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  • 1.
    Apsite, Elina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Lundholm, Emma
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Baltic State migration system: the case of latvian immigrants in Sweden2012Ingår i: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, E-ISSN 2004-4658, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 31-52Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden, with a particular focus on Latvia. Two historical turns in the BalticStates’ recent history have contributed to an out-migration from the region—the restoration of independence in the early 1990s and accession to the EuropeanUnion (EU) in 2004. Although these events were considered positive asthey meant “open” borders for Baltic State citizens, lately the out-migrationfrom Latvia has increased. Likewise, the global economic crisis that started in2008 and the consequential unemployment draw attention to emerging patternsand the composition of emigrants to several destinations, but in this caseparticularly to Sweden. After the EU expansion Sweden did not receive as manyEastern European migrants as was expected at the time, but recent trends revealthat there has been a steady increase in the migration flow since then. TheNordic countries as a potential destination initially lacked pioneer migrants toestablish social support networks that would attract newcomers, but this is nowchanging; statistics for 2010 show that the number of Baltic State immigrantsin Sweden has grown significantly since 2008. With the economic recessionand unemployment in Latvia in 2009, 2010 had even higher emigration activitythan in 2004 just after the country’s accession to the EU. Nordic countriesemerge as welcoming destinations to recent migrants, who state that the proximityto their home country and the labour market opportunities are the mainattraction but also that a positive view of Sweden and the Swedes plays a part.Contemporary trends of migration from the Baltic States and especially Latviaunder conditions of economic downturn lead to emerging pattern of migrationsystems between Latvia and Sweden, combining a mixture of motives and diversityof the people involved in migration chains.

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  • 2. Barban, Nicola
    et al.
    de Luna, Xavier
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Statistik.
    Lundholm, Emma
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR).
    Svensson, Ingrid
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Statistik.
    Billari, F. C.
    Causal Effects of the Timing of Life-course Events: Age at Retirement and Subsequent Health2020Ingår i: Sociological Methods & Research, ISSN 0049-1241, E-ISSN 1552-8294, Vol. 49, nr 1, s. 216-249Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we combine the extensive literature on the analysis of life-course trajectories as sequences with the literature on causal inference and propose a new matching approach to investigate the causal effect of the timing of life-course events on subsequent outcomes. Our matching approach takes into account pre-event confounders that are both time-independent and time-dependent as well as life-course trajectories. After matching, treated and control individuals can be compared using standard statistical tests or regression models. We apply our approach to the study of the consequences of the age at retirement on subsequent health outcomes, using a unique data set from Swedish administrative registers. Once selectivity in the timing of retirement is taken into account, effects on hospitalization are small, while early retirement has negative effects on survival. Our approach also allows for heterogeneous treatment effects. We show that the effects of early retirement differ according to preretirement income, with higher income individuals tending to benefit from early retirement, while the opposite is true for individuals with lower income.

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  • 3.
    Clark, Eric
    et al.
    Human Geography, Lund University, Sweden.
    Johnson, Karin
    Department of Economic and Social Geography, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Lundholm, Emma
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Island gentrification & space wars: How's the market for island properties? Hysterical.2007Ingår i: A world of islands: a island studies reader / [ed] Godfrey Baldacchino, Charlottetown, Canada: Institute of island studies, University of Prince Edward Island, Canada , 2007, s. 483-512Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 4.
    Garvill, Jörgen
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Lundholm, Emma
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Nöjda så in i Norden?: Motiv och konsekvenser för de som flyttat och stannat i de nordiska länderna2002Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 5. Hedin, Karin
    et al.
    Clark, Eric
    Lundholm, Emma
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Neoliberalization of housing in Sweden: gentrification, filtering, and social polarization2012Ingår i: Annals of the Association of American Geographers, ISSN 0004-5608, E-ISSN 1467-8306, Vol. 102, nr 2, s. 443-463Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last twenty-five years, housing policy in Sweden has radically changed. Once forming a pillar of the comprehensive welfare system, abbreviated the “Swedish model,” neoliberal housing politics have established market-governed housing provision with a minimum of state engagement. This shift has had consequences on the social geography of housing conditions. The research reported here analyzes social geographic change in Sweden's three largest cities—Stockholm, Gothenburg, and Malmö—between 1986 and 2001, relating observed patterns of gentrification and filtering to cycles of accumulation and to neoliberalization of housing policies. First, we outline the neoliberalization of Swedish housing policies. We then present an empirical analysis of gentrification and filtering in the three cities, spanning two boom periods (1986–1991, 1996–2001) and a bust period (1991–1996). The data reveal social geographic polarization manifested in the growth of supergentrification and low-income filtering. The analysis also introduces the concept of ordinary gentrification, supporting the move in gentrification research toward a broad generic conception of the process. Political reforms after 2001 are summarized and we argue that these underlie the continued increase in inequality and that the social geographic polarization mapped between 1986 and 2001 has probably intensified during this decade.

