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  • 1.
    Axelsson, Roger
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Nationalekonomi.
    Bjelkeby, Åsa
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Nationalekonomi.
    Stenberg, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Nationalekonomi.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Nationalekonomi.
    Åström, Johanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Nationalekonomi.
    Linder, Åsa
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Nationalekonomi.
    Vuxenutbildningens betydelse för inkomster, mobilitet och övergång till högskolestudier2005Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I början av 1990-talet befann sig Sverige i en kraftig konjunkturnedgång. Arbetslösheten hade stigit till rekordhöga nivåer. Bland de åtgärder regeringen vidtog för att motverka arbetslösheten ingick Kunskapslyftet som var en femårig sats-

    ning på vuxenutbildning. Kunskapslyftet startade den 1 juli 1997 och pågick till och med år 2002.

    Det fanns två övergripande målsättningar med Kunskapslyftet. Den första var ekonomisk och handlade om att minska arbetslösheten, öka sysselsättningen och få till stånd en snabbare ekonomisk tillväxt. Den andra målsättningen var utbildningspolitisk och handlade om att vidareutveckla och förnya vuxenutbildningen.

    Under den femårsperiod som Kunskapslyftet pågick uppgick statens kostnader till

    cirka tre miljarder kronor per år exklusive studiestöd. Totalkostnader för hela projektet

    inklusive studiestöd hamnade på, i storleksordningen 40–45 miljarder kronor.

    På ITPS uppdrag har Institutionen för nationalekonomi vid Umeå universitet

    utvärderat hur Kunskapslyftet och annan kommunal vuxenutbildning påverkat

    deltagarnas inkomster, rörlighet och övergång till högskolestudier.

    De fyra uppsatserna som sammanfattas i denna rapport bygger på deltagare i Komvux

    höstterminen 1997, i vissa fall deltagare med så kallat särskilt utbildningsbidrag

    (studerande i Kunskapslyftet). I de uppsatser där ett förfarande med jämförelsegrupper

    används är dessa öppet arbetslösa i början av hösten 1997 och deltagare i

    arbetsmarknadsutbildning i mitten av denna höst.

    Den databas som har använts i projektets fyra delstudier har byggts upp vid

    institutionen för nationalekonomi vid Umeå universitet. Den omfattar samtliga stu-

    derande i Komvux höstterminerna 1997 t o m 1999 med tillhörande jämförelsegrupper.

    Jämförelsegruppen arbetslösa omfattar samtliga personer som 1 september 1997

    var anmälda vid arbetsförmedlingen som öppet arbetslösa. Den andra jämförelse-

    gruppen – deltagare i arbetsmarknadsutbildning – består av dem som den 15 okto-

    ber samma år var registrerade som deltagare i denna utbildning.

    De viktigaste resultaten i projektets fyra delstudier av kommunal vuxenutbildning

    är i korthet följande:

    1. När det gäller utbildningens effekter på bruttoarbetsinkomster efter avslutad utbildning finner vi att deltagare i Kunskapslyftet som var arbetslösa och studerade med det särskilda utbildningsbidraget hade en relativt sett gynnsammare inkomstutveckling än jämförelsegruppen öppet arbetslösa. Vi fin-

    ner dock en ännu bättre inkomstutveckling för deltagare i arbetsmarknadsutbildning.

    2. Övergång till högre utbildning var högre bland deltagare i Kunskapslyftet jämfört med övriga deltagare i kommunal vuxenutbildning när hänsyn tas till regionala arbetsmarknadsförhållanden och andra bakgrundsfaktorer.

    Kvinnliga studerande inom kommunal vuxenutbildning hade en relativt sett högre sannolikhet för att övergå till högskole- eller universitetsutbildning jämfört med män. Övergångssannolikheten påverkas också av regionala attribut. Den är bland annat negativt korrelerad med regional sysselsättningstillväxt och positivt korrelerad med regional arbetslöshet. Det

    senare behöver dock inte nödvändigtvis tyda på negativa samhällsekonomiska effekter i form av inlåsning av arbetskraft.

    3. Det finns betydande regionala skillnader när det gäller deltagarnas inkomster efter utbildning. De länsvisa skillnaderna är inte obetydliga och kan överstiga 20 procent av genomsnittsinkomsten. Detta bör kanske beaktas

    vid den regionala fördelningen av resurser till vuxenutbildningen.

    4. När det gäller geografisk rörlighet finner vi lägre sannolikhet för flyttning bland deltagare i kommunal vuxenutbildning och deltagare i arbetsmarknadsutbildning jämfört med personer i öppen arbetslöshet. Detta gäller även de deltagare i Komvux som deltog i Kunskapslyftet. Jämfört med deltagare i arbetsmarknadsutbildning hade dock studerande inom Komvux högre sannolikhet för flyttning. Dock gäller detta inte deltagare i kunskapslyftet, vilka hade lägre sannolikhet för flyttning i jämförelse med deltagare i arbetsmarknadsutbildning.

  • 2.
    Axelsson, Roger
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Nationalekonomi.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Nationalekonomi.
    A panel study of migration, self-selection and household real income1998Ingår i: Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 113-26Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    "The impact of migration on income for Swedish multi-adult households is examined using panel data pertaining to a sample of stable household constellations during the period 1980-1990. In contrast to previous studies, data on household disposable income is employed in estimating the income function. The empirical results indicate no significant effect on real disposable income from migration. In addition, the hypothesis of no self-selection, or zero correlation between the errors in the decision function and the income function, cannot be rejected."

