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  • 1. Dietze, Michael
    et al.
    Losee, James
    Polvi, Lina
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Palm, Daniel
    Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    A seismic monitoring approach to detect and quantify river sediment mobilization by steelhead redd-building activity2020Ingår i: Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, ISSN 0197-9337, E-ISSN 1096-9837, Vol. 45, nr 12, s. 2840-2849Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of spawning salmonids in altering river bed morphology and sediment transport is significant, yet poorly understood. This is due, in large part, to limitations in monitoring the redd‐building process in a continuous and spatially extended way. A complementary approach may be provided through the use of a small seismic sensor network analysing the ground motion signals generated by the agitation of sediment during the redd‐building process. We successfully tested the viability of this approach by detecting and locating artificially generated redd signals in a reach of the Mashel River, Washington State, USA. We then utilize records of 17 seismic stations, in which we automatically detected seismic events that were subsequently manually checked, yielding a catalogue of 45 potential redd‐building events. Such redd‐building events typically lasted between 1 and 20 min and consisted of a series of clusters of 50–100 short energetic pulses in the 20–60 Hz frequency range. The majority (>90%) of these redd‐building events occurred within 11 days, predominantly during the early morning and late afternoon. The seismically derived locations of the signals were in agreement with independently mapped redds. Improved network geometry and installation conditions are required for more efficient detection, robust location and improved energetic insights into redd‐building processes in larger reaches. The passive and continuous nature of the seismic approach in detecting redds and describing fish behaviour provides a novel tool for fish biologists and fisheries managers, but also for fluvial geomorphologists, interested in quantifying the amount of sediment mobilized by this ecosystem engineer. When complemented with classic approaches, it could allow for a more holistic picture of the kinetics and temporal patterns (at scales from seconds to multiple seasons) of a key phase of salmonid life cycles.

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  • 2.
    Frainer, André
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway.
    Polvi, Lina E.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    McKie, Brendan G.
    Enhanced ecosystem functioning following stream restoration: The roles of habitat heterogeneity and invertebrate species traits2018Ingår i: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 55, nr 1, s. 377-385Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Habitat restoration is increasingly undertaken in degraded streams and rivers to help improve biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Follow-up assessments focused on outcomes for biodiversity have often found scant evidence for recovery, raising concerns about the efficacy of habitat restoration for improving ecological integrity. However, responses of other ecological variables, such as ecosystem process rates and the functional trait composition of biological assemblages, have been little evaluated.

    2. We assessed how the restoration of habitat heterogeneity affected multiple functional parameters in 20 boreal stream reaches encompassing both more and less extensively restored sites, as well as channelised and natural reference sites. We further assessed relationships between our functional parameters and a fluvial geomorphic measure of habitat heterogeneity.

    3. Leaf decomposition was positively related to habitat heterogeneity. This was associated with shifts in the functional composition of detritivore assemblages, with the most obligate litter consumers more prominent in reaches showing higher habitat heterogeneity. The deposition of fine particulate organic matter was consistently higher in restored than channelised sites, and was positively related to the heterogeneity gradient. Algal biomass accrual per unit area did not vary either with restoration or the heterogeneity gradient.

    4. Synthesis and applications. Our findings demonstrate that restoration of river habitat heterogeneity can enhance retention and decomposition of organic matter, key ecosystem properties underpinning ecosystem functioning and service delivery. Significantly, enhanced litter decomposition was linked with a change in the functional composition rather than diversity of detritivore assemblages. Future evaluation of the success of habitat restorations should incorporate quantification of ecosystem processes and the functional traits of biota, in addition to measures of fluvial geomorphology and more traditional biotic metrics, to facilitate a more comprehensive and mechanistic assessment of ecological responses.

  • 3.
    Frainer, André
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Polvi, Lina
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    McKie, Brendan
    SLU Uppsala.
    Is ecosystem functioning enhanced when habitat complexity increases?: River restoration and the functioning of algal and detrital food websManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Stream restoration is a multi-million dollar business that aims at rehabilitating systems impacted by hydrogeomorphological modifications, such as channelization, and ameliorating physical or ecological degradation caused by catchment-scale impacts, such as agriculture or urbanization. Despite extensive programs aimed at restoring habitat complexity in channelized streams, there is little evidence for a recovery of biological diversity, and functional responses have been little assessed. Notably large-scale habitat restorations have recently been undertaken in a river catchment in northern Sweden, including rehabilitation of large habitat structures (massive boulders, large woody debris) originally removed to facilitate timber floating. Based on a hydrogeomorphological measure of habitat complexity, we characterised variability in habitat complexity across 20 stream reaches in the catchment, including reference, channelised and restored sites. We assessed whether increased habitat complexity following restoration affected retention of organic matter (FPOM), the functional diversity and organisation of the detritivore feeding guild, and two ecosystem processes: algal productivity and litter decomposition. Deposition of FPOM increased along the complexity gradient, as did leaf litter decomposition mediated by invertebrates. The increase in invertebrate-mediated decomposition was associated with shifts in the functional composition of detritivore assemblages, with feeding traits associated with more efficient decomposition more prominent in the restored reaches. There was no change in algal productivity at local scales, but increases in shallow, well- lit habitats favourable for algal growth indicate a possible increase in algal productivity at the stream reach scale. Increases in habitat complexity enhanced functioning within the detritital foodweb at local scales, without any changes in the biodiversity of detritivores. Our findings indicate that aspects of functional diversity and ecosystem functioning may be better than measures of community structure for assessing stream restoration projects.