  • 6.
    Hedlund, Martin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Lundholm, Emma
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Restructuring of rural Sweden: employment transition and out-migration of three cohorts born 1945–19802015Ingår i: Journal of Rural Studies, ISSN 0743-0167, E-ISSN 1873-1392, Vol. 42, s. 123-132Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Rural restructuring has established itself in recent years as a popular area for research. However, the empirical findings are contested and criticism has been raised against its one-sided focus on agriculture and the British countryside. Drawing on Swedish longitudinal register data from three cohorts, we argue that there is empirical support for a restructuring process in rural areas. However, changes in agriculture are largely irrelevant considering the general picture – instead, it is the rise and fall of manufacturing and rural public sector employment, along with the recent growth of urban service sector employment, that comprise the contemporary economic restructuring of rural areas. We conclude that the contemporary restructuring in rural areas should be separated from a previous restructuring which went from agriculture to manufacturing.

  • 7.
    Karlsson, Svante
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Lundholm, Emma
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Har trenden vänt?: Om flyttning till och från den svenska landsbygden2014Ingår i: Plan, ISSN 0032-0560, nr 2, s. 32-35Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 8.
    Kulu, Hill
    et al.
    University of St Andrews.
    Lundholm, Emma
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Is spatial mobility on the rise or in decline?: An order-specific analysis of the migration of young adults in Sweden2018Ingår i: Population Studies, ISSN 0032-4728, E-ISSN 1477-4747, Vol. 72, nr 3, s. 323-337Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to investigate spatial mobility over time. Research on 'new mobilities' suggests increasing movement of individuals, technology, and information. By contrast, studies of internal migration report declining spatial mobility in recent decades. Using longitudinal register data from Sweden, we calculate annual order-specific migration rates to investigate the spatial mobility of young adults over the last three decades. We standardize mobility rates for educational enrolment, educational level, family status, and place of residence to determine how much changes in individuals' life domains explain changes in mobility. Young adults' migration rates increased significantly in the 1990s; although all order-specific migration rates increased, first migration rates increased the most. Changes in population composition, particularly increased enrolment in higher education, accounted for much of the elevated spatial mobility in the 1990s. The analysis supports neither ever increasing mobility nor a long-term rise in rootedness among young adults in Sweden.

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  • 9.
    Lundgren, Anna Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för kultur- och medievetenskaper. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR).
    Lundholm, Emma
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR).
    "De som är 65 tror att pensionärsföreningarna är för gamlingar"2018Ingår i: Äldre i centrum, ISSN 1653-3585, nr 2, s. 4s. 64-67Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 10.
    Lundholm, Emma
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Are movers still the same?: Characteristics of interregional migrants in Sweden 1970 - 20012007Ingår i: Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie, ISSN 0040-747X, E-ISSN 1467-9663, Vol. 98, nr 3, s. 336-348Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate interregional migration in Sweden during the last three decades and to discuss the effects that changes on the labour market and in household structures have had on migration patterns. The empirical data consists of all interregional migrants in Sweden from 1970 to 2001. The results indicate that the pattern of labour market-related migration has changed as more migrants today migrate at an age prior to having become established on the labour market. The increase in interregional migration is to a large extent an effect of increased student migration. The study further shows that changed household structures have also had an impact on migration patterns during the studied period. Interregional migration among families has become rarer as dual income households have become the norm.