  • 3.
    Berck, Peter
    et al.
    University of California, Berkeley.
    Tano, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    Regional sorting of human capital: the choice of location among young adults in Sweden2016Ingår i: Regional studies, ISSN 0034-3404, E-ISSN 1360-0591, Vol. 50, nr 5, s. 757-770Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Migration rates are highest among young adults, especially students, and their location choices affect the regional distribution of human capital, growth and local public sector budgets. Using Swedish register data on young adults, the choice of whether to enroll in education and the choice of location are estimated jointly. The results indicate a systematic selection into investment in further education based on school grades and associated preferences for locations with higher per capita tax bases. For students, the estimates indicate lower preferences for locations with higher shares of older people.  The importance of family networks for the choice of location is confirmed.    

  • 4.
    Berck, Peter
    et al.
    Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Policy, University of California, Berkeley, USA.
    Tano, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Jyväskylä University School of Business and Economics, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Regional sorting of human capital: the choice of location among young adults in Sweden2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Migration rates are highest among young adults, especially students, and their location choices affect the regional distribution of human capital, growth and local public sector budgets. Using Swedish register data on young adults, the choice of whether to enroll in education and the choice of location are estimated jointly. The results indicate a systematic selection into investment in further education based on school grades and associated preferences for locations with higher per capita tax bases. For students, the estimates indicate lower preferences for locations with higher shares of older people.  The importance of family networks for the choice of location is confirmed. 

  • 5.
    Bäckström, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), 164 90 Stockholm.
    Sandow, Erika
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Commuting and timing of retirement2016Ingår i: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 56, nr 1, s. 125-152Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Interregional commuting is an important feature of labour supply and regional labour market adjustment. In this study, we examine the effect of long-distance commuting (LDC) on timing of retirement. Previous research indicates negative health effects and substantial disutility of commuting. Potentially, this may affect the labour supply of older workers via early retirement. Longitudinal population register data from Sweden on employed older workers are used for semi-parametric estimation of survival in the labour force. The results for men indicate shorter survival in the labour force/ earlier retirement for LDCs, primarily among men with high education. For women, there is no evidence of LDC being associated with early retirement. For women with high education, there are indications of longer survival in the labour force among the commuters. The seemingly contradictory results for the highly educated may be due to gender differences in commuting distances and socio-economic attributes of commuters.

  • 6.
    de Luna, Xavier
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statistiska institutionen.
    Stenberg, Anders
    Institutet för Social forskning, Stockholms universitet.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nationalekonomi.
    Can adult education delay retirement from the labour market?2010Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 7.
    de Luna, Xavier
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statistiska institutionen.
    Stenberg, Anders
    SOFI, Stockholm University.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nationalekonomi.
    Can adult education delay retirement from the Labour Market?2008Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies have suggested that education is associated with later retirement from the labour market. In this paper, we examine whether adult education, involving enrolees aged 42 or above, delays retirement to potentially increase labour force participation among the elderly. With Swedish register data of transcripts from adult education and an-nual earnings, which encompasses 1979-2004 and 1982-2004 respectively, we exploit the fact that adult education is a large-scale phenomenon in Sweden and construct a measure of the timing of the transition from being self-supported by productive work to being supported by pension transfers. We match samples of treated and controls on the propen-sity score and use non-parametric estimation of survival rates. The results indicate that adult education has no effect on the timing of the retirement from the labour force. This can be contrasted with the fact that adult education is one of the cornerstones of the OECD strategy for “active ageing” and the European Union’s “Lisbon strategy” for growth and jobs.

  • 8.
    Ecker, Kreske
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Statistik.
    de Luna, Xavier
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Statistik.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Regional differences in initial labour market conditions and dynamics in lifetime income trajectories2022Ingår i: Longitudinal and Life Course Studies, E-ISSN 1757-9597, Vol. 13, nr 3, s. 352-379Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We use longitudinal register data from Sweden to study patterns and dynamics in lifetime income trajectories. We examine divergences in these income trajectories by local economic conditions at labour market entry, in combination with other factors such as gender, education level and socio-economic background. We cannot assume that these relationships are constant over the course of individuals’ working lives. Therefore, we use methods from functional data analysis, allowing for a time-varying relationship between income and the explanatory variables. Our results show a large degree of heterogeneity in how lifetime income trajectories develop for different subgroups. We find that, for men, entering the labour market in an urban area is associated with higher cumulative lifetime income, especially later in life. The exception is men with only primary education, for whom those starting their working lives in a large city have lower incomes on average. This divergence increases in size over time. Women who enter into a large urban labour market receive higher lifetime income at all education levels. This relationship is strongest for women with primary education but decreases in strength over time for these women.

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  • 9.
    Eliasson, Kent
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet. Swedish Agency for Growth Policy Analysis, Östersund, Sweden.
    Haapanen, Mika
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Patterns of inter- and intra-regional differences in human capital and earnings: Evidence from Finland and Sweden 1987–20152021Ingår i: Applied Geography, ISSN 0143-6228, E-ISSN 1873-7730, Vol. 135, artikel-id 102539Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we examine the long-term patterns of geographical disparities in human capital and income in Finland and Sweden over the period 1987–2015. Using nationwide longitudinal population register data, we analyze disparities at different spatial scales, between and within functional labor market regions determined by observed travel-to-work patterns. Contrary to the findings from many other developed economies indicating inter-regional divergence in per capita income, we find indications of inter-regional convergence in per capita earnings among the functional labor market regions in both countries after 2000. However, small, and peripheral regions have not recovered from the macroeconomic shocks in the 1990s, in terms of per capita earnings. Our estimates indicate relatively small and statistically insignificant changes in the geographical dispersion of human capital at the inter-regional scale. At the intra-regional scale, the disparities in human capital and earnings between the core and hinterlands are relatively large and persistent, although some evidence of convergence is found for Finland. The largest intra-regional differences in human capital and earnings are found within the metropolitan labor markets.