  • 4.
    Gardeström, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Holmqvist, Daniel
    Vindel River Fishery Advisory Board.
    Polvi, Lina E.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Demonstration Restoration Measures in Tributaries of the Vindel River Catchment2013Ingår i: Ecology & Society, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 18, nr 3, s. Article Number: UNSP 8-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Some ecological restoration projects include elements of trial and error where new measures are repeatedly tried, evaluated, and modified until satisfactory results are achieved. Thereafter, the resulting methods may be applied on larger scales. A difficult step is judging whether developed "best-practice" methods have become reasonably ecologically functional or whether further experimentation "demonstration" methods can lead to yet better results. Here, we use a stream restoration project as a case study for evaluating methods and abiotic effects and outlining stakeholder support for demonstration restoration measures, rather than only using best-practice methods. Our work was located in the Vindel River system, a free-flowing river that is part of the Natura 2000 network. The river was exploited for timber floating from 1850-1976, and rapids in the main channel and tributaries below timberline were channelized to increase timber transport capacity. Several side channels in multi-channeled rapids were blocked and the flow was concentrated to a single channel from which boulders and large wood were removed. Hence, previously heterogeneous environments were replaced by more homogeneous systems with limited habitat for riverine species. The restoration project strives to alleviate the effects of fragmentation and channelization in affected rapids by returning coarse sediment from channel margins to the main channel. However, only smaller, angular sediment is available given blasting of large boulders, and large (old-growth) wood is largely absent; therefore, original levels of large boulders and large wood in channels cannot be achieved with standard restoration practices. In 10 demonstration sites, we compensated for this by adding large boulders and large wood (i.e., entire trees) from adjacent upland areas to previously best-practice restored reaches and compared their hydraulic characteristics with 10 other best-practice sites. The demonstration sites exhibited significantly reduced and more variable current velocities, and wider channels, but with less variation than pre-restoration. The ecological response to this restoration has not yet been studied, but potential outcomes are discussed.

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  • 5.
    Hasselquist, Eliza Maher
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Hjalten, Joakim
    Jørgensen, Dolly
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Lind, Lovisa
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Polvi, Lina E.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Time for recovery of riparian plants in restored northern Swedish streams: a chronosequence study2015Ingår i: Ecological Applications, ISSN 1051-0761, E-ISSN 1939-5582, Vol. 25, nr 5, s. 1373-1389Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A lack of ecological responses in stream restoration projects has been prevalent throughout recent literature with many studies reporting insufficient time for recovery. We assessed the relative importance of time, site variables, and landscape setting for understanding how plant species richness and understory productivity recover over time in riparian zones of northern Swedish streams. We used a space-for-time substitution consisting of 13 stream reaches restored 5-25 years ago, as well as five unrestored channelized reference reaches. We inventoried the riparian zone for all vascular plant species along 60-m study reaches and quantified cover and biomass in plots. We found that while species richness increased with time, understory biomass decreased. Forbs made up the majority of the species added, while the biomass of graminoids decreased the most over time, suggesting that the reduced dominance of graminoids favored less productive forbs. Species richness and density patterns could be attributed to dispersal limitation, with anemochorous species being more associated with time after restoration than hydrochorous, zoochorous, or vegetatively reproducing species. Using multiple linear regression, we found that time along with riparian slope and riparian buffer width (e.g., distance to logging activities) explained the most variability in species richness, but that variability in total understory biomass was explained primarily by time. The plant community composition of restored reaches differed from that of channelized references, but the difference did not increase over time. Rather, different time categories had different successional trajectories that seemed to converge on a unique climax community for that time period. Given our results, timelines for achieving species richness objectives should be extended to 25 years or longer if recovery is defined as a saturation of the accumulation of species over time. Other recommendations include making riparian slopes as gentle as possible given the landscape context and expanding riparian buffer width for restoration to have as much impact as possible.

  • 6.
    Hasselquist, Eliza Maher
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Polvi, Lina E
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Kahlert, Maria
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Sandberg, Lisa
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Mckie, Brendan G.
    Contrasting Responses among Aquatic Organism Groups to Changes in Geomorphic Complexity Along a Gradient of Stream Habitat Restoration: Implications for Restoration Planning and Assessment2018Ingår i: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 10, nr 10, artikel-id 1465Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many stream restoration projects aim to increase geomorphic complexity, assuming that this increases habitat heterogeneity and, thus, biodiversity. However, empirical data supporting these linkages remain scant. Previous assessments of stream restoration suffer from incomplete quantification of habitat complexity, or a narrow focus on only one organism group and/or one restoration measure, limiting learning. Based on a comprehensive quantification of geomorphic complexity in 20 stream reaches in northern Sweden, ranging from streams channelized for timber floating to restored and reference reaches, we investigated responses of macroinvertebrates, diatoms, and macrophytes to multiple geomorphic metrics. Sediment size heterogeneity, which was generally improved in restored sites, favored macroinvertebrate and diatom diversity and macroinvertebrate abundance. In contrast, macrophyte diversity responded to increased variation along the longitudinal stream profile (e.g., step-pools), which was not consistently improved by the restoration. Our analyses highlight the value of learning across multiple restoration projects, both in identifying which aspects of restoration have succeeded, and pinpointing other measures that might be targeted during adaptive management or future restoration. Given our results, a combination of restoration measures targeting not only sediment size heterogeneity, but also features such as step-pools and instream wood, is most likely to benefit benthic biota in streams.

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  • 7. Hof, Anouschka R.
    et al.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Polvi, Lina E.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Forest Restoration: Do Site Selection and Restoration Practices Follow Ecological Criteria? A Case Study in Sweden2021Ingår i: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 12, nr 8, artikel-id 988Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The speed with which restoration will, or can, be accomplished depends on the initial state and location of the sites. However, many factors can undermine the process of choosing sites that are deemed the best ecological choice for restoration. Little attention has been paid to whether site selection follows ecological criteria and how this may affect restoration success. We used habitat inventory data to investigate whether ecological criteria for site selection and restoration have been followed, focusing on restoration for the white-backed woodpecker (Dendrocopos leucotos B.) in Sweden. In our study region, which is situated in an intensively managed forest landscape with dense and young stands dominated by two coniferous species, purely ecological criteria would entail that sites that are targeted for restoration would (1) initially be composed of older and more deciduous trees than the surrounding landscape, and (2) be at a scale relevant for the species. Furthermore, restoration should lead to sites becoming less dense and less dominated by coniferous trees after restoration, which we investigated as an assessment of restoration progress. To contextualize the results, we interviewed people involved in the restoration efforts on site. We show that although the first criterion for ecological site selection was largely met, the second was not. More research is needed to assess the motivations of actors taking part in restoration efforts, as well as how they interlink with public efforts. This would allow us to identify possible synergies that can benefit restoration efforts.