  • 11.
    Lundholm, Emma
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Den sociala ekonomin i glesa miljöer: en teoretisk diskussion2002Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Social economy is a concept that nowadays is often used in discussions about local development. This essay is a theoretical discussion dealing with the definition of the concept of social economy linked to the processes of local mobilisation in sparsely populated areas. The initiative of this essay came from Nätverket för kooperativt och socialt företagande and it is a part of a project to scientifically document the signification of social economy in a region in northern Sweden which is considered as Objective 5b region according to the EU regional policy. Social economy is a part of what is sometimes called the “third sector”, activities that are neither strictly classified as public sector nor private sector. Activities in this sector are always a result of individuals seeking by united effort to supply a common need. This process takes place in a certain location and is dependent on the conditions and people in that place. Therefore it is interesting to evaluate the characteristics of the people and places where the process of local mobilisation has been successful. From the basis of a number of case studies found in literature, my own case study (1999), the experience of people working at Nätverket and scientific theories of various kinds a model has been constructed to describe the variety of processes vital to the process of local mobilisation. A comparison with the product life cycle model describes the development of a local mobilisation process over time. The positive effects of a successful mobilisation is obvious while even small improvements in supply of service or activities in a sparsely populated area can make a big difference for the people who live there. The road to a successful local mobilisation is not without obstacles as it is dependent first and last on the commitment of people. Another important conclusion is that the process of local mobilisation is highly dependent on the local structural conditions and can not be forced by external volition.

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  • 12.
    Lundholm, Emma
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Family ties and retirement in Sweden2008Ingår i: The Social Science History Association 33rd Annual Meeting Miami USA, October 2008, 2008Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 13.
    Lundholm, Emma
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Interregional migration propensity and labour market size in Sweden, 1970-20012010Ingår i: Regional studies, ISSN 0034-3404, E-ISSN 1360-0591, Vol. 44, s. 455-464Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The tendency in several European countries toward an increase in commuting has sometimes been presented as one possible explanation for why interregional migration propensity has decreased. This study is an attempt to investigate the impact of job availability on migration propensity over time. Other studies have shown that the size of the labour market has an effect on migration propensity. The same effect was found in this study. However, no evidence was found that job availability has become more influential on migration over time. The process of extended commuting has thus not made commuting opportunities more important as explanatory factor for interregional migration.

  • 14.
    Lundholm, Emma
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Migration - commuting substitution: commuting potential and interregional migration propensityManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 15.
    Lundholm, Emma
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Migration and regional differences in access to local family networks among 60-year olds in Sweden2015Ingår i: Journal of Population Ageing, ISSN 1874-7884, E-ISSN 1874-7876, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 173-185Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Regional variations in access to local family networks has implications for future care burdens in different regions as well as the living conditions for both older and younger generations. The geographical distance between family members is a long-term consequence of accumulated migration and non-migration undertaken by the individual as well as other family members. This study contributes to this subject through offering a description of regional disparities in the access to local family networks among 60-year olds in Sweden. Additionally, this paper aims to analyse this pattern as an outcome of long-distance migration processes. The empirical study is based on Swedish register data, with a focus on 60-year olds in Sweden, linking them to their adult children, siblings and parents as well as in-laws. The dataset includes total population, where it is possible to identify family networks in their geographical context on various geographic scales, down to a neighbourhood level. As expected, results indicate that families in metropolitan areas are the most concentrated geographically while the left behind parent, embedded in a local network in their own and older generation, is a small category in urban areas but quite common in some rural municipalities. It is also shown that access to local family networks not only varies on a broad rural–urban scale but also locally, between neighbourhoods within metropolitan areas.