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  • 10.
    Eliasson, Kent
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Swedish Agency for Growth Policy Analysis.
    Haapanen, Mika
    Jyväskylä University.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. School of Business and Economics, University of Jyväskylä.
    Regional Concentration and Migration of Human Capital in Finland and Sweden2019Ingår i: Aluetalouksia Tutkimassa: kehitys, työmarkkinat ja muuttoliike : Hannu Tervon juhlakirja / [ed] Signe Jauhianien, Jyväskylä: Jyväskylän Yliopiston Kauppakorkeakoulu , 2019, s. 105-120Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 11.
    Eliasson, Kent
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Haapanen, Mika
    Jyväskylä University.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Regional concentration of university graduates: the role of high school grades and parental background2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we analyse long-term changes in the regional distribution and migration flows of university graduates in Finland and Sweden. The study is based on detailed longitudinal population register data, including information on high school grades and parental background. We find a distinct pattern of skill divergence across regions in both countries over the last three decades. The uneven distribution of human capital has been reinforced by the mobility patterns among university graduates, for whom regional sorting by high school grades and parental background is evident. Our findings indicate that traditional measures of human capital concentration most likely underscore actual regional differences in productive skills.

  • 12.
    Eliasson, Kent
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Swedish Agency for Growth Policy Analysis, Sweden.
    Haapanen, Mika
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Regional concentration of university graduates: The role of high school grades and parental background2020Ingår i: European Urban and Regional Studies, ISSN 0969-7764, E-ISSN 1461-7145, Vol. 27, nr 4, s. 398-414, artikel-id UNSP 0969776420923133Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we analyse long-term changes in the regional distribution and migration flows of university graduates in Finland and Sweden. This study is based on detailed longitudinal population register data, including information on high school grades and parental background. We find a distinct pattern of skill divergence across regions in both countries over the last 3 decades. The uneven distribution of human capital has been reinforced by the mobility patterns of university graduates, for whom regional sorting by high school grades and parental background is evident. Our findings indicate that traditional measures of human capital concentration most likely underscore actual regional differences in productive skills.

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  • 13.
    Eliasson, Kent
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Nationalekonomi.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Kulturgeografi.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Nationalekonomi.
    Geographical Labour Mobility: Migration or Commuting?2003Ingår i: Regional Studies, Vol. 37, nr 8, s. 827-837Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    ELIASSON K., LINDGREN U. and WESTERLUND O. (2003) Geographical labour mobility: migration or commuting?, Reg.

    Studies 37, 827–837. In this paper, we examine how individual labour market status and spatial variations in employment

    opportunities influence interregional job search behaviour and mobility decisions in Sweden. The econometric analysis is based

    on 290,000 individual observations and refers to the years 1994–95. The empirical results show that the probability of

    interregional labour mobility unexpectedly decreases with the accessibility to employment opportunities in neighbouring

    regions. As expected, the findings reveal that accessibility to job openings in surrounding regions significantly increases the

    likelihood of choosing commuting as the mobility mode.Moreover, the empirical findings indicate that individual unemployment

    experience increases the likelihood of mobility as well as migration.

  • 14.
    Eliasson, Kent
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Nakosteen, Robert A.
    Isenberg School of Management, University of Massachusetts, MA/ Tufts University, Boston, MA.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Zimmer, Michael A.
    Department of Economics, University of Evansville, Evansville, IN, USA.
    All in the Family: self Selection and Migration by Couples2014Ingår i: Papers in regional science (Print), ISSN 1056-8190, E-ISSN 1435-5957, Vol. 93, nr 1, s. 101-124Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines determinants of couple migration in a model that accounts for self-selection of migrant couples. The study is based on a sample of married couples from the Swedish population. The model incorporates controls for earnings of both spouses preceding the move, and explicitly addresses unmeasured heterogeneity in the family decision to migrate. Two statistical formulations are presented. In the first version, migration is measured as a dichotomous move/stay decision. A second formulation replaces the dichotomous indicator with the distance moved by migrants. Results suggest that family migration is selective of relatively low earning wives with unmeasured potential for strong earnings.

  • 15.
    Eliasson, Kent
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Graduate migration, self-selection and urban wage premiums across the regional hierarchy2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    We use Swedish longitudinal population register data on university graduates and estimate the effect of migration on earnings. Migration between regional labour markets is used to identify static and dynamic agglomeration effects on earnings. Heterogeneity in effects is examined by individuals’ position in the ability distribution and by origin-destination size categories of regional labour markets. The results indicate that the effect of upward migration (from smaller to larger labour markets) on earnings is positive throughout. Downward migration (from larger to smaller labour markets) is generally associated with negative or no convincing signs of positive effects on earnings. The estimates indicate positive short-term urban wage premiums (UWP) for all origin-destination flows of upward migration, especially high UWP for in-migration to the Stockholm labour market region. The UWP of upward migration is positive also for movers in the lower end of the ability distribution, but it is substantially higher for high ability migrants. We also find evidence of a positive dynamic UWP of migration to Stockholm from the other regions, particularly for high ability migrants.

  • 16.
    Eliasson, Kent
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet. The Swedish Agency for Growth Policy Analysis, Sweden.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Housing markets and geographical labour mobility to high-productivity regions: the case of Stockholm2023Ingår i: European Urban and Regional Studies, ISSN 0969-7764, E-ISSN 1461-7145Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In many countries, there are signs of declining migration to high-productivity urban areas due to restrictions in the housing market and increasing regional differences in housing prices. Using detailed population-wide register data for Sweden, we estimate how regional variation in housing prices and homeownership is associated with the individual’s decision whether to accept a job offer in the Stockholm metropolitan region and the interrelated choice between migration and commuting as the mobility mode. Our findings indicate that high relative housing prices in the Stockholm area and homeownership are associated with decreasing total geographical labour mobility to the region. This is pronounced among the young and among highly skilled workers. The negative effects of high relative housing prices and homeownership on migration are partially but not fully compensated by positive effects on commuting to Stockholm.