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  • 8.
    Jonsson, Micael
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Polvi, Lina E.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Sponseller, Ryan A.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Stenroth, Karolina
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Catchment properties predict autochthony in stream filter feeders2018Ingår i: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 815, nr 1, s. 83-95Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Stream ecological theory predicts that the use of allochthonous resources declines with increasing channel width, while at the same time primary production and autochthonous carbon use by consumers increase. Although these expectations have found support in several studies, it is not well known how terrestrial runoff and/or inputs of primary production from lakes alter these longitudinal patterns. To investigate this, we analyzed the diet of filter-feeding black fly and caddisfly larvae from 23 boreal streams, encompassing gradients in drainage area, land cover and land use, and distance to nearest upstream lake outlet. In five of these streams, we also sampled repeatedly during autumn to test if allochthony of filter feeders increases over time as new litter inputs are processed. Across sites, filter-feeder autochthony was 21.1-75.1%, did not differ between black fly and caddisfly larvae, was not positively related to drainage area, and did not decrease with distance from lakes. Instead, lake and wetland cover promoted filter-feeder autochthony independently of stream size, whereas catchment-scale forest cover and forestry reduced autochthony. Further, we found no seasonal increase in allochthony, indicating low assimilation of particles derived from autumn litter fall. Hence, catchment properties, rather than local conditions, can influence levels of autochthony in boreal streams.

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  • 9.
    Jørgensen, Dolly
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Hof, Anouschka R.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Hasselquist, Eliza Maher
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Baker, Susan
    Chapin, F. Stuart, III
    Eckerberg, Katarina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Hjaelten, Joakim
    Polvi, Lina
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Meyerson, Laura A.
    Policy Language in Restoration Ecology2014Ingår i: Restoration Ecology, ISSN 1061-2971, E-ISSN 1526-100X, Vol. 22, nr 1, s. 1-4Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Relating restoration ecology to policy is one of the aims of the Society for Ecological Restoration and its journal Restoration Ecology. As an interdisciplinary team of researchers in both ecological science and political science, we have struggled with how policy-relevant language is and could be deployed in restoration ecology. Using language in scientific publications that resonates with overarching policy questions may facilitate linkages between researcher investigations and decision-makers' concerns on all levels. Climate change is the most important environmental problem of our time and to provide policymakers with new relevant knowledge on this problem is of outmost importance. To determine whether or not policy-specific language was being included in restoration ecology science, we surveyed the field of restoration ecology from 2008 to 2010, identifying 1,029 articles, which we further examined for the inclusion of climate change as a key element of the research. We found that of the 58 articles with climate change or global warming in the abstract, only 3 identified specific policies relevant to the research results. We believe that restoration ecologists are failing to include themselves in policy formation and implementation of issues such as climate change within journals focused on restoration ecology. We suggest that more explicit reference to policies and terminology recognizable to policymakers might enhance the impact of restoration ecology on decision-making processes.

  • 10.
    Lind, Lovisa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Polvi, Lina E.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Weber, Christine
    The role of ice dynamics in shaping vegetation in flowing waters2014Ingår i: Biological Reviews, ISSN 1464-7931, E-ISSN 1469-185X, Vol. 89, nr 4, s. 791-804Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ice dynamics is an important factor affecting vegetation in high-altitude and high-latitude streams and rivers. During the last few decades, knowledge about ice in streams and rivers has increased significantly and a respectable body of literature is now available. Here we review the literature on how ice dynamics influence riparian and aquatic vegetation. Traditionally, plant ecologists have focused their studies on the summer period, largely ignoring the fact that processes during winter also impact vegetation dynamics. For example, the freeze-up period in early winter may result in extensive formation of underwater ice that can restructure the channel, obstruct flow, and cause flooding and thus formation of more ice. In midwinter, slow-flowing reaches develop a surface-ice cover that accumulates snow, protecting habitats under the ice from formation of underwater ice but also reducing underwater light, thus suppressing photosynthesis. Towards the end of winter, ice breaks up and moves downstream. During this transport, ice floes can jam up and cause floods and major erosion. The magnitudes of the floods and their erosive power mainly depend on the size of the watercourse, also resulting in different degrees of disturbance to the vegetation. Vegetation responds both physically and physiologically to ice dynamics. Physical action involves the erosive force of moving ice and damage caused by ground frost, whereas physiological effects - mostly cell damage - happen as a result of plants freezing into the ice. On a community level, large magnitudes of ice dynamics seem to favour species richness, but can be detrimental for individual plants. Human impacts, such as flow regulation, channelisation, agriculturalisation and water pollution have modified ice dynamics; further changes are expected as a result of current and predicted future climate change. Human impacts and climate change can both favour and disfavour riverine vegetation dynamics. Restoration of streams and rivers may mitigate some effects of anticipated climate change on ice and vegetation dynamics by, for example, slowing down flows and increasing water depth, thus reducing the potential for massive formation of underwater ice.

