5.8%, respectively. Only one clone was found to carry the 160 bp paracentromeric repeated element. Given the smaller size of clones carrying Arabidopsis repeated DNA, the average size of remaining clones is around 480 kb. The library was screened by PCR amplification using pairs of primers corresponding to sequences dispersed in the genome. Seventy out of 76 pairs of primers identified from one to seven YAC clones. Thus at least 92% of the genome is represented in the CIC library. The survey of the library for clones containing unlinked DNA sequences indicates that the proportion of chimeric clones is lower than 10%.

  • 33. Cuzzoni, E
    et al.
    Locatelli, F
    Bellini, C
    Giordani, C
    Lupotto, E
    Sala, F
    A study on the stability of the NPTII gene during a cycle of dedifferentiation / differentiation in N. tabacum1990In: Giornale Botanico Italiano, ISSN 0017-0070, Vol. 124, no 4, p. 136-137Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34. Delarue, M.
    et al.
    Muller, P.
    Bellini, C.
    Delbarre, A.
    Increased auxin efflux in the IAA-overproducing sur1 mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana: A mechanism for reducing auxin levels?1999In: Physiologia Plantarum, ISSN 0031-9317, E-ISSN 1399-3054, Vol. 107, no 1, p. 120-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the aim of investigating the mechanisms that maintain auxin homeostasis in plants, we have monitored the net uptake and metabolism of exogenously supplied indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and naphthalene-1-acetic acid (NAA) in seedlings of wild type and the IAA-overproducing mutant sur1 of Arabidopsis thaliana. Tritiated IAA and NAA entered the seedling tissues within minutes and were mostly accumulated as metabolites, probably amino acid and sugar conjugates, The mutant seedlings were marked by a strong increase of [H-3]IAA metabolism and a reduction of the accumulation levels of both free [H-3]IAA and [H-3]NAA. The same characteristics were observed in wild-type seedlings grown on 5 mu M picloram. We measured [H-3]NAA uptake in the presence of high concentrations of unlabeled NAA or the auxin efflux carrier inhibitor naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). This abolished the difference in free [H-3]NAA accumulation between the mutant or picloram-treated seedlings and wild-type seedlings. These data indicated that active auxin efflux carriers were present in Arabidopsis seedling tissues. Picloram-treated seedlings and seedlings of the IAA-overproducing mutant sur1 displayed increased auxin efflux carrier activity as well as elevated conjugation of IAA. There is previous evidence to suggest that conjugation is a means to remove excess IAA in plant cells. Here, we discuss the possibility of efflux constituting an additional mechanism for regulating free IAA levels in the face of an excess auxin supply.

  • 35. Delarue, M.
    et al.
    Prinsen, E.
    Van Onckelen, H.
    Caboche, M.
    Bellini, C.
    Sur2 mutations of Arabidopsis thaliana define a new locus involved in the control of auxin homeostasis1998In: The Plant Journal, ISSN 0960-7412, E-ISSN 1365-313X, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 603-611Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new auxin homeostasis gene in Arabidopsis called SUR2 has been identified. This gene, mapped to the bottom of chromosome 4, is defined by two recessive nuclear mutants designated superroot2 (sur2), which display several abnormalities reminiscent of auxin effects. A number of these characteristics are similar to the phenotype of the previously described auxin-overproducing mutant superroot1 (sur1); however, several lines of evidences reveal that the SUR2 gene defines a new key point in the regulation of endogenous auxin concentrations. The phenotype of the sur1 sur2 double mutant is additive. Analysis by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry indicated increased levels of free indole-3-acetic acid correlated with a decreased level of bound auxin in the sur2 mutant. These results suggest that SUR2 may be involved in the control of auxin conjugation.

  • 36. Delarue, M.
    et al.
    Santoni, V.
    Caboche, M.
    Bellini, C.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    cristal mutations in Arabidopsis confer a genetically heritable, recessive, hyperhydric phenotype1997In: Planta, ISSN 0032-0935, E-ISSN 1432-2048, Vol. 202, no 1, p. 51-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new class of recessive Arabidopsis mutants, designated cristal (cii) has been isolated which display several abnormalities reminiscent of hyperhydric symptoms. These characteristics include translucent and wrinkled cotyledons and leaves, abnormal chloroplast organization, a reduced amount of chlorophyll, a reduced dry weight and a decreased number of palisade cells in the leaves accompanied by an increase of intercellular space, and therefore give a vitreous appearance to the aerial part. The phenotype is also dependent on the culture medium water potential. The cril gene was mapped on chromosome 4 close to the DHS1 marker.