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  • 17.
    Eliasson, Kent
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Tillväxtanalys.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR).
    Regional agglomeration of skills and earnings: from convergence to divergence?2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we analyse the geographical distribution of skills and the human capital content of migration flows between Swedish local labour markets. The study is based on detailed longitudinal population register data. During the last three decades, we find a distinct pattern of skill divergence across regions. The uneven distribution of human capital is reinforced by the mobility of the highly educated population. The pattern of skill divergence coincides with declining or even reversed income convergence across Swedish regions. The skilled regions become both more skilled and richer, while the less skilled regions lag behind. This development has potentially important implications for both regional and national economic policy.

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  • 18.
    Eliasson, Kent
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. The Swedish Agency for Growth Policy Analysis, Östersund, Sweden.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    The urban wage premium and spatial sorting on observed and unobserved ability2023Ingår i: Journal of Economic Geography, ISSN 1468-2702, E-ISSN 1468-2710, Vol. 23, nr 3, s. 601-627Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate static and dynamic agglomeration effects on earnings among university graduates using Swedish longitudinal population register data. The prime interest lies with whether and how the dynamic effects of big city work experience vary by observed ability of workers and whether the effects are portable after relocation. Urban wage premium and spatial sorting of university graduates are analysed by using information on school grades, parental education and university rank. We find that the value of accumulated big city work experience increases with observed ability. The dynamic premium of working in bigger cities is not lost when moving to smaller cities, suggesting that it reflects learning effects and human capital accumulation. Our findings indicate systematic spatial sorting on observed indicators of ability as well as on unobserved productive traits. Sorting on unobserved abilities is driven primarily by graduates in the upper part of the observed ability distribution and is apparent also when taking dynamic learning effects into consideration.

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  • 19.
    Eliasson, Kent
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Nationalekonomi.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Nationalekonomi.
    Åström, Johanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Nationalekonomi.
    Flyttning och pendling i Sverige2007Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ekonomisk och ekonometrisk analys av flyttningar och pendling mellan lokala arbetsmarknadsregioner i Sverige. Översikt över tidigare forskning, deskriptiv analys av geografisk rörlighet över tiden för olika åldersklasser, regiontyper, utbildningskategorier, kategorier av invandrare och med avseende på kön. Ekonometriska analyser av drivkrafter till flyttning och pendling samt effekter av rörlighet på arbetsinkomster.

  • 20. Eliasson, Kent
    et al.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nationalekonomi.
    Åström, Johanna
    Svenska folket flyttar mer än någonsin tidigare2007Ingår i: Dagens Nyheter, Vol. 05, nr 25, s. 6-Artikel, recension (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 21.
    Häggström, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statistiska institutionen.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nationalekonomi.
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    de Luna, Xavier
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statistiska institutionen.
    Divorcing in middle age and its effects on BMIManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 22.
    Lindgren, Urban
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Kulturgeografi.
    Eliasson, Kent
    Westerlund, Olle
    Nationalekonomi.
    Flytta eller Pendla?2002Ingår i: Befolkningen spelar roll!, Umeå universitet, Kulturgeografiska institutionen, Umeå , 2002, s. 131-Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 23.
    Lindgren, Urban
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Labour market programmes and geographical mobility: Migration and commuting among programme participants and openly unemployed2003Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    We study migration and commuting among participants in labour market pro- grammes and individuals in open unemployment. Post-programme mobility of par- ticipants in Employment Training, which is a supply-orientated program, is com- pared to the mobility of individuals participating in two demand-orientated pro- grammes and the openly unemployed. The empirical results indicate higher geo- graphical mobility among participants in Employment Training as compared to par- ticipants in Relief Work and the Work Experience Scheme. Individuals participat- ing in Employment Training also have a higher probability of mobility than the openly unemployed. In this case, this is due to the relatively higher probability of commuting that predominates the relatively lower probability of migration. Hence, our results indicate that different labour market programmes are associated with different amounts of post-programme mobility. Moreover, using functional regional labour markets as the regional entity, we find interregional commuting to be rela- tively more important than migration as a means of geographical labour mobility.

  • 24.
    Nakosteen, Robert A
    et al.
    Isenberg School of Management, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA .
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Zimmer, Michael A
    Schroeder Family School of Business Administration, University of Evansville, Evansville.
    Active labor market programs and regional mobility of labor: evidence from the Swedish recession 1994 – 19952012Ingår i: Contemporary economic policy, ISSN 1074-3529, E-ISSN 1465-7287, Vol. 30, nr 2, s. 178-194Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the impact of active labor market programs on interregional migration in Sweden. The purpose of the study is to determine the extent to which the programs, which provide training and labor market assistance to jobless individuals, induce participants to migrate. Analysis is based on data registers compiled in 1994 and 1995 by Statistics Sweden and the Labor Market Board of Sweden. The paper specifies and estimates a two-equation model of participation and subsequent migration. The model, which is estimated by the method of maximum simulated likelihood, accounts for the role of program participation as an endogenous choice variable in the decision to migrate. In an attempt to capture the effect of migrant self-selection, the estimation approach also controls for unobserved heterogeneity in the participation and migration equations.

    Results of the study indicate a significant positive impact of participation on subsequent mobility for males. This result is robust with respect to alternative specifications of the migration equation and alternative formulations of the model for program participation. For females, the evidence of program impacts is mixed and it appears to be sensitive to the statistical formulation of the model.

  • 25.
    Nakosteen, Robert
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Nationalekonomi.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Nationalekonomi.
    The Effects of Regional Migration on Gross Income of Labor in Sweden2004Ingår i: Papers in Regional Science, Vol. 83, nr 3, s. 581-595Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we study the effect of interregional migration on gross income of labour. The empirical analysis is based on Swedish household data for the period 1994 to 1995. We are primarily concerned with the allocation effect of migration on economic growth in an economy where the incentives for migration may be hampered by relatively high income taxes and transfers. A treatment-effect model for migration and income is estimated. The results indicate significant income gains from migration for the unemployed as well as for those who were employed prior to migration. The estimation results also indicate negative correlation between errors in the migration function and the income function. The hypothesis of no self-selection can be rejected.