  • 16.
    Lundholm, Emma
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    New motives for migration?: On interregional mobility in the nordic context2007Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The subject of this thesis is migrants’ motives and the outcomes of interregional migration, as well as how the propensity for interregional migration has changed for different groups over the past three decades. The background consists of a discussion on the role of the labour market in long-distance migration decisions and a discussion on how social and economic change affect the context in which migration decisions are made. The thesis consists of four empirical studies presented in four separate papers. The studies derive from two sources of data. Papers I and II are based on a Nordic survey, while Papers III and IV draw from Swedish population register data. Paper I focuses on migrants’ perceptions of the migration decision, motives, voluntariness, attitudes and values, based on a survey. The conclusion of this paper is that employment is by no means a dominating motive from the migrant’s perspective. Additionally, very few migrants explicitly express a sense of being forced to migrate against their will. Paper II is also based on the survey and examines the migrants’ perceptions of the outcome of migration in economic and non-economic terms. This paper further supports the view that employment and income gain are in most cases subordinate in the migration decision from the individual migrants’ point of view. Paper III is a register study comparing the composition of interregional migrants in Sweden during the period 1970-2001. In this study, it becomes evident that the increase in migration rates in the 1990’s was an effect of increased migration among young people. Compared to 1970, increasingly more people migrated during a time in life when they were not yet established on the labour market and had no family. Paper IV is also a register study comparing the effect of commuting potential on migration propensity in Sweden during the period 1970-2001. This paper concludes that increased commuting should be interpreted as a result of, rather than an explanation for, long-distance migration reluctance.

    Migration literature suggests that long-distance migration is primarily labour-market induced. This is evident in the sense that long-distance migration requires a new job in a new locality for those who are in the labour force, but this study show that this does not necessarily mean that employment is the main motive in the migrant’s mind; the trigger is usually something else, often related to social relationships. The pattern of interregional migration has changed over time. Compared to the 1970’s, more people now migrate at a time when they are not established on the labour market, and other considerations besides employment are thus more relevant. An important explanation for the current immobility among families and employed persons is attributed to the increase in dual-career households during the period studied. This has changed the aggregated migration behaviour everywhere, regardless of commuting potential, but enhanced constraints for interregional migration in this group could be seen as an explanation for the observed increase in commuting.

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  • 17.
    Lundholm, Emma
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Return to where?: The geography of elderly return migration in Sweden2015Ingår i: European Urban and Regional Studies, ISSN 0969-7764, E-ISSN 1461-7145, Vol. 22, nr 1, s. 92-103Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There are considerable regional differences when it comes to age composition, as rural areas are ageing more rapidly as a result of age-selective migration. Eras of urbanization and counter-urbanization are also making their mark on migration patterns from a long-term perspective. The current generation approaching retirement age in Sweden is a generation of urbanization, thereby constituting a potential for return migration, especially to some rural regions many people of this generation left decades ago. The aim of this paper is to compare rates of return migration in municipalities in Sweden in order to identify regions where return migration is particularly important, and also to identify which regions are the most attractive for return migration. The empirical study is based on Swedish register data, and the results indicate that the rate of return migration varies considerably between regions; some are more attractive for return migration, yet return migrants might be most significant in the regions that attract few other migrants. Another conclusion is that the regions that lost a greater share of this generation on account of previous migration often fail to attract return migrants.

  • 18.
    Lundholm, Emma
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    Returning home?: Migration to birthplace among migrants after age 552012Ingår i: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 18, nr 1, s. 74-84Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As the large post-war cohorts reach retirement age, there is a growing potential for later-life migrants. Not only are these cohorts large in number; they are also healthier and can make plans for a substantially long period to enjoy retirement. Additionally, in Sweden this generation is largely one of urbanization, which means that many have a linkage to the rural areas where they grew up. Attracting this potential of returning retirees is one strategy to counteract population decline: in some rural areas, politicians target returning retirees as potential in-migrants. Returning to one's origin is one potential motivation for migration later in life, once employment is no longer a restraining factor to a particular place, and it becomes possible to choose a place of residence more freely. The aim of this study is to examine the extent to which returning to one's roots is a factor in interregional migration in Sweden in the age group of 55–70 years. Data consist of all persons in Sweden aged 55–70 during the period 2003–2005, including their permanent residence and parish of birth. The results indicate that approximately one out of five migrants in this group who move further than 30 km are return migrants while about ten per cent return to parish. The results further confirm that migration in this age group, particularly return migration, is oriented towards rural areas. People born in the rural areas are also more prone to return at older age compared to those born in urban settings.

