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  • 1.
    Arumugam, Ashokan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Strong, Andrew
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Tengman, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Röijezon, Ulrik
    Häger, Charlotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Psychometric properties of knee proprioception tests targeting healthy individuals and those with anterior cruciate ligament injury managed with or without reconstruction: a systematic review protocol2019In: BMJ Open, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 9, no 4, article id e027241Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: An anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury affects knee proprioception and sensorimotor control and might contribute to an increased risk of a second ACL injury and secondary knee osteoarthritis. Therefore, there is a growing need for valid, reliable and responsive knee proprioception tests. No previous study has comprehensively reviewed all the relevant psychometric properties (PMPs) of these tests together. The aim of this review protocol is to narrate the steps involved in synthesising the evidence for the PMPs of specific knee proprioception tests among individuals with an ACL injury and knee-healthy controls.

    Methods and analysis: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses will be followed to report the review. A combination of four conceptual groups of terms-(1) construct (knee proprioception), (2) target population (healthy individuals and those with an ACL injury managed conservatively or with a surgical reconstruction), (3) measurement instrument (specific knee proprioception tests) and (4) PMPs (reliability, validity and responsiveness)-will be used for electronic databases search. PubMed, AMED, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, Scopus, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and ProQuest will be searched from their inception to November 2018. Two reviewers will independently screen titles, abstracts and full text articles, extract data and perform risk of bias assessment using the updated COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments risk of bias checklist for the eligible studies. A narrative synthesis of the findings and a meta-analysis will be attempted as appropriate. Each PMP of knee proprioception tests will be classified as 'sufficient', 'indeterminate' or 'insufficient'. The overall level of evidence will be ascertained using an established set of criteria.

    Ethics and dissemination: Ethical approval or patient consent is not required for a systematic review. The review findings will be submitted as a series of manuscripts for peer-review and publication in scientific journals.

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  • 2. Arumugam, Ashokan
    et al.
    Strong, Andrew
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Tengman, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Röjezon, Ulrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Häger, Charlotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Knee proprioception deficits following an ACL injury: a myth or a reality2021Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Grinberg, Adam
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Strong, Andrew
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Buck, Sebastian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Selling, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Häger, Charlotte K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    An obstacle clearance test for evaluating sensorimotor control after anterior cruciate ligament injury: A kinematic analysis2022In: Journal of Orthopaedic Research, ISSN 0736-0266, E-ISSN 1554-527X, Vol. 40, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sensorimotor deficits, particularly proprioceptive, are often reported following rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). High secondary injury rates and long-term negative consequences suggest that these deficits are not properly identified using current assessment methods. We explored a novel obstacle clearance test to evaluate sensorimotor control in individuals following ACL reconstruction (ACLR) and rehabilitation. Thirty-seven post-ACLR individuals, 23 nonathletic asymptomatic controls (CTRL), and 18 elite athletes stepped over a hurdle-shaped obstacle, downward vision occluded, aiming for minimal clearance. Kinematic outcomes (3D motion capture) for the leading and trailing legs, for two unpredictably presented obstacle heights, were categorized into Accuracy: vertical foot clearance and minimal distance from the obstacle; Variability: end-point and hip/knee trajectory; and Symmetry: trunk/hip/knee crossing angles, hip–knee–ankle movement, and velocity curves. Accuracy was worse for CTRL compared with both other groups. ACLR had less leading and trailing vertical foot clearance with their injured compared with their noninjured leg. ACLR and athletes had less crossing knee flexion in their injured/nondominant legs compared with their contralateral leg, both leading and trailing. ACLR showed greater trunk flexion when crossing with their injured leg, both leading and trailing. For the leading leg, ACLR showed greater asymmetry for the hip–knee–ankle velocity curve compared with elite athletes. Trailing leg trajectory variability was lower for ACLR compared with CTRL and athletes for higher obstacles. Clinical significance: Sensorimotor deficits in individuals post-ACLR were reflected by greater asymmetry and less variable (more stereotypical) trajectories rather than limb positioning ability. This consideration should be addressed in clinical evaluations.

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  • 4.
    Grinberg, Adam
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Strong, Andrew
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Häger, Charlotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Does a knee joint position sense test make functional sense?: Comparison to an obstacle clearance test following anterior cruciate ligament injury2022In: Physical Therapy in Sport, ISSN 1466-853X, E-ISSN 1873-1600, Vol. 55, p. 256-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To evaluate knee joint position sense (JPS) among individuals with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR), cleared for return to sport, and investigate whether JPS errors are associated with outcomes of a functional obstacle clearance test (OC; downward vision occluded).

    Design: Cross-sectional.

    Setting: Controlled laboratory.

    Participants: Thirty-four individuals following ACLR, 23 non-athletic asymptomatic controls (CTRL), 18 athletes (ATH).

    Main outcome measures: absolute error (AE) and variable error (VE) for weight-bearing knee JPS (target angles: 40°, 65°); minimal distances of the lower extremity from the obstacle (at any time and vertical clearance; two obstacle heights).

    Results: Larger AE (P = 0.023) and VE (P = 0.010) were observed for CTRL compared with ACLR. CTRL also had larger OC distances for the trailing leg compared with ATH (P ≤ 0.046) and greater variability compared to both other groups (P ≤ 0.033). Moderate positive correlations (Rs ≥ 0.408, P ≤ 0.029) were observed between AE for the 40° angle and low-obstacle distances, for the injured ACLR leg.

    Conclusions: Knee JPS was worse in less-active individuals rather than following ACLR. Functional assessments like our OC test should complement isolated JPS tests, as they emphasize whole-body coordination and thus constitute more relevant estimations of proprioception.