  • 26.
    Nakosteen, Robert
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Nationalekonomi.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Nationalekonomi.
    Zimmer, Michael
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Nationalekonomi.
    Health-Related Disabilities and Matching of Spouses: Analysis of Swedish Population Data2005Ingår i: Journal of Population Economics, ISSN 0933-1433, Vol. 18, nr 3, s. 491-507Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research concerning the incidence of reported work-limiting disabilities in the married population indicates a degree of interdependence between spouses' disabilities. This pattern is consistent with several hypotheses. Spouses tend to share many lifestyle traits that might lead to common health outcomes. Alternatively, their joint reports might reflect a shared preference for income benefits or workplace accommodations available to disabled individuals. Another possibility is that disabled individuals tend to be matched in the process of marital formation. This paper investigates the latter hypothesis. Taking advantage of a unique data set from the Swedish population, we select a sample of recently married couples and trace them back in time to their single years. Our analysis indicates nonrandom matching on the basis of disability status. After controlling for observed traits such as age and education, we find a residual correlation between future spouses that is positive and strongly significant. The magnitude of the correlation is within the range of residual correlations obtained from other studies that address marital matching in the contexts of education and earnings.

  • 27.
    Nakosteen, Robert
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Nationalekonomi.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Nationalekonomi.
    Zimmer, Michael
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Nationalekonomi.
    Marital Matching and Earnings: Evidence from the Unmarried Population in Sweden2004Ingår i: The Journal of Human Resources, ISSN ISSN 022-166XE-ISSN 1548-8004, Vol. 39, nr 4, s. 1033-1044Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Social scientists have devoted substantial research to economic basis for matching of men and women in marriage. A common feature of existing studies is their reliance on samples of married couples. The principal shortcoming of spouse data is that spouses' earnings correlations are contaminated by the partners' behaviors and other events that occur after marriage and affect their earnings. This study addresses that problem by exploiting a longitudinal data file from the Swedish population. By selecting a sample of married couples in a given year, we retreat through the file to years before the marriage. Using data from the spouses' single years, we apply the correlation methodology to their earnings. Evidence from the model supports positive assortative mating.

  • 28. Nakosteen, Robert
    et al.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nationalekonomi.
    Zimmer, Michael
    Migration and Self-Selection: Measured Earnings and Latent Characteristics2008Ingår i: Journal of regional science, ISSN 0022-4146, E-ISSN 1467-9787, Vol. 48, nr 4Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Research in regional and labor economics has established that economic incentives play a significant role in the process of internal migration. The most common approach is to view migration as a form of human capital investment undertaken by individuals who expect to benefit from the standpoint of increased earnings. One of the central concepts in these models is self selection. Individuals who self-select the option of migration tend to differ from the nonmigrant population in ways that are not measured in most data sets.

    The contribution of this paper is in its distinction between two aspects of migrant selection. On one hand, some workers possess unmeasured traits that might simultaneously affect their wages and their propensity to engage in risky human capital investment such as migration. On the other hand, measured earnings might exert a direct effect on migration. Based on samples of employed Swedish males and females at two points in time, this study seeks first to examine whether migration between the two periods occurs in the presence of correlation between unmeasured factors present in both earnings during the first period and the subsequent decision to migrate. Second, it looks for an explicit role of earnings per se in the migration decision. Results of the study provide support for selection based on unmeasured traits for both genders. For females, there is also evidence of selection based on measured earnings.

  • 29.
    Sandow, Erika
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nationalekonomi. Jyväskylä University School of Business and Economics, Finland.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Is your commute killing you?: On the mortality risks of long-distance commuting2014Ingår i: Environment and planning A, ISSN 0308-518X, E-ISSN 1472-3409, Vol. 46, nr 6, s. 1496-1516Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a general belief that expanding labour-market regions, triggered by increased commuting, have positive economic effects on individuals, firms, and society. Recently, however, scholars have reported possible negative outcomes related to health and well-being. Based on these findings, this study addresses the association between long-distance commuting, and mortality. Using longitudinal individual data from between 1985 and 2008, focusing on 55-year-olds in 1994, we model mortality through propensity score matching and Kaplan–Meyer estimates of survival among long-distance commuters and matched controls from the population travelling short distances to work. The results indicate that women who have experienced long-distance commuting face a significantly higher mortality risk compared with women with short commutes to work. This seems to be driven by variations in income and education: for example, for women with long-distance commuting experience, substantially lower survival rates are found among those with low education and low income. A very different picture emerges for men, for whom mortality risks do not seem to be associated with long-distance commuting. Our findings suggest that men and women are subject to different mechanisms regarding the nexus between commuting and mortality.

  • 30.
    Stenberg, Anders
    et al.
    University of Stockholm.
    de Luna, Xavier
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statistiska institutionen.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nationalekonomi.
    Can adult education delay retirement from the Labour Market?2012Ingår i: Journal of Population Economics, ISSN 0933-1433, E-ISSN 1432-1475, ISSN 0933-1433, Vol. 25, nr 2, s. 677-696Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine whether adult education delays retirement to potentially increase labour force participation among the elderly, a mechanism suggested in the OECD strategy for “active ageing” and the “Lisbon strategy” of the EU. Using register data from Sweden, we analyse transcripts from adult education for the period 1979–2004 and annual earnings 1982–2004. We match samples of treated individuals, in adult education 1986–1989, and untreated on the propensity score. The timing of exit from the workforce is assessed by non-parametric estimation of survival rates in the labour force. The results indicate no effects of adult education on the timing of retirement.