  • 11. Lininger, Katherine B.
    et al.
    Polvi, Lina E.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Evaluating floodplain organic carbon across a gradient of human alteration in the boreal zone2020Ingår i: Geomorphology, ISSN 0169-555X, E-ISSN 1872-695X, Vol. 370, artikel-id 107390Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    River corridors play an important role in the carbon cycle as sites of carbon transport, storage, and transformation. Floodplain soil organic carbon (OC) and dead, downed large wood (LW) are two of the largest OC stocks in rivers. Human modifications of river corridors, such as damming and floodplain land-use change, have likely modified floodplain OC storage and retention through removal of LW and potential reduction of OC concentrations in soils. However, the effect of human alterations on floodplain OC storage is poorly understood. We measured floodplain soil OC and downed LW loads on three rivers in northern Sweden that display a gradient in the degree of human alteration. The Muddus River is located in a national park and is unaltered. The Vindel River is free-flowing but has been modified via logging and other land-use changes within the floodplain. The Ume River is dammed along its length and has also experienced floodplain logging and land-use change. We used statistical models to determine which factors are associated with differences in mineral soil OC and LW among rivers with different degrees of human alteration. We find the highest mineral soil OC concentrations on the unaltered Muddus River (mean ± standard error (SE) = 3.70 ± 0.59%; median = 3.81%), with lower soil OC along the Vindel (mean ± SE = 1.44 ± 0.22%; median = 0.72%) and Ume (mean ± SE = 2.47 ± 0.44%; median = 1.12%) Rivers. The Muddus River also has the highest downed LW loads (mean ± SE = 22.25 ± 6.99 m3 ha−1) compared to the Vindel (mean ± SE = 3.10 ± 1.26 m3 ha−1) and Ume (mean ± SE = 7.26 ± 3.53 m3 ha−1) Rivers. Variations in soil OC and downed large wood loads indicate that damming may reduce floodplain OC in these boreal systems through reducing lateral channel-floodplain connectivity and longitudinal connectivity. Logging and other land-use changes likely reduce OC inputs to the floodplain surface through removal of organic matter and LW. Further research is needed to elucidate the impact of human modifications on floodplain OC across diverse regions and to inform river restoration efforts to enhance floodplain OC storage.

  • 12.
    Mason, Richard J.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Polvi, Lina E.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Unravelling fluvial versus glacial legacy controls on boulder-bed river geomorphology for semi-alluvial rivers in Fennoscandia2023Ingår i: Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, ISSN 0197-9337, E-ISSN 1096-9837, Vol. 48, nr 14, s. 2900-2919Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    River management is founded on predictable self-organisation between river form and catchment controls in alluvial rivers. However, a substantial proportion of rivers are not fully alluvial. In previously glaciated landscapes, boulder-rich glacial till influences river channel form and process. Increasing interest in nature- and process-based river restoration requires knowledge of pre-disturbance natural processes, which does not exist for semi- and non-alluvial rivers in Fennoscandia. We aimed to determine the role of Pleistocene glaciation and subsequent deglaciation versus Holocene fluvial processes in controlling channel form of boulder-bed rivers in Fennoscandia. We quantified morphological characteristics of northern Swedish boulder-bed rivers, in which channel morphology was minimally impacted by humans, and used the degree of alluvial signatures to infer fluvial and legacy glacial controls. We conducted surveys of reach-scale channel geometry, boulder and wood distributions and catchment characteristics for 20 reference reaches (drainage area: 11–114 km2). Reaches ranged in slope from 1% to 8% and were extremely diverse in channel geometry. Rivers showed little self-organisation at the reach scale; no association exists between channel width and channel slope or bed sediment size. Boulders were rarely clustered into bedforms (e.g., step-pools) typical of boulder-bed mountain rivers. Drainage area was positively correlated with channel capacity but not channel width, slope or sediment size. Channel boulder density was best predicted by surveys of terrestrial boulders. Consequently, channel geometry, boulder size and the distribution of boulders were primarily controlled by legacy glacial conditioning rather than current fluvial processes, with some alluvial adjustment of smaller particles within the boulder template. Therefore, restoration of semi-alluvial rivers should take into account local sediment and geomorphic conditions rather than use management principles built for fully alluvial rivers.

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  • 13.
    Nilsson, Christer
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Polvi, Lina E
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Gardeström, Johanna
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Maher Hasselquist, Eliza
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Lind, Lovisa
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Sarneel, Judith M
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Riparian and in-stream restoration of boreal streams and rivers: success or failure?2015Ingår i: Ecohydrology, ISSN 1936-0584, E-ISSN 1936-0592, Vol. 8, nr 5, s. 753-764Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We reviewed follow-up studies from Finnish and Swedish streams that have been restored after timber floating to assess the abiotic and biotic responses to restoration. More specifically, from a review of 18 case studies (16 published and 2 unpublished), we determined whether different taxonomic groups react differently or require different periods of time to respond to the same type of restoration. Restoration entailed returning coarse sediment (cobbles and boulders) and sometimes large wood to previously channelized turbulent reaches, primarily with the objective of meeting habitat requirements of naturally reproducing salmonid fish. The restored streams showed a consistent increase in channel complexity and retention capacity, but the biotic responses were weak or absent in most species groups. Aquatic mosses growing on boulders were drastically reduced shortly after restoration, but in most studies, they recovered after a few years. Riparian plants, macroinvertebrates and fish did not show any consistent trends in response. We discuss seven alternative explanations to these inconsistent results and conclude that two decades is probably too short a time for most organisms to recover. We recommend long-term monitoring using standardized methods, a landscape-scale perspective and a wider range of organisms to improve the basis for judging to what extent restoration in boreal streams has achieved its goal of reducing the impacts from timber floating.