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  • 5.
    Grinberg, Adam
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Strong, Andrew
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Strandberg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Selling, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Liebermann, Dario G.
    Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Björklund, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Häger, Charlotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    An electroencephalography-based approach to evaluate movement-related anxiety in physically active adults and following anterior cruciate ligament injury2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Psychophysiological consequences often persist following musculoskeletal trauma and can result in vastly decreased quality of life. Re-injury anxiety is particularly common among individuals following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Existing assessments of re-injury anxiety are, however, restricted to subjective suboptimal questionnaires, which may result in under-reporting and thus poorer injury management. We propose a novel approach to objectively quantify arousal response to movement-related anxiety. A new experimental paradigm was implemented to induce and record a conditioned electrophysiological response to a sudden perturbation, experienced to be potentially injurious.

    Objective: To explore the feasibility of detecting anxiety-associated electrocortical response and to evaluate its discriminative ability between asymptomatic individuals and those who had experienced an ACL injury.

    Methods: Physically-active asymptomatic persons and individuals post-ACL reconstruction stood blindfolded on a perturbation platform capable of generating high-acceleration translations (1.5 m/s2). Auditory stimuli were repeatedly presented in four-second intervals, as either low- or high-frequency tones. Half of the high-frequency tones were followed 1.5 seconds later by a destabilizing perturbation in one of eight randomized directions. The two tone conditions were thus termed ‘Neutral’ and ‘Anxiety’, as the high-frequency tone was intended to invoke an arousal response in anticipation of a potential perturbation. Event-related potentials (ERP) were computed for nine electrodes by averaging 100 Neutral and 100 Anxiety trials. Significant ERP components were identified using functional data analysis. Paired difference-waves’ amplitudes (Neutral - Anxiety) were compared between groups.

    Results: ERP correlates of anxiety were detected for both groups in frontal and central midline locations, with an observable contingent negative variation (CNV) from 500 ms post-stimulus in Anxiety compared with Neutral trials. This ERP component is reflective of a threat-induced arousal response, associated with attention and expectancy of an anxiety-relevant event. Preliminary data indicate no group differences in CNV amplitudes.

    Conclusions: Objective evaluation of an arousal response to movement-related anxiety was found to be feasible, resulting in a threat-induced CNV. Further investigation will elucidate the discriminative power of such an approach to differentiate between individuals with high and low re-injury anxiety, as well as potential associations with existing patient-reported outcome measures.

  • 6.
    Grinberg, Adam
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Strong, Andrew
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Strandberg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Selling, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Liebermann, Dario G.
    Department of Physical Therapy, Stanley Steyer School of Health Professions, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Björklund, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Häger, Charlotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    An electroencephalography-based approach to evaluate movement-related anxiety in physically-active personsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychological consequences often persist following musculoskeletal trauma and can result in vastly decreased quality of life. Re-injury anxiety is reported to hinder return to sports and can itself be a precursor for secondary injuries. Existing assessments of re-injury anxiety are restricted to subjective questionnaires, which may result in under-reporting and thus poorer injury management. In the current study, we introduced an experimental approach to objectively quantify movement-related anxiety using a threat-conditioning paradigm. We aimed to explore the feasibility of such an approach among non-injured persons.

    Ten physically-active individuals stood blindfolded on a platform capable of generating high-acceleration translations in eight different directions. Consecutive auditory stimuli were presented (four-second intervals), as either high- (conditioned stimulus; CS+) or low- (neutral stimulus; CS) tones. Half of the CS+ trials were followed by a perturbation in a pseudo-random order. Event-related potentials were computed for nine electrodes by averaging 100 X CS and 100 X CS+ trials. Significant latencies for CS – CS+ comparisons were identified using interval-wise testing. Mean-amplitudes for significant intervals were used to detect a channel effect.

    Large negative CS+ waveforms were observed from 302-627ms post-stimulus and continuing until the end of the trials, most prominently over frontal and central midline locations (p ≤ 0.025). This effect, inferred as a contingent negative variation wave (CNV), may be reflective of threat-induced arousal response.

    Our test paradigm was found to be feasible, with a CNV suggested as a potential biomarker for re-injury anxiety. Further validation is needed, as well as exploring the discriminative power of such an approach between individuals with and without previous injury.

  • 7.
    Grinberg, Adam
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Strong, Andrew
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Strandberg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Selling, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Liebermann, Dario G.
    Department of Physical Therapy, Stanley Steyer School of Health Professions, Faculty of Medical & amp; Health Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.
    Björklund, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation. Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, Department of Occupational Health Sciences and Psychology, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Häger, Charlotte K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Electrocortical activity associated with movement-related fear: a methodological exploration of a threat-conditioning paradigm involving destabilising perturbations during quiet standing2024In: Experimental Brain Research, ISSN 0014-4819, E-ISSN 1432-1106, Vol. 242, no 8, p. 1903-1915Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Musculoskeletal trauma often leads to lasting psychological impacts stemming from concerns of future injuries. Often referred to as kinesiophobia or re-injury anxiety, such concerns have been shown to hinder return to physical activity and are believed to increase the risk for secondary injuries. Screening for re-injury anxiety is currently restricted to subjective questionnaires, which are prone to self-report bias. We introduce a novel approach to objectively identify electrocortical activity associated with the threat of destabilising perturbations. We aimed to explore its feasibility among non-injured persons, with potential future implementation for screening of re-injury anxiety. Twenty-three participants stood blindfolded on a translational balance perturbation platform. Consecutive auditory stimuli were provided as low (neutral stimulus [CS]) or high (conditioned stimulus [CS+]) tones. For the main experimental protocol (Protocol I), half of the high tones were followed by a perturbation in one of eight unpredictable directions. A separate validation protocol (Protocol II) requiring voluntary squatting without perturbations was performed with 12 participants. Event-related potentials (ERP) were computed from electroencephalography recordings and significant time-domain components were detected using an interval-wise testing procedure. High-amplitude early contingent negative variation (CNV) waves were significantly greater for CS+ compared with CS– trials in all channels for Protocol I (> 521-800ms), most prominently over frontal and central midline locations (P ≤ 0.001). For Protocol II, shorter frontal ERP components were observed (541-609ms). Our test paradigm revealed electrocortical activation possibly associated with movement-related fear. Exploring the discriminative validity of the paradigm among individuals with and without self-reported re-injury anxiety is warranted.