  • 31.
    Stenberg, Anders
    et al.
    University of Stockholm.
    de Luna, Xavier
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statistiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Statistik. IFAU, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nationalekonomi. Jyväskylä University School of Business and Economics, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Does formal education for older workers increase earnings?: evidence based on rich data and long-term follow up2014Ingår i: Labour, ISSN 1121-7081, E-ISSN 1467-9914, Vol. 28, nr 2, s. 163-189Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Governments in Europe, Canada and the US have expressed an ambition to stimulate education of older. In this paper, we analyze if there are effects on annual earnings of formal education for participants aged 42-55 at the time of enrolment in 1994-1995. The analysis explores longitudinal population register data stretching from 1982 to 2007. The method used is difference-in-differences propensity score matching based on a rich set of covariates, including indicators of health and labor market marginalization. Our findings underline the importance of long follow up periods and imply positive effects for females, especially so for women with children, and no significant average earnings effects for males. These results differ from earlier studies but are stable to several alternative assumptions regarding unobservable characteristics. Data further indicate that the gender gap in our estimates may stem from differences in underlying reasons for enrolment.

  • 32.
    Stenberg, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Nationalekonomi.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Nationalekonomi.
    Does comprehensive education work for the long-term unemployed?2007Ingår i: Labour EconomicsArtikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we evaluate the effects of comprehensive adult education on wage earnings of long-term unemployed, an essentially unexplored issue. We use register data pertaining to a large sample of long-term unemployed in Sweden who enrolled in upper secondary comprehensive adult education. Estimates with propensity score matching indicate that more than one semester of study results in substantial increases in post program annual earnings for both males and females. According to our rough calculations, the social benefits of offering these individuals comprehensive education surpass the costs within five to seven years.

  • 33.
    Stenberg, Anders
    et al.
    University of Stockholm.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nationalekonomi.
    Education and retirement: does University education at mid-age extend working life?2013Ingår i: IZA Journal of European Labor Studies, E-ISSN 2193-9012, Vol. 2, nr 16Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To our knowledge, this paper provides the first study evaluating the effects of higher education for adults on the timing of retirement. Using detailed longitudinal population register data 1982–2010, we track first-time enrollees in higher education in 1992–1993. Our sample is aged 42–55 at the time of enrollment and thus aged 60–73 in 2010. We find that higher education increases labor market survival rates when aged 61–66 by about 5 percentage points. The estimates represent relatively large effects. Tentative calculations indicate that if enrollment occurs at age 42, the retirement delay represents about one percent in yearly earnings returns per year of tertiary education.

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  • 34.
    Stenberg, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    Flexibility at a Cost: Should Governments Stimulate Tertiary Education for Adults?2015Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Most OECD countries experience high unemployment rates and declining growth in higher educational attainment. An often suggested government policy is therefore to allocate resources towards formal schooling for adults. However, returns on such investments are uncertain and the foregone earnings are potentially large. We use Swedish population register data from 1982 to 2011 to estimate average long run earnings returns on higher education for 29- to 55-year-olds who enrolled 1992-1993. We find substantial positive estimates, but these only fully emerge after approximately ten years. Nevertheless, calculations indicate that the benefits for society exceed the costs also under fairly pessimistic assumptions.

  • 35. Stenberg, Anders
    et al.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Flexibility at a cost: Should governments stimulate tertiary education for adults?2016Ingår i: The Journal of the Economics of Ageing, ISSN 2212-828X, Vol. 7, s. 69-86Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: Most OECD countries experience high unemployment rates and declining growth in higher educational attainment. An often suggested government policy is therefore to allocate resources towards formal schooling for adults. However, returns on such investments are uncertain and the foregone earnings are potentially large. We use Swedish population register data from 1982 to 2011 to estimate average long run earnings returns on higher education for 29- to 55-year-olds who enrolled 1992-1993. We find substantial positive estimates, but these only fully emerge after approximately ten years. Nevertheless, calculations indicate that the benefits for society exceed the costs also under fairly pessimistic assumptions.

  • 36.
    Stenberg, Anders
    et al.
    University of Stockholm.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nationalekonomi.
    Kunskapslyft för arbetslösa genom generell utbildning istället för yrkesinriktade program?2015Ingår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 43, nr 1, s. 24-31Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Det finns en internationellt utbredd uppfattning bland såväl forskare som politiker att arbetsmarknadspolitisk utbildning bör vara yrkesinriktad. Ett undantag från denna ståndpunkt utgjordes av reformen Kunskapslyftet 1997–2002, som tillät arbetslösa att välja generella studier vid Komvux. Hypotetiskt kan generella kunskaper göra individer mer flexibla inför förändringar på arbetsmarknaden och därför på lång sikt vara en mer effektiv utbildningsåtgärd. I denna studie jämförs arbetsinkomster 1990–2010 för arbetslösa individer som 1997 deltog i program med yrkesinriktad respektive generell utbildning.

  • 37.
    Stenberg, Anders
    et al.
    University of Stockholm.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nationalekonomi.
    The Long-term Earnings Consequences of General vs. Specific Training of the Unemployed2014Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Training programs for the unemployed typically involve teaching a specific skill to ease the transition into employment. However, in 1997, the Swedish unemployed could choose general/theoretical training through enrollment in one year of full-time studies at the upper secondary school level. This study provides an empirical assessment of the relative earnings impact of general vs. specific training 13 years post-enrollment. In the long term, general training may compensate for the short-term relative earnings loss by enhancing the ability to adapt to changes in demand for skills. The analyses are based on population register data 1990-2010 and an unusually rich set of control variables. The results indicate that both programs are associated with earnings increases. Our relative program estimates reveal a short-term advantage of specific training that converges within 5-7 years. With a longer perspective, there is considerable heterogeneity in the relative earnings estimates. For females with short educations, the earnings increases following general training substantially exceed those following specific training.