  • 37. Desnos, T.
    et al.
    Orbovic, V.
    Bellini, C.
    Kronenberger, J.
    Caboche, M.
    Traas, J.
    Hofte, H.
    Procuste1 mutants identify two distinct genetic pathways controlling hypocotyl cell elongation, respectively in dark and light-grown Arabidopsis seedlings1996In: Development, ISSN 0950-1991, E-ISSN 1477-9129, Vol. 122, no 2, p. 683-693Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plant morphogenesis is dependent on a tight control of cell division and expansion. Cell elongation during postembryonic hypocotyl growth is under the control of a light-regulated developmental switch. Light is generally believed to exert its effects on hypocotyl elongation through a phytochrome- and blue-light receptor- mediated inhibitory action on a so far unknown cell elongation mechanism. We describe here a new class of allelic mutants in Arabidopsis, at the locus PROCUSTE1 (prc1-1 to -4), which have a hypocotyl elongation defect specifically associated with the dark-grown developmental program. Normal hypocotyl elongation is restored in plants grown in white, blue or red light. In agreement with this, the constitutive photomorphogenic mutation cop1-6, which induces a deetiolated phenotype in the dark, is epistatic to prc1-2 for the hypocotyl phenotype. Epistasis analyses in red and blue light respectively, indicate that phytochrome B but not the blue light receptor HY4, is required for the switch from PRC1-dependent to PRC1-independent elongation. The conditional hypocotyl growth defect is associated with a deformation of the hypocotyl surface due to an uncontrolled swelling of epidermal, cortical or endodermal cells, suggesting a defect in the structure of the expanding cell wall, A similar phenotype was observed in elongating roots, which was however, independent of the light conditions. The aerial part of mature mutant plants grown in the light was indistinguishable from the wild type. prc1 mutants provide a means of distinguishing, for the first time, two genetic pathways regulating hypocotyl cell elongation respectively in dark- and light-grown seedlings, whereby light not only inhibits hypocotyl growth, but also activates a PRC1-independent cell elongation program.

  • 38. Dinant, S.
    et al.
    Wolff, N.
    De Marco, F.
    Vilaine, F.
    Gissot, L.
    Aubry, E.
    Sandt, C.
    Bellini, C.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Institut Jean-Pierre Bourgin, INRA, AgroParisTech, CNRS, Université Paris-Saclay, Versailles, France.
    Le Hir, R.
    Synchrotron FTIR and Raman spectroscopy provide unique spectral fingerprints for Arabidopsis floral stem vascular tissues2019In: Journal of Experimental Botany, ISSN 0022-0957, E-ISSN 1460-2431, Vol. 70, no 3, p. 871-883Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cell walls are highly complex structures that are modified during plant growth and development. For example, the development of phloem and xylem vascular cells, which participate in the transport of sugars and water as well as providing support, can be influenced by cell-specific wall composition. Here, we used synchrotron radiation-based Fourier-transform infrared (SR-FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy to analyse the cell wall composition of floral stem vascular tissues of wild-type Arabidopsis and the double-mutant sweet11-1 sweet12-1, which has impaired sugar transport. The SR-FTIR spectra showed that in addition to modified xylem cell wall composition, phloem cell walls in the double-mutant line were characterized by modified hemicellulose composition. Combining Raman spectroscopy with a classification and regression tree (CART) method identified combinations of Raman shifts that could distinguish xylem vessels and fibers. In addition, the disruption of the SWEET11 and SWEET12 genes impacted on xylem wall composition in a cell-specific manner, with changes in hemicelluloses and cellulose observed at the xylem vessel interface. These results suggest that the facilitated transport of sugars by transporters that exist between vascular parenchyma cells and conducting cells is important in ensuring correct phloem and xylem cell wall composition.