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  • 8. Hébert-Losier, Kim
    et al.
    Schelin, Lina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Tengman, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Strong, Andrew
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Häger, Charlotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Curve analyses reveal altered knee, hip, and trunk kinematics during drop-jumps long after anterior cruciate ligament rupture2018In: Knee (Oxford), ISSN 0968-0160, E-ISSN 1873-5800, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 226-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures may lead to knee dysfunctions later in life. Single-leg tasks are often evaluated, but bilateral movements may also be compromised. Our aim was to use curve analyses to examine double-leg drop–jump kinematics in ACL-reconstructed, ACL-deficient, and healthy-knee cohorts.

    Methods: Subjects with unilateral ACL ruptures treated more than two decades ago (17–28 years) conservatively with physiotherapy (ACLPT, n = 26) or in combination with reconstructive surgery (ACLR, n = 28) and healthy-knee controls (n = 25) performed 40-cm drop–jumps. Three-dimensional knee, hip, and trunk kinematics were analyzed during Rebound, Flight, and Landing phases. Curves were time-normalized and compared between groups (injured and non-injured legs of ACLPT and ACLR vs. non-dominant and dominant legs of controls) and within groups (between legs) using functional analysis of variance methods.

    Results: Compared to controls, ACL groups exhibited less knee and hip flexion on both legs during Rebound and greater knee external rotation on their injured leg at the start of Rebound and Landing. ACLR also showed less trunk flexion during Rebound. Between-leg differences were observed in ACLR only, with the injured leg more internally rotated at the hip. Overall, kinematic curves were similar between ACLR and ACLPT. However, compared to controls, deviations spanned a greater proportion of the drop–jump movement at the hip in ACLR and at the knee in ACLPT.

    Conclusions: Trunk and bilateral leg kinematics during double-leg drop–jumps are still compromised long after ACL-rupture care, independent of treatment. Curve analyses indicate the presence of distinct compensatory mechanisms in ACLPT and ACLR compared to controls.

  • 9.
    Johansson, Anna-Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Grip, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Selling, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance (DRCMR), Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre, Hvidovre, Denmark; Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen (ISMC), Copenhagen University Hospital Bispebjerg, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Strong, Andrew
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Häger, Charlotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Influence of visual feedback, hand dominance and sex on individuated finger movements2021In: Experimental Brain Research, ISSN 0014-4819, E-ISSN 1432-1106, Vol. 239, no 6, p. 1911-1928Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to perform individual finger movements, highly important in daily activities, involves visual monitoring and proprioception. We investigated the influence of vision on the spatial and temporal control of independent finger movements, for the dominant and non-dominant hand and in relation to sex. Twenty-six healthy middle-aged to old adults (M age = 61 years; range 46–79 years; females n = 13) participated. Participants performed cyclic flexion–extension movements at the metacarpophalangeal joint of one finger at a time while keeping the other fingers as still as possible. Movements were recorded using 3D optoelectronic motion technique (120 Hz). The movement trajectory distance; speed peaks (movement smoothness); Individuation Index (II; the degree a finger can move in isolation from the other fingers) and Stationarity Index (SI; how still a finger remains while the other fingers move) were extracted. The main findings were: (1) vision only improved the II and SI marginally; (2) longer trajectories were evident in the no-vision condition for the fingers of the dominant hand in the female group; (3) longer trajectories were specifically evident for the middle and ring fingers within the female group; (4) females had marginally higher II and SI compared with males; and (5) females had fewer speed peaks than males, particularly for the ring finger. Our results suggest that visual monitoring of finger movements marginally improves performance of our non-manipulative finger movement task. A consistent finding was that females showed greater independent finger control compared with males.

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  • 10.
    Johansson, Anna-Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Grip, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Centre for Biomedical Engineering and Physics (CMTF).
    Strong, Andrew
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Selling, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Demographic Data Base.
    Häger, Charlotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Finger movement control and associated brain activity responses post-stroke2016In: XXI ISEK Congress: Bridges to innovation, 2016, article id P2-E-33Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Impaired finger dexterity is common after stroke, often affecting activities of daily living. Knowledge of kinematic characteristics and of underlying neurological mechanisms of such impairments is important to understand functional recovery. This study aims to investigate finger movement control and related brain activity patterns post-stroke (PS).

    METHODS: Data from a subsample including 9 participants PS with residual hemiparesis affecting manual dexterity (M age- 66; 3 female) and 12 able-bodied control (C) participants (M age- 65; 3 female) were analyzed. Two series of self-paced cyclic finger extension-flexion movements in random order were performed for each hand (4 series with vision, V, and 4 without vision, NV). Optoelectronic cameras monitored the 3D movement of markers affixed to the fingertips. Motion data was used to calculate each finger's individuation index (II), reflecting movement independence, each finger's Stationarity index (SI), reflecting the ability to keep the finger still while another moves [1] and Movement frequency (MF). Functional magnetic resonance imaging, with simultaneous movement recording, was used to investigate brain activity patterns in relation to the kinematic parameters. II, SI, MF and the effect of vision were analyzed for the 4th digit.