  • 38.
    Stenberg, Anders
    et al.
    SOFI, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden; Linneaus University, Växjö/Kalmar, Sweden; IZA, Bonn, Germany.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR).
    The long-term earnings consequences of general vs. specific training of the unemployed2015Ingår i: IZA Journal of European Labor Studies, E-ISSN 2193-9012, Vol. 4, s. 1-26, artikel-id 22Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Training programs for the unemployed typically involve training specific skills in demand amongst employers. In 1997, Swedish unemployed could also choose general schooling at the upper secondary level. This offers a unique opportunity to assess the theoretically ambiguous long-term relative earnings of general vs. specific training for unemployed. Analyzing detailed administrative data 1990–2010, we find 1) that specific training is associated with higher earnings in the short run, 2) that earnings converge 5–7 years post program and 3) that individuals act on their comparative advantages. When we extrapolate our estimates to life-time earnings, there is overall a relative advantage of specific training. However, for females with limited prior education, we find a relative life-time earnings advantage of general training.

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  • 39.
    Sundström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. CEDAR.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Marital status and risk of dementia: a nationwide population-based prospective study2015Ingår i: Marital status and risk of dementia: a nationwide population-based prospective study, 2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 40.
    Sundström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR).
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR).
    Kotyrlo, Elena
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Marital status and risk of dementia: a nationwide population-based prospective study from Sweden2016Ingår i: BMJ Open, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 6, nr 1, artikel-id e008565Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To examine the association between marital status and dementia in a cohort of young-old (50-64) and middle-old (65-74) adults, and also whether this may differ by gender. Design: Prospective population-based study with follow-up time of up to 10 years. Setting: Swedish national register-based study. Participants: 2 288 489 individuals, aged 5074 years, without prior dementia diagnosis at baseline. Dementia was identified using the Swedish National Patient Register and the Cause of Death Register. Outcome measures: The influence of marital status on dementia was analysed using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted stepwise for multiple covariates (model 1: adjusted for age and gender; and model 2: additionally adjusted for having adult children, education, income and prior cardiovascular disease). Results: During follow-up, 31 572 individuals in the study were identified as demented. Cox regression showed each non-married subcategory to be associated with a significantly higher risk of dementia than the married group, with the highest risk observed among people in the young-old age group, especially among those who were divorced or single (HRs 1.79 vs 1.71, fully adjusted model). Analyses stratified by gender showed gender differences in the young-old group, with indications of divorced men having a higher relative risk compared with divorced women (HRs 2.1 vs 1.7, only-age adjusted model). However, in the fully adjusted model, these differences were attenuated and there was no longer any significant difference between male and female participants. Conclusions: Our results suggest that those living alone as non-marrieds may be at risk for early-onset and late-onset dementia. Although more research is needed to understand the underlying mechanism by which marital status is associated with dementia, this suggests that social relationships should be taken seriously as a risk factor for dementia and that social-based interventions may provide an opportunity to reduce the overall dementia risk.

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  • 41.
    Sundström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    Mousavi-Nasab, Hossein
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    The relationship between marital and parental status and the risk of dementia2014Ingår i: International psychogeriatrics, ISSN 1041-6102, E-ISSN 1741-203X, Vol. 26, nr 5, s. 749-757Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This study examines the association between marital and parental status and their individual and combined effect on risk of dementia diseases in a population-based longitudinal study while controlling for a range of potential confounders, including social networks and exposure to stressful negative life events. Methods: A total of 1,609 participants without dementia, aged 65 years and over, were followed for an average period of 8.6 years (SD = 4.8). During follow-up, 354 participants were diagnosed with dementia. Cox regression was used to investigate the effect of marital and parental status on risk of dementia. Results: In univariate Cox regression models (adjusted for age as time scale), widowed (hazard ratio (HR) 1.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.13-1.78), and not having children (HR 1.54, 95% CI = 1.15-2.06) were significantly associated with incident dementia. In multivariate analyses that included simultaneously marital and parental status and covariates that were found to be significant in univariate models (p < 0.10), the HR was 1.30 (95% CI = 1.01-1.66) for widowed, and 1.51 (95% CI = 1.08-2.10) for those not having children. Finally, a group of four combined factors was constructed: married parents (reference), married without children, widowed parents, and widowed without children. The combined effect revealed a 1.3 times higher risk (95% CI = 1.03-1.76) of dementia in widow parents, and a 2.2 times higher risk (95% CI = 1.36-3.60) in widowed persons without children, in relation to married parents. No significant difference was observed for those being married and without children. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that marital- and parental status are important risk factors for developing dementia, with especially increased risk in those being both widowed and without children.

  • 42.
    Sundström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Mousavi-Nasab, SM Hossein
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Relationship between marital and parental status and risk of dementia and Alzheimer's disease2013Ingår i: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Journal of the Alzheimer's Association, ISSN 1552-5260, E-ISSN 1552-5279, Vol. 9, nr 4, Supplement, s. P631-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is increasing evidence that social network factors may affect risk of developing dementia. The objective of the present study was to examine the association between marital and parental status separately and their combined effect on the risk of incident dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: A total of 1707 members of a population-based prospective cohort study aged 65 and over were followed for an average period of 9.5 years. During follow-up, 393 participants were diagnosed with dementia, including 221 of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Age, sex, education, smoking, vascular diseases, depressive symptoms, and stressful negative life events were used as covariates. Results: Cox logistic regression revealed that unmarried have a greater incidence of dementia and AD compared to married. Participants that were childless were also more likely to develop dementia and AD than those who were parents. Examining the combined effects of marital and parental status revealed that the already negative effect of being unmarried was further enhanced if the individuals were also childless. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that both marital and parental statuses are associated with risk of dementia and that the effect of marital status need to be examined while taking into account parenthood. Further studies are needed to confirm our finding and to explore the mechanisms underlying this association.