  • 19.
    Lundholm, Emma
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Unga flyttar allt mer: Men småbarnsfamiljer flyttar mindre än förr. Äldre föräldrar, tvåförsörjarhushåll och utbyggd högskola har skapat nya flyttmönster jämfört med 1970-talet.2009Ingår i: Forskning & Framsteg, ISSN 0015-7937, nr 4, s. 38-39Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 20.
    Lundholm, Emma
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Garvill, Jörgen
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Forced or free movers?: The motives, voluntariness and selectivity of interregional migration in the Nordic countries2004Ingår i: Population, Space and Place, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 59-72Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 21.
    Lundholm, Emma
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Between elderly parents and grandchildren: geographic proximity and trends in four generation families2009Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    In an ageing society, families may have an important role in the caretaking and well-being of the elderly. Demographic changes have an impact on the size and structure of families; one aspect is how intergenerational support is distributed when there is a need for support to both older and younger generations at the same time. Another vital aspect of the provision of care for the elderly is geographic proximity. This study is oriented towards the potential “both-end carers” i.e. persons who have grandchildren in potential need of care while still having living ageing parents. The incidence of having grandchildren and having living parents at age 55 and the proximity between generations is described using Swedish register data. The results show that the share of 55-year-olds who are grandparents decreased dramatically from 70 to 35 percent between 1990 and 2005. As expected, more 55-year-olds have living parents – a proportion that increased from 37 to 47 percent during this period. As a result of delayed childbearing among the children of these cohorts, the likelihood of belonging to a four-generation family among 55-year-olds has not increased, despite increased longevity. Furthermore, most individuals live within daily reach of their kin and no evidence was found of a trend of increasing geographic distances between generations.

  • 22.
    Lundholm, Emma
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    Between elderly parents and grandchildren: Geographic proximity and trends in four-generation families2009Ingår i: Journal of Population Ageing, ISSN 1874-7884, E-ISSN 1874-7876, ISSN 1874-7876 (Online), Vol. 2, nr 3-4, s. 121-137Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In an ageing society, families may have an important role in the caretaking and well-being of the elderly. Demographic changes have an impact on the size and structure of families; one aspect is how intergenerational support is distributed when there is a need for support to both older and younger generations at the same time. Another vital aspect of the provision of care for the elderly is geographic proximity. This study is oriented towards the potential “both-end carers” i.e. persons who have grandchildren in potential need of care while still having living ageing parents. The incidence of having grandchildren and having living parents at age 55 and the proximity between generations is described using Swedish register data. The results show that the share of 55-year-olds who are grandparents decreased dramatically from 70% to 35% between 1990 and 2005. As expected, more 55-year-olds have living parents—a proportion that increased from 37% to 47% during this period. As a result of delayed childbearing among the children of these cohorts, the likelihood of belonging to a four-generation family among 55-year-olds has not increased, despite increased longevity. Furthermore, most individuals live within daily reach of their kin and no evidence was found of a trend of increasing geographic distances between generations.

  • 23.
    Lundholm, Emma
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Gains and losses:  - outcomes of interregional migration in the five Nordic countries2006Ingår i: Geografiska Annaler. Series B, Human Geography, ISSN 0435-3684, E-ISSN 1468-0467, Vol. 88, nr B1, s. 35-48Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the outcome of interregional migration in various aspects from the migrants' perspective. It is based on a survey, including 6 000 interregional migrants in the five Nordic countries. The results indicate that interregional migration leads to a positive outcome for most migrants and few people seem to be forced to make decisions including painful tradeoffs. Motives have an effect on what aspects of outcome migrants are satisfied with. The influence of individual migrants' characteristics on migration outcome revealed few significant effects. Migrants claimed to be most satisfied with living conditions and less satisfied with the livelihood after moving. To be satisfied with social conditions turned out to be crucially important for the general outcome of migration.