    RESULTS: A factorial ANOVA 2 [group] x 2 [condition] x 2 [side] x [index type] showed an effect for group (p < .0001; PS < C); condition (p < .01; NV < V); side (p < .0001; affected/non-preferred < non-affected/preferred); and index type (p < .0001; SI < II). An interaction between group and side (p < .01) showed that indices of the affected side were lower compared to the non-affected side within the PS group and compared to both sides in the C group. No significant effects were apparent for MF but significant correlations were found between the indices and MF that were restricted to the PS group alone (over all conditions- r = -0.22; p < .01; within the NV condition- r = -0.19; p < .01; within the affected side r = -0.15; p < .05; and within the SI categorization r = -0.14; p < .05). Furthermore, within NV for the non-affected hand on the SI alone (r = -0.54; p < .05). All indicate that slower movements had higher indices.

    DISCUSSION: The associations between slower MF and higher index values within the PS group were located to conditions with increased difficulty (NV, affected side, and SI). Thus, reducing speed may be a selected strategy to increase control of finger movements PS when the demand on motor control is high. Further, with the applied calculation of finger movement independence we were able detect group differences, side differences within the PS group, and a positive effect of vision of the hands during performance. This indicates that this calculation is a sensitive measure that could be used to study the effects of stroke and to monitor progression in motor recovery. [1] Häger-Ross & Schieber, 2000, J Neurosci 20:8542-50

  • 11.
    Johansson, Anna-Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Grip, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Strong, Andrew
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Selling, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Demographic Data Base.
    Häger, Charlotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Three dimensional kinematic analyses of movement control of individual fingers post-stroke2015In: Gait & Posture, ISSN 0966-6362, E-ISSN 1879-2219, Vol. 42, no Supplement 1, p. S33-S33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research question: Objectives of the present study are: (1) to quantify finger movements in a 3D context and (2) by this method investigate the ability to perform individualized finger movements, with and without vision of the hands, in persons with a chronic stroke diagnosis compared to able-bodied controls.

    Introduction: Increased knowledge of how fine movement control is affected by stroke is important for the understanding of recovery of function. This is crucial for the development of reliable and valid assessment methods for evaluation of rehabilitation of the upper limbs. This study is part of the MOST project (MOST-MOvement control in STroke) where both clinical tests and 3D movement assessments are performed.

    Materials and methods: At present, 18 persons post-stroke (M age = 67 years; 6 women) and 26 able-bodied controls (M age = 62 years, 11 women) have participated. The ability to perform uni-manual individualized finger movements and the effect of vison of the hands were evaluated. Participants were instructed to move a specific finger in cyclic extension–flexion movements at the metacarpophalangeal joint, keeping the rest of the finger straight and the other fingers still, at a self-paced speed during 10 s (2 test series for each hand; 8 test series in total). The task was performed seated. The wrists were extended about 10° and fixated to a wooden frame with forearm support. Reflective markers were affixed to each fingertip and movements were recorded by optoelectronic cameras. Based on the positional change of the fingers during task performance, two indices ranging from 0-1 were calculated: (1) Individuation index (II) where the independence of each finger movement is shown and where 1 indicate complete independence, (2) stationary index (SI) where 1 indicate that the finger remains still when the other fingers move [1].

    Results: Our results show that it is possible to quantify individual finger movements by use of 3D movement analysis addressing the quality of movement performance in stroke survivors: all but 3 persons post-stroke were able to perform the task. Preliminary analyses (based on a subsample constituted of 8 post-stroke and 8 controls) verify that the test discriminated between groups where participants post-stroke had lower values on II and SI as compared to the control persons, the lowest values were observed for the middle and ring fingers. Ongoing analyses will show if vision influences the outcomes.

    Discussion: A set-up has been tested where individual finger movements can be quantified in 3D, and that discriminates between persons post stroke compared to controls. This advancement carries a promise for development of better assessment methods for recovery of function post-stroke.

    Reference

    [1] C. Häger-Ross, M.H. Schieber Quantifying the independence of human finger movements: comparisons of digits, hands and movement frequencies.J Neurosci, 20 (2000), pp. 8542–8550

     

     

  • 12.
    Strong, Andrew
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Knee function, knee proprioception and related brain activity following anterior cruciate ligament injury2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Injury of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) may have negative effects on the short- and long-term function and proprioception of the knee joint. However, existing tests of knee function are often sports-related and less relevant for assessment in the very long term and there remains no ‘gold standard’ test of knee proprioception. A growing body of research also suggests neuroplasticity post-ACL injury, but brain response to lower limb proprioception tasks is not established and nor is the potentially related impact of ACL injury. Developing standardised, reliable and valid tests of knee function and proprioception including brain imaging may target rehabilitation interventions more efficiently.

    Methods: Paper I assesses knee function ~23 years after ACL injury. One ACL-injured group treated with physiotherapy only (ACLD) and one with additional reconstruction (ACLR) were compared to asymptomatic controls for performance and knee kinematics of the One-leg rise (OLR) test. Paper II is a published protocol for Paper III, which is a systematic review and meta-analysis of the psychometric properties (PMPs) of knee joint position sense (JPS) tests among individuals with ACL injury. Paper IV describes the development of one weight-bearing (WB) and one non-weight-bearing (NWB) knee JPS test using motion capture. Test-retest reliability is assessed and errors are compared between an active ACLR group (~23 months after reconstruction) and two asymptomatic groups of different activity levels. Paper V characterises brain response to a knee JPS test using simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging and motion capture among individuals ~2 years after ACL reconstruction and controls.