  • 43.
    Tano, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nationalekonomi.
    Berck, Peter
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CPS).
    The determinants of the choice of location among young adults: evidence from Sweden2011Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 44.
    Tano, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Nakosteen, Robert A.
    Isenberg School of Management, Universiity of Massachussets at Amherst, MA, USA.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Zimmer, Michael
    Schroeder School of Business , University of Evansville, IN, USA.
    Youth-age characteristics as precursors of power couple formation and location choice2018Ingår i: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 52, s. 98-111Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper extends the literature on highly educated “power” couples. Its objectives are twofold. First, it examines the extent to which precursors of power couple formation are evident in young people during their years of compulsory schooling. Second, we examine location choices at adult ages by accounting for youth-age characteristics in addition to adult-age power status. Using Swedish register data, we produce evidence that power couples evolve from matching of spouses who were high academic achievers during the schooling years. Regarding location choice, our results indicate that power couples are characterized by a disproportionate tendency to migrate from their regions of origin to large labour markets. The evidence also points to latent self selection in both spouse matching and location choice.

  • 45.
    Tano, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Jyväskylä University, Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Nakosteen, Robert
    University of Massachusetts, Amherst, USA.
    Zimmer, Michael
    University of Evansville, USA.
    Back to the Future: Migration, Matching and the Power Couple Phenomenon in Sweden2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper contributes to a recent and growing literature addressing the phenomenon of high-credentialed power couples. It seeks to determine the extent to which precursors of power couple formation and location choice of couples at midlife are evident in young people during their formative school years. Its second objective is to extend the analysis of location choice by modeling location choice among different sizes of labor market areas, given different power status of the couples.

         Based on analysis of Swedish register data, we produce evidence that power spouses evolve from the population of high achieving school age individuals, the latter identified by high academic performance during the years of compulsory schooling. Other factors such as parental education and family income also play a role. In addition, there appear to be regional disparities in the evolution of power couples. The evidence also points to the presence self-selection arising from unmeasured heterogeneity, both in spouse matching and to a lesser extent in location choice. Regarding location choice, the results indicate that power couples display a disproportionate tendency to migrate from their regions of origin to large cities.

  • 46.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Nationalekonomi.
    Arbetslöshet, arbetsmarknadspolitik och geografisk rörlighet2001Ingår i: Ekonomisk Debatt, Vol. 29, nr 4, s. 263-272Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 47.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CPS).
    Determinants of migration in Northern Sweden: exploring intraregional differences in migration processes2009Ingår i: Migration in the Circumpolar North: Issues and Contexts / [ed] Lee Huskey, Chris Southcott, Edmonton: Canadian Circumpolar Institute Press , 2009, s. 175-Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 48.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nationalekonomi.
    Economic Influences on Migration in Sweden1995Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Paper [I]- Household Migration and the Local Public Sector: Evidence from Sweden, 1981-1984 (co-authored with Michael L. Wyzan), contains an empirical explo­ration of the nexus between variables related to the local public sector budget and migration. Micro-data is employed in binomial and multinomial-logit regressions esti­mating the probability to migrate. We report results separately for metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas, because the per capita levels of the tax base and intergovernmen­tal grants are theoretically important migration determinants where population is sparse, while the tax rate may be more important where population is dense. Empirical results support our fiscal hypotheses and are consistent with previous findings on household characteristics.

    Paper [II]- Internal Gross Migration in Sweden: The effects of Variation in Mobility Grants and Regional Labour Market Conditions, focuses on the effects of labor market conditions and migratory stimuli on over county-border migration. Aggregate data on the flows of all migrants and on the flows of migrants receiving extra mobility stimuli are used in estimations of a single-equation migration model based on the hiring function. The results indicate that regional migration flows respond to changes in labor market conditions in accordance with predictions from economic theory. This result seems mainly to stem from the migratory behavior of the unemployed. In addition, nonmatching migration subsidies at the levels employed are not found to be migration enhancing.

    Paper [IH]- Employment Opportunities, Wages and Interregional Migration in Sweden 1970-1989, deals with the impact of aggregate labor turnover and regional labor market conditions on gross in- and outmigration. Annual panel data is used in estima­tion of separate in- and outmigration functions, where regional labor market conditions are assumed to be endogenous with migration under two different assumptions concer­ning the working of the labor market. An increase in the regional excess supply of labor is found to increase outmigration and decrease inmigration. Moreover, cyclical variation in labor turnover is positively correlated with gross migration. The hypothesized effects of real wages on migration are not confirmed. The results are not sensitive to the various assumptions concerning regional wage formation considered in this study.

    Paper [IV]- A Panel Study of Migration, Household Real Earnings and Self-Selec- tion (co-authored with Roger Axelsson). The effects of migration on household real earnings are examined. Data pertain to a sample of stable household constellations in Sweden, 1978-1991. A treatment-effect model is employed, whereby the potential effects of nonrandom sampling of data on earnings for migrants and nonmigrants are taken into account. We find that stable multi-adult household constellations did not gain in income from migration during the 1980s. In addition, we find no strong indications of selection bias in the income equation.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Economic Influences on Migration in Sweden
  • 49.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Nationalekonomi.
    Employment Opportunities, Wages and Interregional Migration in Sweden 1970 - 19891997Ingår i: Journal of Regional Science, Vol. 37, nr 1, s. 55-73Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study I focus on the impact of aggregate labor turnover and regional labor market conditions on gross in- and out-migration within the framework of a neoclassical flexible-wage (equilibrium) model and a fixed-wage (labor-market disequilibrium) model. Using annual panel data on internal gross migration flows in Sweden from 1970 to 1989, I find that regional differences in employment opportunities have the expected effects on migration. The empirical relationship between real wages and gross migration flows is found to be less congruent with theory implications, indicating that compensated regional income prospects are equalized primarily via the interaction between employment opportunities and gross migration flows. Cyclical changes in hirings are shown to have a robust and strongly significant positive scale effect on migration.

  • 50.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Nationalekonomi.
    Geografisk rörlighet och tillväxt2005Ingår i: Arbetsrätt, rörlighet och tillväxt, ITPS, Stockholm , 2005Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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