  • 14.
    Nilsson, Christer
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Polvi, Lina E
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Lind, Lovisa
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Extreme events in streams and rivers in arctic and subarctic regions in an uncertain future2015Ingår i: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 60, nr 12, s. 2535-2546Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We review the predicted changes in extreme events following climate change in flowing waters in arctic and subarctic regions. These regions are characterised by tundra or taiga ecosystems in either erosional or depositional glacial landforms or presently glacierised areas of the Northern Hemisphere. The ecological and geomorphic effects of extreme meteorological and hydrological events, such as episodes of strongly increased precipitation, temperatures and flows, can be exacerbated by altered base conditions. For example, winter temperature variations between frost and thaw will become more frequent at many places because mean temperature during the winter is closer to 0 °C, potentially leading to changes in the production of ice and intensified disturbance of riparian and aquatic habitats during extreme floods. Additionally, thawing of permafrost and glaciers can lead to increased bank erosion because of thaw slump and glacial outburst floods. We discuss the abiotic and biotic effects of these and other extreme events, including heavy precipitation, floods, drought and extreme air or water temperatures, and summarise our findings in a model that aims to stimulate further research in this field.

  • 15.
    Nilsson, Christer
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Sarneel, Judith M.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Ecology & Biodiversity Group and Plant Ecophysiology Group, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Palm, Daniel
    Gardeström, Johanna
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Pilotto, Francesca
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Polvi, Lina E.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Lind, Lovisa
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Holmqvist, Daniel
    Lundqvist, Hans
    How do biota respond to additional physical restoration of restored streams?2017Ingår i: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 20, nr 1, s. 144-162Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Restoration of channelized streams by returning coarse sediment from stream edges to the wetted channel has become a common practice in Sweden. Yet, restoration activities do not always result in the return of desired biota. This study evaluated a restoration project in the Vindel River in northern Sweden in which practitioners further increased channel complexity of previously restored stream reaches by placing very large boulders (> 1 m), trees (> 8 m), and salmonid spawning gravel from adjacent upland areas into the channels. One reach restored with basic methods and another with enhanced methods were selected in each of ten different tributaries to the main channel. Geomorphic and hydraulic complexity was enhanced but the chemical composition of riparian soils and the communities of riparian plants and fish did not exhibit any clear responses to the enhanced restoration measures during the first 5 years compared to reaches restored with basic restoration methods. The variation in the collected data was among streams instead of between types of restored reaches. We conclude that restoration is a disturbance in itself, that immigration potential varies across landscapes, and that biotic recovery processes in boreal river systems are slow. We suggest that enhanced restoration has to apply a catchment-scale approach accounting for connectivity and availability of source populations, and that low-intensity monitoring has to be performed over several decades to evaluate restoration outcomes.

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  • 16.
    Pilotto, Francesca
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Polvi, Lina E.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    McKie, Brendan G.
    First signs of macroinvertebrate recovery following enhanced restoration of boreal streams used for timber floating2018Ingår i: Ecological Applications, ISSN 1051-0761, E-ISSN 1939-5582, Vol. 28, nr 2, s. 587-597Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although ecological restoration generally succeeds in increasing physical heterogeneity, many projects fail to enhance biota. Researchers have suggested several possible explanations, including insufficient restoration intensity, or time-lags in ecological responses that prevent detection of significant changes in short-term monitoring programs. This study aims to evaluate whether benthic macroinvertebrate communities responded to an expanded set of stream restoration measures within a study period of one to five years after completion of the restoration project. We studied 10 forest streams in northern Sweden that were channelized in the past for timber floating. Managers subjected six of these streams to habitat restoration, on each of these we selected two reaches, located in close proximity but differing in restoration intensity. In basic restored reaches, the restoration managers broke up the channelized banks and returned cobbles and small boulders to the main channel. In enhanced restoration reaches, they added additional large wood and boulders to reaches previously subjected to basic restoration, and rehabilitated gravel beds. The remaining four streams were not restored, and thus represent the baseline impacted (channelized) condition. We surveyed stream benthic assemblages before the enhanced restoration (year 2010) and three times afterward between 2011 and 2015. Five years after restoration, macroinvertebrate assemblages at the enhanced restored reaches were more differentiated from channelized conditions than those at basic-restored reaches. This reflected increased relative abundances of the insect orders Ephemeroptera and Trichoptera and the bivalve molluscs Sphaeriidae and decreased relative abundances of Chironomidae (Diptera). Analysis of functional traits provided further insights on the mechanistic explanations driving the recovery, e.g., indicating that the augmented channel retention capacity at enhanced restored reaches favored taxa adapted to slow flow conditions and more effectively retained passive aquatic dispersers. The increased restoration intensity in enhanced restored reaches has resulted in shifts in the composition of benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages, including increases in more sensitive taxa. These shifts became fully apparent five years after the enhanced restoration. Our results emphasize the value of longer-term monitoring to assess ecological responses following restoration, and of undertaking additional restoration as a valuable management option for previously restored sites that failed to achieve biotic recovery.

  • 17.
    Poeppl, Ronald E.
    et al.
    Department of Geography and Regional Research, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Polvi, Lina E.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Turnbull, Laura
    Department of Geography, Durham University, Durham, United Kingdom.
    (Dis)connectivity in hydro-geomorphic systems – emerging concepts and their applications2023Ingår i: Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, ISSN 0197-9337, E-ISSN 1096-9837, Vol. 48, nr 6, s. 1089-1094Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In geomorphology, connectivity has emerged as a framework for understanding the transfer of water and sediment through landscapes. Over the past decade, sessions on (dis)connectivity at the General Assembly of the European Geosciences Union (EGU), and more recently, three mini-conferences in 2020 and 2021 called ‘Connectivity Conversations’, organized by the International Association of Geomorphologists (IAG) working group on ‘Connectivity in Geomorphology’, have created a space for the exchange of ideas relating to (dis)connectivity in geomorphology and related disciplines. The result of these initiatives has been a collection of research articles related to a special issue (SI) entitled ‘(Dis)connectivity in hydro-geomorphic systems – emerging concepts and their applications’. In this article, we provide a synthesis that embraces the SI contributions related to the application of the connectivity concept in different environments and geomorphic process domains, spatial and temporal scales, types and spatial dimensions of connectivity and the role of human impacts and associated river and catchment management aspects.