    Results: ACLD performed significantly fewer repetitions of the OLR with both legs compared to controls and displayed significantly greater knee abduction than ACLR and controls. Meta-analyses found sufficient validity for existing knee JPS tests, particularly those of passive movements, by showing that ACL-injured knees produce significantly greater absolute errors than contralateral asymptomatic knees and those of controls. However, the tests were found not to be responsiveness to intervention and the remaining PMPs, such as reliability, require more evidence to better determine their quality. The novel knee JPS tests of paper IV showed mixed reliability but were better for the WB compared to the NWB test and when absolute rather than variable error was the outcome measure. Post-hoc comparisons revealed significantly greater errors for less-active controls compared to the ACLR group. For Paper V, the knee JPS test recruited brain regions such as the parietal cortex, precentral gyrus and insula. Greater knee JPS errors were correlated with greater activation in the insula, as well as the anterior and middle cingula. The ACLR group showed significantly greater response compared to controls for mainly the precuneus, but only at the uncorrected level.

    Conclusions: Knee function may be negatively affected more than two decades after ACL injury based on performance and knee kinematics of the OLR test, which offers a clinician-friendly assessment tool of lower limb function but requires further investigation. Existing knee JPS tests seem to discriminate ACL-injured from asymptomatic knees. Passive tests produce greater differences, but current methods are diverse and often poorly reported, complicating recommendation of specific tests for research or clinics. The novel WB and NWB knee JPS tests should be developed for improved reliability, but their outcomes demonstrate the importance of considering activity level when comparing knee JPS between groups, which is rarely done. Brain regions recruited during our knee JPS test have previously been associated with, e.g. sensorimotor processes, interoception and body schema, confirming proprioceptive demands of the task. Correlations between knee JPS errors and response in the insula and cingula suggest they have an important role during such tasks. Subtle differences in brain response between ACLR and CTRL warrant further investigation.

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  • 13.
    Strong, Andrew
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Arumugam, Ashokan
    Department of Physiotherapy, College of Health Sciences, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.
    Tengman, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Röijezon, Ulrik
    Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Physiotherapy Section, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Häger, Charlotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Properties of tests for knee joint threshold to detect passive motion following anterior cruciate ligament injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis2022In: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research, E-ISSN 1749-799X, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 134Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Threshold to detect passive motion (TTDPM) tests of the knee joint are commonly implemented among individuals with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury to assess proprioceptive acuity. Their psychometric properties (PMPs), i.e. reliability, validity and responsiveness, are however unclear. This systematic review aimed to establish the PMPs of existing knee joint TTDPM tests among individuals with ACL injury.

    METHODS: The databases PubMed, AMED, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, Scopus, CENTRAL and ProQuest were searched to identify studies that assessed the properties of knee joint TTDPM tests in individuals with ACL injury. The risk of bias for each included study was assessed at the outcome level for each test. Overall quality and levels of evidence for each property were rated according to established criteria. Meta-analyses with mean differences were conducted using random-effects models when adequate data were available.

    RESULTS: Fifty-one studies covering 108 TTDPM tests and 1632 individuals with unilateral ACL injury were included. A moderate-to-strong level of evidence indicated insufficient quality for all of the following: convergent validity, known-groups validity, discriminative validity, responsiveness between subgroups, and responsiveness to intervention. Subgroup meta-analyses for known-groups validity did however find that a starting angle of 15° resulted in significantly worse TTDPM for knees with ACL injury compared to those of asymptomatic persons (mean difference 0.28°; 95% CI 0.03 to 0.53; P = 0.03), albeit based on only three studies. Due to the lack of evidence, it was not possible to estimate the quality of reliability, measurement error, and criterion validity, nor responsiveness from a criterion and construct approach.

    CONCLUSIONS: Among persons with ACL injury, existing tests of knee joint TTDPM lack either sufficient quality or evidence for their reliability, validity and responsiveness. Significantly worse thresholds for ACL-injured knees compared to those of asymptomatic controls from a 15° starting angle and trends towards significance for some validity measures nevertheless encourage the development of standardised tests. Further research investigating the influence of modifiable test components (e.g. starting angle and motion direction) on the PMPs of knee joint TTDPM tests following ACL injury is warranted.

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  • 14.
    Strong, Andrew
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Arumugam, Ashokan
    Department of Physiotherapy, College of Health Sciences, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.
    Tengman, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Röijezon, Ulrik
    Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Physiotherapy Section, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Häger, Charlotte K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Properties of knee joint position sense tests after anterior cruciate ligament injury: A systematic review and meta-analysis2021In: The Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 2325-9671, Vol. 9, no 8, article id 23259671211007878Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Knee proprioception is believed to be deficient after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Tests of joint position sense (JPS) are commonly used to assess knee proprioception, but their psychometric properties (PMPs) are largely unknown.

    Purpose: To evaluate the PMPs (reliability, validity, and responsiveness) of existing knee JPS tests targeting individuals with ACL injury.

    Study design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4.

    Methods: PubMed, Allied and Complementary Medicine, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, Scopus, CENTRAL, and ProQuest databases were searched to identify studies that assessed PMPs of knee JPS tests in individuals with ACL injury. The risk of bias for each included study was assessed and rated at the outcome level for each knee JPS test. Overall quality and levels of evidence for each PMP were rated according to established criteria. Meta-analyses with mean differences were conducted using random effects models when adequate data were available.