  • 24.
    Lundholm, Emma
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    Sandow, Erika
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    Income distribution in family networks by gender and proximity2020Ingår i: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 26, nr 7, artikel-id e2373Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Whereas the significance of family networks for support and well‐being has been shown in previous research, few studies have analysed the income distribution within family networks. The aim of this study is to examine income distribution within family networks and how they have changed over time for women and men in different parts of the income distribution and if the incomes are more similar in the geographically proximate family network. The analysis is based on register data and by use of ordinary least squares (OLS) and quantile regressions. The results indicate that men in the lowest income group tend to have become more similar to their family network over time. Gender differences have decreased, possibly as an effect of women's higher labour market participation rate leading to decreased income disparity. This paper contributes by highlighting how the uneven distribution of economic resources in family networks adds to individual's own resources.

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  • 25.
    Marjavaara, Roger
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Lundholm, Emma
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    Does second-home ownership trigger migration in later life?2016Ingår i: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 22, nr 3, s. 228-240Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As a result of the ongoing urbanization trend in many countries, most rural and peripheral areas are suffering from depopulation and out-migration. Nevertheless, some rural areas are experiencing a net in-flow of older migrants. One explanation mentioned is that people own second homes that are converted into permanent homes in later life. However, this description has rarely been tested empirically. Rather, it has been described as residual for migration into rural areas. Three hypotheses have been put forward in relation to second homes as a trigger for migration in later life. The first is that second-home owners are less inclined to move but utilize their second home more as a substitute for permanent amenity migration. The second is that owners are more likely to move as they have the opportunity to move permanently to their second home, while the third is that second-home owners would be more likely to downsize from their permanent home and make housing adjustments. This study attempts to answer the question if second-home ownership triggers migration in later life and if it is a matter of housing adjustment or converting a second home into a permanent home. This is performed by analysing microdata covering all individuals in Sweden in the 55–70-years age range in the 1999–2008 period. Results support the hypothesis that second-home ownership triggers migration in later life and, by so doing, imply that a life course perspective is valuable for our understanding of migration in later life and that not only permanent migration but also experiences of temporary mobility are relevant for migration biographies.

  • 26.
    Martel, Catherine
    et al.
    Charles Darwin University.
    Carson, Dean
    Charles Darwin University.
    Lundholm, Emma
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    Müller, Dieter
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Bubbles and craters: analysing ageing patterns of remote area populations2011Ingår i: Demography at the edge: remote human populations in developed nations / [ed] Dean Carson, Rasmus Ole Rasmussen, Prescott Ensign, Lee Huskey, Andrew Taylor, Farnham: Ashgate, 2011, s. 107-123Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 27.
    Mulder, Clara H.
    et al.
    Population Research Centre, University of Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Lundholm, Emma
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    Young Adults’ Migration to Cities in Sweden: Do Siblings Pave the Way?2020Ingår i: Demography, ISSN 0070-3370, E-ISSN 1533-7790, Vol. 57, s. 2221-2244Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Young adult internal migration forms a large share of the influx of people into largecities in the developed world. We investigate the role of the residential locations ofsiblings for young adults’ migration to large cities, using the case of Sweden and itsfour largest cities: Stockholm, Gothenburg, Malmö/Lund, and Uppsala. We use registerdata for the full Swedish-born population of young adults aged 18–28 living in Swedenin the years 2007–2013 and multinomial logistic regression analyses of migrating toeach of the four cities or migrating elsewhere versus not migrating. Our point ofdeparture is the paving-the-way hypothesis, which posits that young adults who havea sibling living at a migration destination are particularly likely to move to thatdestination, more so than to other destinations. Additional hypotheses are related tohaving more than one sibling in the city and to the gender of siblings living at thedestination. We find support for the paving-the-way hypothesis and an additional effectfor having more than one sibling in the city. Having a sibling of the same gender in acity matters more for moving there than having a sibling of the opposite gender.