  • 39.
    Dob, Asma
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Lakehal, Abdellah
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå Plant Science Centre, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Novak, Ondrej
    Laboratory of Growth Regulators, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, Institute of Experimental Botany, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Olomouc, Czech Republic; Umeå Plant Science Centre, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Bellini, Catherine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Institut Jean-Pierre Bourgin, Inrae, AgroParisTech, Université Paris-Saclay, Versailles, France.
    Jasmonate inhibits adventitious root initiation through repression of CKX1 and activation of RAP2.6L transcription factor in Arabidopsis2021In: Journal of Experimental Botany, ISSN 0022-0957, E-ISSN 1460-2431, Vol. 72, no 20, p. 7107-7118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adventitious rooting is a de novo organogenesis process that enables plants to propagate clonally and cope with environmental stresses. Adventitious root initiation (ARI) is controlled by interconnected transcriptional and hormonal networks, but there is little knowledge of the genetic and molecular programs orchestrating these networks. Thus, we have applied genome-wide transcriptome profiling to elucidate the transcriptional reprogramming events preceding ARI. These reprogramming events are associated with the down-regulation of cytokinin (CK) signaling and response genes, which could be triggers for ARI. Interestingly, we found that CK free base (iP, tZ, cZ, and DHZ) content declined during ARI, due to down-regulation of de novo CK biosynthesis and up-regulation of CK inactivation pathways. We also found that MYC2-dependent jasmonate (JA) signaling inhibits ARI by down-regulating the expression of the CYTOKININ OXIDASE/DEHYDROGENASE1 (CKX1) gene. We also demonstrated that JA and CK synergistically activate expression of the transcription factor RELATED to APETALA2.6 LIKE (RAP2.6L), and constitutive expression of this transcription factor strongly inhibits ARI. Collectively, our findings reveal that previously unknown genetic interactions between JA and CK play key roles in ARI.

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  • 40. Fagard, M
    et al.
    Boutet, S
    Morel, J B
    Bellini, C
    Vaucheret, H
    AGO1, QDE-2, and RDE-1 are related proteins required for post-transcriptional gene silencing in plants, quelling in fungi, and RNA interference in animals.2000In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 97, no 21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction of transgene DNA may lead to specific degradation of RNAs that are homologous to the transgene transcribed sequence through phenomena named post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) in plants, quelling in fungi, and RNA interference (RNAi) in animals. It was shown previously that PTGS, quelling, and RNAi require a set of related proteins (SGS2, QDE-1, and EGO-1, respectively). Here we report the isolation of Arabidopsis mutants impaired in PTGS which are affected at the Argonaute1 (AGO1) locus. AGO1 is similar to QDE-2 required for quelling and RDE-1 required for RNAi. Sequencing of ago1 mutants revealed one amino acid essential for PTGS that is also present in QDE-2 and RDE-1 in a highly conserved motif. Taken together, these results confirm the hypothesis that these processes derive from a common ancestral mechanism that controls expression of invading nucleic acid molecules at the post-transcriptional level. As opposed to rde-1 and qde-2 mutants, which are viable, ago1 mutants display several developmental abnormalities, including sterility. These results raise the possibility that PTGS, or at least some of its elements, could participate in the regulation of gene expression during development in plants.

  • 41. Faivre-Rampant, O.
    et al.
    Kevers, C.
    Bellini, C.
    Gaspar, T.
    Peroxidase activity, ethylene production, lignification and growth limitation in shoots of a nonrooting mutant of tobacco1998In: Plant physiology and biochemistry (Paris), ISSN 0981-9428, E-ISSN 1873-2690, Vol. 36, no 12, p. 873-877Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rooting recalcitrant rac Nicotiana tabacum cv Xanthi mutant has been multiplied in vitro under the form of shoots in parallel to wild-type. rac Shoots grew at a lower rate and did not root whatever the treatments when compared to those of wild-type shoots. They were characterized by a higher lignin level, a higher total specific peroxidase activity with higher activity of both acidic and basic isoperoxidases (although missing and supernumerary isoenzymes were observed), and higher ethylene production. These observations might be causally related to growth inhibitions as similar incidences have been noted in different stress-induced growth limitation, through cell wall rigidification and auxin catabolism. The relationship between these aspects and rooting recalcitrance remains to be explored. (C) Elsevier, Paris.