    Results: Included were 80 studies covering 119 versions of knee JPS tests. Meta-analyses indicated sufficient quality for known-groups and discriminative validity (ACL-injured knees vs knees of asymptomatic controls and contralateral noninjured knees, respectively), owing to significantly greater absolute errors for ACL-injured knees based on a strong level of evidence. A meta-analysis showed insufficient quality for responsiveness, which was attributed to a lack of significant change over time after diverse interventions with a moderate level of evidence. Statistical heterogeneity (I 2 > 40%) was evident in the majority of meta-analyses. All remaining PMPs (reliability, measurement error, criterion validity, convergent validity, and other PMPs related to responsiveness) were assessed qualitatively, and they failed to achieve a sufficient quality rating. This was a result of either the study outcomes not agreeing with the statistical cutoff values/hypotheses or the level of evidence being rated as conflicting/unknown or based on only a single study.

    Conclusion: Knee JPS tests appear to have sufficient validity in differentiating ACL-injured knees from asymptomatic knees. Further evidence of high methodologic quality is required to ascertain the reliability, responsiveness, and other types of validity assessed here. We recommend investigations that compare the modifiable methodologic components of knee JPS tests on their PMPs to develop standardized evidence-based tests.

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  • 15.
    Strong, Andrew
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Arumugam, Ashokan
    Tengman, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Röjezon, Ulrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Häger, Charlotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Psychometric properties of knee joint position sense test targeting individuals with anterior cruciate ligament injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis2021Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Strong, Andrew
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Grip, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Arumugam, Ashokan
    Department of Physiotherapy, College of Health Sciences, University of Sharjah, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre, Copenhagen, Denmark; Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen and Department of Neurology, Copenhagen University Hospital Bispebjerg, Copenhagen, Denmark; Institute for Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Selling, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Häger, Charlotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Right hemisphere brain lateralization for knee proprioception among right-limb dominant individuals2023In: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, E-ISSN 1662-5161, Vol. 17, article id 969101.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Studies indicate that brain response during proprioceptive tasks predominates in the right hemisphere. A right hemisphere lateralization for proprioception may help to explain findings that right-limb dominant individuals perform position matching tasks better with the non-dominant left side. Evidence for proprioception-related brain response and side preference is, however, limited and based mainly on studies of the upper limbs. Establishing brain response associated with proprioceptive acuity for the lower limbs in asymptomatic individuals could be useful for understanding the influence of neurological pathologies on proprioception and locomotion.

    Methods: We assessed brain response during an active unilateral knee joint position sense (JPS) test for both legs of 19 right-limb dominant asymptomatic individuals (females/males = 12/7; mean ± SD age = 27.1 ± 4.6 years). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) mapped brain response and simultaneous motion capture provided real-time instructions based on kinematics, accurate JPS errors and facilitated extraction of only relevant brain images.

    Results: Significantly greater absolute (but not constant nor variable) errors were seen for the dominant right knee (5.22° ± 2.02°) compared with the non-dominant left knee (4.39° ± 1.79°) (P = 0.02). When limbs were pooled for analysis, significantly greater responses were observed mainly in the right hemisphere for, e.g., the precentral gyrus and insula compared with a similar movement without position matching. Significant response was also observed in the left hemisphere for the inferior frontal gyrus pars triangularis. When limbs were assessed independently, common response was observed in the right precentral gyrus and superior frontal gyrus. For the right leg, additional response was found in the right middle frontal gyrus. For the left leg, additional response was observed in the right rolandic operculum. Significant positive correlations were found between mean JPS absolute errors for the right knee and simultaneous brain response in the right supramarginal gyrus (r = 0.464, P = 0.040).

    Discussion: Our findings support a general right brain hemisphere lateralization for proprioception (knee JPS) of the lower limbs regardless of which limb is active. Better proprioceptive acuity for the non-dominant left compared with the dominant right knee indicates that right hemisphere lateralization may have meaningful implications for motor control.

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  • 17.
    Strong, Andrew
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Grip, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance (DRCMR), Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre, Copenhagen, Denmark; Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen (ISMC), Copenhagen University Hospital Bispebjerg, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Selling, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Häger, Charlotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Brain Response to a Knee Proprioception Task Among Persons With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction and Controls2022In: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, E-ISSN 1662-5161, Vol. 16, article id 841874Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knee proprioception deficits and neuroplasticity have been indicated following injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Evidence is, however, scarce regarding brain response to knee proprioception tasks and the impact of ACL injury. This study aimed to identify brain regions associated with the proprioceptive sense of joint position at the knee and whether the related brain response of individuals with ACL reconstruction differed from that of asymptomatic controls. Twenty-one persons with unilateral ACL reconstruction (mean 23 months post-surgery) of either the right (n = 10) or left (n = 11) knee, as well as 19 controls (CTRL) matched for sex, age, height, weight and current activity level, performed a knee joint position sense (JPS) test during simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Integrated motion capture provided real-time knee kinematics to activate test instructions, as well as accurate knee angles for JPS outcomes. Recruited brain regions during knee angle reproduction included somatosensory cortices, prefrontal cortex and insula. Neither brain response nor JPS errors differed between groups, but across groups significant correlations revealed that greater errors were associated with greater ipsilateral response in the anterior cingulate (r = 0.476, P = 0.009), supramarginal gyrus (r = 0.395, P = 0.034) and insula (r = 0.474, P = 0.008). This is the first study to capture brain response using fMRI in relation to quantifiable knee JPS. Activated brain regions have previously been associated with sensorimotor processes, body schema and interoception. Our innovative paradigm can help to guide future research investigating brain response to lower limb proprioception.