  • 18.
    Polvi, Lina E.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Morphodynamics of Boulder-Bed Semi-Alluvial Streams in Northern Fennoscandia: A Flume Experiment to Determine Sediment Self-Organization2021Ingår i: Water resources research, ISSN 0043-1397, E-ISSN 1944-7973, Vol. 57, nr 3, artikel-id e2020WR028859Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In northern Fennoscandia, semi-alluvial boulder-bed channels with coarse glacial legacy sediment are abundant, and due to widespread anthropogenic manipulation during timber-floating, unimpacted reference reaches are rare. The landscape context of these semi-alluvial rapids—with numerous mainstem lakes that buffer high flows and sediment connectivity in addition to a regional low sediment yield—contribute to low amounts of fine sediment and incompetent flows to transport boulders. To determine the morphodynamics of semi-alluvial rapids and potential self-organization of sediment with multiple high flows, a flume experiment was designed and carried out to mimic conditions in semi-alluvial rapids in northern Fennoscandia. Two slope setups (2% and 5%) were used to model a range of flows (Q1 (summer high flow), Q2, Q10, and Q50) in a 8 × 1.1 m flume with a sediment distribution analogous to field conditions; bed topography was measured using structure-from-motion photogrammetry after each flow to obtain DEMs. No classic steep coarse-bed channel bedforms (e.g., step-pools) developed. However, similarly to boulder-bed channels with low relative submergence, at Q10 and Q50 flows, sediment deposited upstream of boulders and scoured downstream. Because the Q50 flow was not able to rework the channel by disrupting grain-interlocking from preceding lower flows, transporting boulders, or forming channel-spanning boulders, the channel-forming discharge is larger than the Q50. These results have implications for restoration of gravel spawning beds in northern Fennoscandia and highlight the importance of large grains in understanding channel morphodynamics.

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  • 19.
    Polvi, Lina E.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Baker, Daniel W.
    Restoration of Physical Integrity of Rivers2016Ingår i: Oxford Bibliographies in Ecology, Oxford Bibliographies, 2016Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 20.
    Polvi, Lina E.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Dietze, M.
    Lotsari, E.
    Turowski, J. M.
    Lind, Lovisa
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Department of Environmental and Life Sciences, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Seismic Monitoring of a Subarctic River: Seasonal Variations in Hydraulics, Sediment Transport, and Ice Dynamics2020Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Earth Surface, ISSN 2169-9003, E-ISSN 2169-9011, Vol. 125, nr 7, artikel-id e2019JF005333Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    High-latitude rivers are commonly covered by ice for up to one third of the year. Our understanding of the effects of ice on channel morphodynamics and bedload transport is hindered by the difficulties of sensing through the ice and dangers of field work on thin ice or during ice break-up. To avoid this drawback, we used seismic signals to interpret processes and quantify water and sediment fluxes. Our objective was to determine seasonal differences in hydraulics and bedload sediment transport under ice-covered versus open-channel flow conditions using a small seismic network and to provide a first-order estimation of sediment flux in a Fennoscandian river. Our study reach was on a straight, low-gradient section of the Savar River in northern Sweden. Interpretations of seismic signals, from a station 40 m away from the river, and inverted physical models of river stage and bedload flux indicate clear seasonal differences between ice-covered and open-channel flow conditions. Diurnal cycles in seismic signals reflecting turbulence and sediment transport are evident directly after ice break-up. Analysis of seismic signals of ice-cracking support our visual interpretation of ice break-up timing and the main ice break-up mechanism as thermal rather than mechanical. Assuming the bulk of sediment moves during ice break-up and the snowmelt flood, we calculate a minimum annual sediment flux of 56.2 +/- 0.7 t/km(2), which drastically reduces the uncertainty from previous estimates (0-50 t/km(2)) that exclude ice-covered or ice break-up periods.

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  • 21.
    Polvi, Lina E.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Lind, Lovisa
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Department of Environmental and Life Sciences, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Persson, Henrik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Miranda-Melo, Aneliza
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. State Forest Institute (IEF), Government of Minas Gerais State, Ibituruna, Montes Claros, Brazil.
    Pilotto, Francesca
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Su, Xiaolei
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Key Laboratory of Eco-Environments in Three Gorges Reservoir Region (Ministry of Education), Chongqing Key Laboratory of Plant Ecology and Resources in Three Gorges Reservoir Region, School of Life Sciences, Southwest University, Beibei, Chongqing, PR China.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Facets and scales in river restoration: Nestedness and interdependence of hydrological, geomorphic, ecological, and biogeochemical processes2020Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 265, artikel-id 110288Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although river restoration has increased rapidly, observations of successful ecological recovery are rare, mostly due to a discrepancy in the spatial scale of the impact and the restoration. Rivers and their ecological communities are a product of four river facets—hydrology, geomorphology, ecology and biogeochemistry—that act and interact on several spatial scales, from the sub-reach to the reach and catchment scales. The four river facets usually affect one another in predictable pathways (e.g., hydrology commonly controls geomorphology), but we show that the order in which they affect each other and can be restored varies depending on ecoregion and hydroclimatic regime. Similarly, processes at different spatial scales can be nested or independent of those at larger scales. Although some restoration practices are dependent of those at higher scales, other reach-scale restoration efforts are independent and can be carried out prior to or concurrently with larger-scale restoration. We introduce a checklist using the four river facets to prioritize restoration at three spatial scales in order to have the largest positive effect on the entire catchment. We apply this checklist to two contrasting regions—in northern Sweden and in southern Brazil—with different anthropogenic effects and interactions between facets and scales. In the case of nested processes that are dependent on larger spatial scales, reach-scale restoration in the absence of restoration of catchment-scale processes can frankly be a waste of money, providing little ecological return. However, depending on the scale-interdependence of processes of the river facets, restoration at smaller scales may be sufficient. This means that the most appropriate government agency should be assigned (i.e., national vs. county) to most effectively oversee river restoration at the appropriate scale; however, this first requires a catchment-scale analysis of feedbacks between facets and spatial scale interdependence.