  • 42. Faure, J. D.
    et al.
    Vittorioso, P.
    Santoni, V.
    Fraisier, V.
    Prinsen, E.
    Barlier, I.
    Van Onckelen, H.
    Caboche, M.
    Bellini, C.
    The PASTICCINO genes of Arabidopsis thaliana are involved in the control of cell division and differentiation1998In: Development, ISSN 0950-1991, E-ISSN 1477-9129, Vol. 125, no 5, p. 909-918Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The control of cell division by growth regulators is critical to proper plant development. The isolation of single-gene mutants altered in the response to plant hormones should permit the identification of essential genes controlling the growth and development of plants. We have isolated mutants pasticcino belonging to 3 complementation groups (pas1, pas2, pas3) in the progeny of independent ethyl methane sulfonate and T-DNA mutagenized Arabidopsis thaliana plants. The screen was performed in the presence or absence of cytokinin. The mutants isolated were those that showed a significant hypertrophy of their apical parts when grown on cytokinin-containing medium. The pas mutants have altered embryo, leaf and root development. They display uncoordinated cell divisions which are enhanced by cytokinin. Physiological and biochemical analyses show that cytokinins are probably involved in pas phenotypes. The PAS genes have been mapped respectively to chromosomes 3, 5 and 1 and represent new plant genes involved in the control of cell division and plant development.

  • 43. Geiss, G
    et al.
    Gutierrez, L
    Bellini, C
    Adventitious root formation: new insights and perspective2009In: Root Development / [ed] Beeckman T, Blackwell Publishing, 2009, p. 127-156Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 44. Geiss, G.
    et al.
    Gutierrez, L.
    Bellini, C.
    Adventitious root formation new insights and perspectives2010In: Root Development / [ed] Tom Beeckman, Wiley-Blackwell, 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 45. Guenin, Stephanie
    et al.
    Mauriat, Melanie
    Pelloux, Jerome
    Van Wuytswinkel, Olivier
    Bellini, Catherine
    Gutierrez, Laurent
    Normalization of qRT-PCR data: the necessity of adopting a systematic, experimental conditions-specific, validation of references2009In: Journal of Experimental Botany, ISSN 0022-0957, E-ISSN 1460-2431, Vol. 60, no 2, p. 487-493Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantitative RT-PCR (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, also known as qRT-PCR or real-time RT-PCR) has been used in large proportions of transcriptome analyses published to date. The accuracy of the results obtained by this method strongly depends on accurate transcript normalization using stably expressed genes, known as references. Statistical algorithms have been developed recently to help validate reference genes but, surprisingly, this robust approach is under-utilized in plants. Instead, putative ’housekeeping’ genes tend to be used as references without any proper validation. The concept of normalization in transcript quantification is introduced here and the factors affecting its reliability in qRT-PCR are discussed in an attempt to convince molecular biologists, and non-specialists, that systematic validation of reference genes is essential for producing accurate, reliable data in qRT-PCR analyses, and thus should be an integral component of them.

  • 46. Guerche, P.
    et al.
    Bellini, C.
    Lemoullec, J. M.
    Caboche, M.
    Use Of Transient Expression For The Optimization Of Direct Gene Transfer Into Tobacco Mesophyll Protoplasts By Electroporation1987In: Biochimie, ISSN 0300-9084, E-ISSN 1638-6183, Vol. 69, no 6-7, p. 621-628Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Gutierrez, Laurent
    et al.
    Umeå Plant Science Centre, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-90183 Umeå, Sweden.
    Bussell, John D
    Umeå Plant Science Centre, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-90183 Umeå, Sweden.
    Pacurar, Daniel I
    Umeå Plant Science Centre, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-90183 Umeå, Sweden.
    Schwambach, Josèli
    Umeå Plant Science Centre, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-90183 Umeå, Sweden.
    Pacurar, Monica
    Umeå Plant Science Centre, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-90183 Umeå, Sweden.
    Bellini, Catherine
    Umeå Plant Science Centre, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-90183 Umeå, Sweden.
    Phenotypic plasticity of adventitious rooting in Arabidopsis is controlled by complex regulation of Auxin response factor transcripts and microRNA abundance2009In: The Plant Cell, ISSN 1040-4651, E-ISSN 1532-298X, Vol. 21, no 10, p. 3119-3132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of shoot-borne roots, or adventitious roots, is indispensable for mass propagation of elite genotypes. It is a complex genetic trait with a high phenotypic plasticity due to multiple endogenous and environmental regulatory factors. We demonstrate here that a subtle balance of activator and repressor AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR (ARF) transcripts controls adventitious root initiation. Moreover, microRNA activity appears to be required for fine-tuning of this process. Thus, ARF17, a target of miR160, is a negative regulator, and ARF6 and ARF8, targets of miR167, are positive regulators of adventitious rooting. The three ARFs display overlapping expression domains, interact genetically, and regulate each other's expression at both transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels by modulating miR160 and miR167 availability. This complex regulatory network includes an unexpected feedback regulation of microRNA homeostasis by direct and nondirect target transcription factors. These results provide evidence of microRNA control of phenotypic variability and are a significant step forward in understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating adventitious rooting.