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  • 18.
    Strong, Andrew
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Grip, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Selling, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Häger, Charlotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Functional brain response during a knee proprioception test among individuals with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and controlsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Strong, Andrew
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Markström, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Schelin, Lina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Häger, Charlotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Asymmetric loading strategies during squats following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a longitudinal investigation throughout rehabilitation with curve analyses2022In: 27th annual congress of the European college of sport science: book of abstracts / [ed] F. Dela; M.F. Piacentini; J.W. Helge; Á. Calvo Lluch; E. Sáez; F. Pareja Blanco; E. Tsolakidis, European College of Sport Science , 2022, p. 483-483Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Kinetic loading asymmetries during bilateral squats have been reported following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Evidence is however limited to discrete value data extracted at specific knee angles from cross-sectional studies where side-toside strategies are presented only at group level. It is therefore unclear whether loading asymmetries occur throughout the entire squat, whether they change during rehabilitation and how they are distributed between sides.

    METHODS: Bilateral bodyweight squats were performed by 24 individuals (13 females) post-ACLR on three occasions: 1) Early rehab - 2.9(1.1) months; 2) Mid-rehab - 8.8 (3.1) months; 3) Return to sport (RTS) - 13.1 (3.6) months; and 29 asymptomatic controls (22 females) on one occasion. Motion capture and two force plates were used to calculate time-normalized curves of vertical ground reaction forces andhip, knee, and ankle moments. Outcomes were compared between sides and groups, and over time, using functional t-tests with p-values adjusted by the interval-wise testing procedure. Individual knee loading strategies, i.e., under-/overloading of the ACLR side, were classified when asymmetry in favour of the respective side exceeded the 95% pointwise confidence interval of controls during at least 50% of the squat.

    RESULTS: At Early rehab, ACLR had significantly greater (adjusted P < .05) asymmetry in knee flexion moment than controls during thetime-normalized interval of 15-100% of the eccentric phase and the entire concentric phase, as well as ankle flexion moment during 56-65% of the concentric phase. At Mid-rehab, ACLR had significantly greater asymmetry than controls for knee flexion moment during 41-72% of the eccentric phase and for ankle flexion moment during 56-69% of the concentric phase. No significant between-group differences were found at RTS. At RTS compared with Early rehab, ACLR significantly reduced asymmetry for hip (21-46%, eccentric phase), knee (27-58%, concentric phase), and ankle flexion moment (21-57%, eccentric phase). Individual asymmetry strategies for knee flexion moment atEarly rehab were mainly due to individuals underloading the ACLR side (46%) rather than overloading (4%). At RTS, however, more individuals overloaded (25%) than underloaded (17%) the ACLR side.

    CONCLUSION: Curve analyses revealed significant kinetic loading asymmetries throughout bilateral bodyweight squats for our ACLR group compared with controls at Early rehab and Mid-rehab, but not at RTS. Significant reductions in hip, knee and ankle flexion moment asymmetry from Early rehab to RTS showed modifications during rehabilitation. An expected underloading strategy was evident for almost half of the ACLR participants at Early rehab, but an overloading strategy was the main reason for knee flexion moment asymmetry at RTS.Loading asymmetries during bilateral tasks should thus not be assumed due to underloading of the ACLR side, but may depend on anoverloading strategy, particularly late in rehabilitation.

  • 20.
    Strong, Andrew
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Markström, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Schelin, Lina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Häger, Charlotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Asymmetric loading strategies during squats following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a longitudinal investigation with curve analyses throughout and after rehabilitation2024In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 34, no 1, article id e14524Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Investigations of kinetic asymmetries during bilateral squats following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) are limited to mainly cross-sectional studies and discrete value data extracted at specific knee angles. We assessed loading asymmetries during squats longitudinally throughout rehabilitation using curve analysis and compared patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) between those with and without asymmetry. Bodyweight squats were performed by 24 individuals (13 females) post-ACLR on three occasions: (1) Early 2.9 (1.1) months; (2) Mid 8.8 (3.1) months; (3) at Return to Sport (RTS) 13.1 (3.6) months; and 29 asymptomatic controls (22 females) once. Time-normalized between-leg asymmetry curves of sagittal plane hip, knee, and ankle moments and vertical ground reaction forces were compared using functional data analysis methods. Individual asymmetrical loading for ACLR was classified when exceeding the 95% confidence interval of controls during ≥50% of the squat. At Early, ACLR had greater asymmetry than controls for knee (15%–100% eccentric phase; 0%–100% concentric) and ankle flexion moments (56%–65% concentric). At Mid, ACLR had greater asymmetry for knee (41%–72% eccentric) and ankle flexion moments (56%–69% concentric). No between-group differences were found at RTS. From Early to RTS, ACLR reduced asymmetry for hip (21%–46% eccentric), knee (27%–58% concentric), and ankle flexion moments (21%–57% eccentric). At Early, 11/24 underloaded their ACLR knee and 1 overloaded compared with controls. At RTS, 4 underloaded and 6 overloaded. No differences in PROMs were found based on loading asymmetry. Beyond the early phase of rehabilitation from ACLR, individual-level analyses are required to reveal differing loading strategies during bilateral squats.