  • 22.
    Polvi, Lina E.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Hasselquist, Eliza Maher
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Potential and actual geomorphic complexity of restored headwater streams in northern Sweden2014Ingår i: Geomorphology, ISSN 0169-555X, E-ISSN 1872-695X, Vol. 210, s. 98-118Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Stream restoration usually relies on ecological theories presuming that increased habitat heterogeneity leads to higher biodiversity. However, to test this hypothesis a quantitative metric of overall geomorphic complexity is needed. We quantified geomorphic complexity using 29 metrics over five dimensions (sediment distribution, longitudinal profile, cross section, planform, and instream wood) of headwater streams in northern Sweden. We examined reaches with four different restoration statuses after a century of timber floating (channelized, restored, demonstration restored, and unimpacted) to determine (1) whether restoration increases complexity in all dimensions, (2) whether a complexity gradient can be quantified and which metrics can serve as proxies for the gradient, and (3) levels of potential complexity based on large-scale controls (drainage area, glacial legacy sediment, valley slope, valley confinement old-growth forest/buffer zone, and beaver activity). We found a significantly higher complexity in unimpacted and demonstration restoration sites than in channelized sites in all five dimensions except the cross section (based on the two metrics quantifying variability in the cross section). Multivariate analyses were able to elucidate an apparent complexity gradient driven by three complexity metrics: longitudinal roughness, sediment sorting, and cross section chain and tape ratio. The large-scale factors of valley and channel gradient as well as median grain size, along with restoration status, drive differences in complexity composition. Restoring a reach to its potential complexity is beneficial in regions without reference systems or sufficient data to model flow and sediment processes. Unimpacted and demonstration restoration reaches displayed not only more intrareach variability than channelized reaches but also greater interreach heterogeneity in complexity composition, which supports a focus on reach-scale controls on potential complexity and a landscape-scale view on restoration. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 23.
    Polvi, Lina E.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Sarneel, Judith M.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Ecology & Biodiversity Group and Plant Ecophysiology Group, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Ecosystem engineers in rivers: An introduction to how and where organisms create positive biogeomorphic feedbacks2018Ingår i: WIREs Water, E-ISSN 2049-1948, Vol. 5, nr 2, artikel-id e1271Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecosystem engineers substantially alter physical flow characteristics and shape a river's form and function. Because the recurrence interval of geomorphic processes and disturbances in rivers commonly match the temporal scale of plants' life cycles or alterations by animals, the resulting feedbacks are an important component of rivers. In this review, we focus on biota that directly or indirectly induce a physical change in rivers and cause positive feedbacks on the functioning of that organism. We provide an overview of how various ecosystem engineers affect rivers at different temporal and spatial scales and plot them on a conceptual gradient of river types. Various plants engineer the river environment through stabilizing sediment and reducing flow velocities, including macrophytes, woody plants, and algal mats and biofilms. Among animals that engineer, beaver that build dams cause substantial changes to river dynamics. In addition, benthic macroinvertebrates and mussels can stabilize sediment and reduce velocities, and aquatic and riparian grazers modulate the effect of plants. Humans are also considered river ecosystem engineers. Most of the ecosystem engineers reported in literature occur in rivers with low to intermediate relative stability, intermediate channel widths, and small to intermediate grain sizes. Ecosystem engineers that create positive biogeomorphic feedbacks are important to take into account when managing river systems, as many common invasive species are successful due to their engineering capabilities. River restoration can use ecosystem engineers to spur holistic recovery. Future research points towards examining ecosystem engineers on longer spatial and temporal scales and understanding the co-evolution of organisms and landforms through engineering. 

  • 24.
    Polvi, Lina E
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Wohl, Ellen
    Biotic drivers of stream planform: implications for understanding the past and restoring the future2013Ingår i: BioScience, ISSN 0006-3568, E-ISSN 1525-3244, Vol. 63, nr 6, s. 439-452Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, stream channel planform has been viewed as a function of larger watershed and valley-scale physical variables, including valley slope, the amount of discharge, and sediment size and load. Biotic processes serve a crucial role in transforming channel planform among straight, braided, meandering, and anabranching styles by increasing stream-bank stability and the probability of avulsions, creating stable multithread (anabranching) channels, and affecting sedimentation dynamics. We review the role of riparian vegetation and channel-spanning obstructions-beaver dams and logjams-in altering channel-floodplain dynamics in the southern Rocky Mountains, and we present channel planform scenarios for combinations of vegetation and beaver populations or old-growth forest that control logjam formation. These conceptual models provide understanding of historical planform variability throughout the Holocene and outline the implications for stream restoration or management in broad, low-gradient headwater valleys, which are important for storing sediment, carbon, and nutrients and for supporting a diverse riparian community.

  • 25.
    Polvi, Lina E.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Department of Geosciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA.
    Wohl, Ellen
    Department of Geosciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA.
    Merritt, David M.
    United States Forest Service, Watershed, Fish, Wildlife, Air and Rare Plants, Fort Collins, CO, USA and Natural Resource Ecology Laboratory, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA.
    Modeling the functional influence of vegetation type on streambank cohesion2014Ingår i: Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, ISSN 0197-9337, E-ISSN 1096-9837, Vol. 39, nr 9, s. 1245-1258Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 26.
    Stenroth, Karolina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Polvi, Lina E
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fältström, Emma
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Land-use effects on terrestrial consumers through changed size structure of aquatic insects2015Ingår i: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 60, nr 1, s. 136-149Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We assessed the influence of agricultural land use on aquatic-terrestrial linkages along streams arising from changes in the emergence of aquatic insects. We expected that terrestrial predators would respond to a change in the abundance and/or the size structure of the emerging aquatic insects by an increase or decrease in population size. We measured the flux of emergent aquatic insects and the abundance of terrestrial invertebrate predators and birds along 10 streams across a forest-to-agriculture land-use gradient. We also performed stable isotope analyses (hydrogen, carbon and nitrogen) of terrestrial invertebrate predators. Small aquatic insects (Nematocera) were most abundant under agricultural land use, whereas larger bodied aquatic insects (Plecoptera and Trichoptera) were more associated with forest land use. Carabid beetles and linyphiid spiders were associated with agricultural streams (where there was a high abundance of small aquatic insects), whereas lycosid spiders and birds were associated with forest streams and a high abundance of large-sized aquatic insects. The contribution of aquatic insects to the diets of riparian Lycosidae, Linyphiidae and Carabidae was estimated to be 44%, 60% and 43%, respectively, indicating the importance of aquatic subsidies to the terrestrial system. Our results show that agricultural land use in an overall forested landscape can have significant effects on the abundance and diet of terrestrial consumers through its impact on the size structure of the assemblage of emerging insects, rather than the overall magnitude (numbers) of the aquatic subsidy. Hence, our results suggest that the composition, not just quantity, of a cross-habitat resource may influence the recipient system.