  • 48. Gutierrez, Laurent
    et al.
    Mauriat, Melanie
    Pelloux, Jerome
    Bellini, Catherine
    van Wuytswinkel, Olivier
    Towards a systematic validation of references in real-time RT-PCR2008In: The Plant Cell, ISSN 1040-4651, E-ISSN 1532-298X, Vol. 20, no 7, p. 1734-1735Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49. Gutierrez, Laurent
    et al.
    Mauriat, Mélanie
    Guénin, Stéphanie
    Pelloux, Jérôme
    Lefebvre, Jean-François
    Louvet, Romain
    Rusterucci, Christine
    Moritz, Thomas
    Guerineau, François
    Bellini, Catherine
    Van Wuytswinkel, Olivier
    The lack of a systematic validation of reference genes: a serious pitfall undervalued in reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis in plants.2008In: Plant Biotechnology Journal, ISSN 1467-7644, E-ISSN 1467-7652, Vol. 6, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) approaches have been used in a large proportion of transcriptome analyses published to date. The accuracy of the results obtained by this method strongly depends on accurate transcript normalization using stably expressed genes, known as references. Statistical algorithms have been developed recently to help validate reference genes, and most studies of gene expression in mammals, yeast and bacteria now include such validation. Surprisingly, this important approach is under-utilized in plant studies, where putative housekeeping genes tend to be used as references without any appropriate validation. Using quantitative RT-PCR, the expression stability of several genes commonly used as references was tested in various tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana and hybrid aspen (Populus tremula x Populus tremuloides). It was found that the expression of most of these genes was unstable, indicating that their use as references is inappropriate. The major impact of the use of such inappropriate references on the results obtained by RT-PCR is demonstrated in this study. Using aspen as a model, evidence is presented indicating that no gene can act as a universal reference, implying the need for a systematic validation of reference genes. For the first time, the extent to which the lack of a systematic validation of reference genes is a stumbling block to the reliability of results obtained by RT-PCR in plants is clearly shown.

  • 50. Gutierrez, Laurent
    et al.
    Mongelard, Gaelle
    Flokova, Kristyna
    Pacurar, Daniel I.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Novak, Ondrej
    Staswick, Paul
    Kowalczyk, Mariusz
    Pacurar, Monica
    Demailly, Herve
    Geiss, Gaia
    Bellini, Catherine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Auxin Controls Arabidopsis Adventitious Root Initiation by Regulating Jasmonic Acid Homeostasis2012In: The Plant Cell, ISSN 1040-4651, E-ISSN 1532-298X, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 2515-2527Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vegetative shoot-based propagation of plants, including mass propagation of elite genotypes, is dependent on the development of shoot-borne roots, which are also called adventitious roots. Multiple endogenous and environmental factors control the complex process of adventitious rooting. In the past few years, we have shown that the auxin response factors ARF6 and ARF8, targets of the microRNA miR167, are positive regulators of adventitious rooting, whereas ARF17, a target of miR160, is a negative regulator. We showed that these genes have overlapping expression profiles during adventitious rooting and that they regulate each other's expression at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels by modulating the homeostasis of miR160 and miR167. We demonstrate here that this complex network of transcription factors regulates the expression of three auxin-inducible Gretchen Hagen3 (GH3) genes, GH3.3, GH3.5, and GH3.6, encoding acyl-acid-amido synthetases. We show that these three GH3 genes are required for fine-tuning adventitious root initiation in the Arabidopsis thaliana hypocotyl, and we demonstrate that they act by modulating jasmonic acid homeostasis. We propose a model in which adventitious rooting is an adaptive developmental response involving crosstalk between the auxin and jasmonate regulatory pathways.

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