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  • 21.
    Strong, Andrew
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Häger, Charlotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Development of supine and standing knee joint position sense tests2021In: Physical Therapy in Sport, ISSN 1466-853X, E-ISSN 1873-1600, Vol. 49, p. 112-121Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives We aimed to assess the test-retest reliability of a supine and standing knee joint position sense (JPS) test, respectively, and whether they discriminate knees with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury from asymptomatic knees. Design Repeated measures and cross-sectional. Setting Research laboratory. Participants For test-retest reliability, 24 persons with asymptomatic knees. For discriminative analysis: 1) ACLR - 18 persons on average 23 months after unilateral ACL reconstruction, 2) CTRL - 23 less-active persons, and 3) ATHL - 21 activity level-matched athletes. Main outcome measures Absolute error (AE) and variable error (VE). Results Test-retest reliability was generally highest for AE of the standing test (ICC 0.64–0.91). Errors were less for the standing compared to the supine test across groups. CTRL had greater knee JPS AE (P = 0.005) and VE (P = 0.040) than ACLR. ACLR knees showed greater VE compared to the contralateral non-injured knees for both tests (P = 0.032), albeit with a small effect size (ηp2 = 0.244). Conclusions: Our standing test was more reliable and elicited lesser errors than our supine test. Less-active controls, rather than ACLR, produced significantly greater errors. Activity level may be a more predominant factor than ACLR for knee JPS ∼2 years post-reconstruction.

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  • 22.
    Strong, Andrew
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Tengman, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Srinivasan, Divya
    Häger, Charlotte K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    One-leg rise performance and associated knee kinematics in ACL-deficient and ACL-reconstructed persons 23 years post-injury2019In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, E-ISSN 1471-2474, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 476Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Research indicates reduced knee function and stability decades after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Assessment requires reliable functional tests that discriminate such outcomes from asymptomatic knees, while providing suitable loading for different populations. The One-leg rise (OLR) test is common in clinics and research but lacks scientific evidence for its implementation. Our cross-sectional study compared performance including knee kinematics of the OLR between ACL-injured persons in the very long term to controls and between legs within these groups, and assessed the within-session reliability of the kinematics.

    METHODS: Seventy ACL-injured individuals (mean age 46.9 ± 5.4 years) treated with either reconstructive surgery and physiotherapy (ACLR; n = 33) or physiotherapy alone (ACLPT; n = 37), on average 23 years post-injury, and 33 age- and sex-matched controls (CTRL) attempted the OLR. Participants completed as many repetitions as possible to a maximum of 50 while recorded by motion capture. We compared between all groups and between legs within groups for total repetitions and decomposed the OLR into movement phases to compare phase completion times, maximum and range of knee abduction and adduction angles, and mediolateral knee control in up to 10 repetitions per participant.

    RESULTS: ACLPT performed significantly fewer OLR repetitions with their injured leg compared to the CTRL non-dominant leg (medians 15 and 32, respectively) and showed significantly greater knee abduction than ACLR and CTRL (average 2.56°-3.69° depending on phase and leg). Distribution of repetitions differed between groups, revealing 59% of ACLPT unable to complete more than 20 repetitions on their injured leg compared to 33% ACLR and 36% CTRL for their injured and non-dominant leg, respectively. Within-session reliability of all kinematic variables for all groups and legs was high (ICC 3,10 0.97-1.00, 95% CI 0.95-1.00, SEM 0.93-1.95°).

    CONCLUSIONS: Negative outcomes of OLR performance, particularly among ACLPT, confirm the need to address aberrant knee function and stability even decades post-ACL injury. Knee kinematics derived from the OLR were reliable for asymptomatic and ACL-injured knees. Development of the OLR protocol and analysis methods may improve its discriminative ability in identifying reduced knee function and stability among a range of clinical populations.

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  • 23.
    Svensson, Felicia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Strong, Andrew
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Textile electromyography electrodes reveal differences in lower limb muscle activation during loaded squats when comparing fixed and free barbell movement paths2022In: Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, E-ISSN 2624-9367, Vol. 4, article id 1021323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Traditional recordings of muscle activation often involve time-consuming application of surface electrodes affixed to the skin in laboratory environments. The development of textile electromyography (EMG) electrodes now allows fast and unobtrusive assessment of muscle activation in ecologically valid environments. In this study, textile EMG shorts were used to assess whether performing squats with the barbell resting freely on the shoulders or using a Smith machine for a fixed barbell movement path is preferable for maximizing lower limb muscle activation.

    Methods: Sixteen athletes performed free and fixed barbell squats in a gym with external loads equivalent to their body mass. Quadriceps, hamstrings and gluteus maximus activation was measured bilaterally with textile EMG electrodes embedded in shorts.

    Results: Mean quadriceps activation was greater for the free compared with the fixed movement path for the right (mean difference [MD] 14μV, p = 0.04, ηp2 = 0.28) and left leg (MD 15μV, p = 0.01, ηp2 = 0.39) over the entire squat and specifically during the first half of the eccentric phase for the left leg (MD 7μV, p = 0.04, d = 0.56), second half of the eccentric phase for both legs (right leg MD 21μV, p = 0.05, d = 0.54; left leg MD 23μV, p = 0.04, d = 0.52) and the first half of the concentric phase for both legs (right leg MD 24μV, p = 0.04, d = 0.56; left leg MD 15μV, p = 0.01, d = 0.72). Greater hamstrings activation for the free path was seen for the second half of the eccentric phase (left leg MD 4μV, p = 0.03, d = 0.58) and first half of the concentric phase (right leg MD 5μV, p = 0.02, d = 0.72). No significant differences were found for gluteus maximus.

    Discussion: Textile EMG electrodes embedded in shorts revealed that to maximize thigh muscle activity during loaded squats, a free barbell movement path is preferable to a fixed barbell movement path.

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