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  • 28. Mulder, Clara H.
    et al.
    Lundholm, Emma
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    Young adults' return migration from large cities in Sweden: The role of siblings and parents2020Ingår i: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 26, nr 7, artikel-id e2354Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Living in cities affects young adults' access to education and work. With the use of register data for 2000-2013, we examined the role of having siblings and parents living close by and having siblings and parents living in the area of origin, in young adults' return migration from the four largest cities in Sweden. We found that young adults were less likely to return, and also less likely to migrate elsewhere, if they had siblings or parents living in the city of residence than if this was not the case. If the parents no longer lived in the region of origin, the young adults were very unlikely to return. Young adults were more likely to return if they had siblings living in that region than if they had no siblings or the siblings lived elsewhere. Adverse circumstances such as dropping out of tertiary education, low income, and unemployment were associated with a greater likelihood of return migration.

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  • 29.
    Sandow, Erika
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR).
    Lundholm, Emma
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR).
    Leaving the city: counterurbanisation and internal return migration in Sweden2023Ingår i: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 39, nr 1, artikel-id 7Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines counterurban migration among young families with children in Sweden and the extent to which these moves reflect return migration, recognising the role of family members and family roots at the destination from a life course perspective. Drawing on register data for all young families with children leaving the Swedish metropolitan areas during the years 2003–2013, we analyse the pattern of counterurban moves and explore how the families’ socioeconomic characteristics, childhood origins, and links to family networks are associated with becoming a counterurban mover and choice of destination. The results show that four out of ten counterurban movers are former urban movers who choose to return to their home region. Among them, almost all have family at the destination, indicating that family ties are important for counterurban migration. In general, urban residents with a background outside metropolitan areas are much more likely to become counterurban movers. Families’ previous residential experiences during childhood, particularly in rural areas, are found to be associated with the residential environment they choose to resettle in when leaving the big city. Counterurban movers making a return move are similar to other counterurban movers in relation to employment status, but tend to be better off economically and move longer distances than other counterurban movers.

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  • 30.
    Sandow, Erika
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR).
    Lundholm, Emma
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR).
    Which families move out from metropolitan areas?: Counterurban migration and professions in Sweden2020Ingår i: European Urban and Regional Studies, ISSN 0969-7764, E-ISSN 1461-7145, Vol. 27, nr 3, s. 276-289Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper seeks to contribute to the ongoing revitalisation of the counterurbanisation research within population geography by nuancing counterurban migration beyond the rural–urban dichotomy, including all moves downwards in the urban hierarchy. The focus is to explore counterurban migration patterns among families with children leaving Swedish metropolitan areas, and whether some groups of skilled professions are more likely to make a counterurban move than others. Using register data on all families moving out from metropolitan areas in Sweden during the period 2003–2013, we found a small but steady outflow of families, mainly to medium-sized or small towns. The highly educated are overrepresented among these families, thus providing potential for an inflow of competence to the receiving areas. Contrary to expected, the assumed flexibility in time and space among knowledge sector professionals does not seem to enable them more than others to pursue counterurban moves. Instead, public sector professionals characterise families making a counterurban move to all destination regions, while men with a profession within arts and crafts to a higher extent move with their family to more rural areas.