  • 27.
    Su, Xiaolei
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Key Laboratory of Eco‐Environments inThree Gorges Reservoir Region (Ministry of Education), Chongqing Key Laboratory of Plant Ecology and Resources in Three Gorges Reservoir Region, School of Life Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing, PR China.
    Lind, Lovisa
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. NRRV, Department of Environmental and Life Sciences, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Polvi, Lina E.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Variation in hydrochory among lakes and streams: effects of channel planform, roughness, and currents2019Ingår i: Ecohydrology, ISSN 1936-0584, E-ISSN 1936-0592, Vol. 12, nr 5, artikel-id e2091Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The configuration of channels in stream networks is vital for their connectivity, biodiversity, and metacommunity dynamics. We compared the capacity of three process domains-lakes, slow-flowing reaches, and rapids-to disperse and retain plant propagules by releasing small wooden cubes as propagule mimics during the spring flood and recording their final locations. We also measured the geomorphic characteristics (planform, longitudinal profile, cross-sectional morphology, and wood) of each process domain. The three process domains all differed in morphology and hydraulics, and those characteristics were important in shaping the transport capacity of mimics. On average, lakes retained more mimics than slow-flowing reaches but did not differ from the retainment of rapids. Living macrophytes were the most efficient element trapping mimics. In rapids and slow-flowing reaches, most trapped mimics remained floating, whereas in lakes, most mimics ended up on the banks. The decay curves of retention varied substantially among and within process domains. The results suggest that managers who rely on natural recovery of restored sites by means of plant immigration may benefit from understanding landscape patterns when deciding upon the location of restoration measures in stream networks.

  • 28.
    Su, Xiaolei
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Key Laboratory of Eco-Environments in Three Gorges Reservoir Region (Ministry of Education), Chongqing Key Laboratory of Plant Ecology and Resources in Three Gorges Reservoir Region, School of Life Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing, China.
    Polvi, Lina E.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Lind, Lovisa
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Department of Environmental and Life Sciences, NRRV, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Pilotto, Francesca
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Department of River Ecology and Conservation, Senckenberg Research Institute and Natural History Museum Frankfurt, Gelnhausen, Germany.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Importance of landscape context for post-restoration recovery of riparian vegetation2019Ingår i: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 64, nr 5, s. 1015-1028Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We tested whether the recovery of riparian vegetation along rapids that have been restored after channelisation for timber floating can be predicted based on floristic and geomorphic characteristics of surrounding landscape units. Our study was located along tributary stream networks, naturally fragmented in rapids, slow-flowing reaches, and lakes (i.e. process domains), in the Vindel River catchment in northern Sweden.

    We tested whether landscape characteristics, specifically to what extent the geomorphology (affecting local abiotic conditions), species richness, and species composition (representing the species pool for recolonisation), as well as the proximity to various upstream process domains (determining the dispersal potential), can predict post-restoration recovery of riparian vegetation.

    Our results indicate that post-restoration recovery of riparian vegetation richness or composition is not strongly related to landscape-scale species pools in these streams. The restored rapids were most similar to upstream rapids, geomorphically and floristically, including plant traits. Species richness of adjacent landscape units (upstream process domains or lateral upland zone) did not correlate with that of restored rapids, and proximity of upstream rapids or other process domains was only weakly influential, thus diminishing support for the hypothesis that hydrochory or other means of propagule dispersal plays a strong role in riparian vegetation community organisation after restoration in this fragmented stream network.

    We conclude that, in these naturally fragmented stream systems with three discrete process domains (rapids, slow-flowing reaches and lakes), hydrochory is probably not the main predictor for short-term riparian vegetation recovery. Therefore, other factors than landscape context can serve in prioritising restoration and, in these systems, local factors are likely to outweigh landscape connectivity in the recovery of riparian vegetation.

  • 29.
    Weber, Christine
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Lind, Lovisa
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Alfredsen, Knut T
    Polvi, Lina E
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Winter disturbances and riverine fish in temperate and cold regions2013Ingår i: BioScience, ISSN 0006-3568, E-ISSN 1525-3244, Vol. 63, nr 3, s. 199-210Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Winter is a critical period for aquatic organisms; however, little is known about the ecological significance of its extreme events. Here, we link winter ecology and disturbance research by synthesizing the impacts of extreme winter conditions on riverine habitats and fish assemblages in temperate and cold regions. We characterize winter disturbances by their temporal pattern and abiotic effects, explore how various drivers influence fish, and discuss human alterations of winter disturbances and future research needs. We conclude that (a) more data on winter dynamics are needed to identify extreme events, (b) winter ecology and disturbance research should test assumptions of practical relevance for both disciplines, (c) hydraulic and population models should incorporate winter- and disturbance-specific aspects, and (d) management for sustainability requires that river managers work proactively by including anticipated future alterations in the design of restoration and conservation activities.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Weber et al_BioScience2013
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