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  • 31.
    Svensson, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Rentoft, Matilda
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk kemi och biofysik.
    Dahlin, Anna M.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Onkologi.
    Lundholm, Emma
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR).
    Olason, Pall, I
    Sjödin, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Division of CBRN Security and Defence, FOI–Swedish Defence Research Agency, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nylander, Carin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Onkologi.
    Melin, Beatrice S.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Onkologi.
    Trygg, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Johansson, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk kemi och biofysik.
    A whole-genome sequenced control population in northern Sweden reveals subregional genetic differences2020Ingår i: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 15, nr 9, artikel-id e0237721Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of national reference populations that are whole-genome sequenced are rapidly increasing. Partly driving this development is the fact that genetic disease studies benefit from knowing the genetic variation typical for the geographical area of interest. A whole-genome sequenced Swedish national reference population (n = 1000) has been recently published but with few samples from northern Sweden. In the present study we have whole-genome sequenced a control population (n = 300) (ACpop) from Västerbotten County, a sparsely populated region in northern Sweden previously shown to be genetically different from southern Sweden. The aggregated variant frequencies within ACpop are publicly available (DOI 10.17044/NBIS/G000005) to function as a basic resource in clinical genetics and for genetic studies. Our analysis of ACpop, representing approximately 0.11% of the population in Västerbotten, indicates the presence of a genetic substructure within the county. Furthermore, a demographic analysis showed that the population from which samples were drawn was to a large extent geographically stationary, a finding that was corroborated in the genetic analysis down to the level of municipalities. Including ACpop in the reference population when imputing unknown variants in a Västerbotten cohort resulted in a strong increase in the number of high-confidence imputed variants (up to 81% for variants with minor allele frequency < 5%). ACpop was initially designed for cancer disease studies, but the genetic structure within the cohort will be of general interest for all genetic disease studies in northern Sweden.

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  • 32.
    Svensson, Ingrid
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Statistik. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR).
    Lundholm, Emma
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR).
    De Luna, Xavier
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Statistik. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR).
    Malmbeg, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR).
    Family Life Course and the Timing of Women's Retirement: a Sequence Analysis Approach2015Ingår i: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 21, nr 8, s. 856-871Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on longitudinal data from national Swedish registers, family life courses dynamics for all women born 1935 in Sweden are explored for the period 1990-2006. Focusing primarily on the existence and geographical proximity to parents, children and grandchildren, assuming that the family life courses affect the life situation as well as strategic decisions, this longitudinal study uses a holistic approach, analysing how different types of family life courses are associated with socio-economic conditions as well as with the timing of retirement. The primary task was not to identify the causal determinants of work life exit, but rather to unfold how retirement transition is entwined into the different types of family life courses, whereby retirement and family ageing are different sides of a multifaceted transition period. By using sequence analysis, the family life courses were structured into sequences and durations of states and different family life course categories were identified.

    The sequence analyses reveal a complex relation between retirement decisions and having family members around. Early retirement was associated with a category with few relatives but also with a category with two younger generations present, while we found no strong association with early retirement for categories in which the old generation was around for a longer period. Late retirement was associated with belonging to categories characterized by late family formation and having children at home. These differences in retirement behaviour were also significant when controlling for education level, marital status and type of region in a Cox regression.

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  • 33.
    Thomassen, Jonne A. K.
    et al.
    Population Research Centre, Faculty of Spatial Sciences, University of Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Lundholm, Emma
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    Who stays in their birthplace? The role of multigenerational local ties in young adults' staying behaviour2024Ingår i: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 30, nr 3, artikel-id e2710Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We explore staying and migration behaviour using a multigenerational perspective on local ties. Based on Swedish register data, we take a shared birthplace between young adults and one or more of their parents and grandparents as a proxy for multigenerational local ties in the young adult's birthplace. Our aim is to investigate whether the presence of this type of longstanding, multigenerational local ties in the birthplace increases one's propensity to stay or return there during young adulthood. Using multinomial logistic regressions, we model the residential trajectories between ages 18 and 30 of individuals born in 1981, 1982, and 1983 who lived in their birthplace at age 18 (i.e., stayed in, moved from, or returned to the birthplace by age 30; N = 185,897). We find that the propensity for staying in one's birthplace increases with each additional parent or grandparent with whom the birthplace is shared. Overall, differences between ties shared with parent(s) and grandparent(s) are surprisingly similar, except ties that are shared with both parents. These have a particularly strong and positive effect. Although men seem to be tied more strongly than women to their fathers and paternal grandparents, we found no differences between men and women in their ties to mothers and maternal grandparents.

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