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  • 1.
    Alsafran, Mohammed H.S.A.
    et al.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University, P.O. Box: 2713, Doha, Qatar.
    Sarneel, Judith M.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Ecology and Biodiversity Group and Plant Ecophysiology Group, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Qatar University, P.O. Box: 2713, Doha, Qatar.
    Variation in plant litter decomposition rates across extreme dry environments in Qatar2017Inngår i: Arab World Geographer, ISSN 1480-6800, Vol. 20, nr 2-3, s. 252-261Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Decomposition of plant litter is a key process for transfer of carbon and nutrients in ecosystems. Carbon contained in decaying biomass is released to the atmosphere as respired CO2, a greenhouse gas that contributes to global warming. To our knowledge, there have been no studies on litter decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems in the Arabian peninsula. Here we used commercial teabags (green tea, rooibos tea) as standard substrates to study decomposition rates across contrasting ecosystems in Qatar. Teabags were buried under and beside Acacia tortilis trees, in depressions with abundant grass vegetation, in saltmarsh without and with vegetation, under Zygophyllum qatarense in drylands, in natural mangrove and in planted mangrove. There were significant site effects across ecosystems on decomposition rate (k), litter stabilisation factor (S), final weight of green tea and final weight of rooibos tea. Mangrove and depressions with grassland had the smallest amounts of remaining green and rooibos tea after the incubation period (69-82 days), while teabags buried under A. tortilis and in saltmarsh without vegetation had the largest amounts. Thus decomposition rates differ among ecosystems in the desert environment. Further multi-year and site studies are needed to identify factors that influence decomposition rates across sites in extreme environments.

  • 2. Althuizen, Inge H. J.
    et al.
    Lee, Hanna
    Sarneel, Judith M
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Ecology and Biodiversity Group and Plant Ecophysiology Group, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584, CH, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Vandvik, Vigdis
    Long-Term climate regime modulates the impact of short-term climate variability on decomposition in alpine grassland soils2018Inngår i: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 21, nr 8, s. 1580-1592Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Decomposition of plant litter is an important process in the terrestrial carbon cycle and makes up approximately 70% of the global carbon flux from soils to the atmosphere. Climate change is expected to have significant direct and indirect effects on the litter decomposition processes at various timescales. Using the TeaBag Index, we investigated the impact on decomposition of short-term direct effects of temperature and precipitation by comparing temporal variability over years, versus long-term climate impacts that incorporate indirect effects mediated through environmental changes by comparing sites along climatic gradients. We measured the initial decomposition rate (k) and the stabilization factor (S; amount of labile litter stabilizing) across a climate grid combining three levels of summer temperature (6.5-10.5 degrees C) with four levels of annual precipitation (600-2700 mm) in three summers with varying temperature and precipitation. Several (a)biotic factors were measured to characterize environmental differences between sites. Increased temperatures enhanced k, whereas increased precipitation decreased k across years and climatic regimes. In contrast, S showed diverse responses to annual changes in temperature and precipitation between climate regimes. Stabilization of labile litter fractions increased with temperature only in boreal and sub-alpine sites, while it decreased with increasing precipitation only in sub-alpine and alpine sites. Environmental factors such as soil pH, soil C/N, litter C/N, and plant diversity that are associated with long-term climate variation modulate the response of k and S. This highlights the importance of long-term climate in shaping the environmental conditions that influences the response of decomposition processes to climate change.

  • 3. Bakker, Elisabeth S.
    et al.
    Sarneel, Judith
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Gulati, Ramesh D.
    Liu, Zhengwen
    van Donk, Ellen
    Restoring macrophyte diversity in shallow temperate lakes: biotic versus abiotic constraints2013Inngår i: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 710, nr 1, s. 23-37Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although many lake restoration projects have led to decreased nutrient loads and increased water transparency, the establishment or expansion of macrophytes does not immediately follow the improved abiotic conditions and it is often unclear whether vegetation with high macrophyte diversity will return. We provide an overview of the potential bottlenecks for restoration of submerged macrophyte vegetation with a high biodiversity and focus on the biotic factors, including the availability of propagules, herbivory, plant competition and the role of remnant populations. We found that the potential for restoration in many lakes is large when clear water conditions are met, even though the macrophyte community composition of the early 1900s, the start of human-induced large-scale eutrophication in Northwestern Europe, could not be restored. However, emerging charophytes and species rich vegetation are often lost due to competition with eutrophic species. Disturbances such as herbivory can limit dominance by eutrophic species and improve macrophyte diversity. We conclude that it is imperative to study the role of propagule availability more closely as well as the biotic interactions including herbivory and plant competition. After abiotic conditions are met, these will further determine macrophyte diversity and define what exactly can be restored and what not.

  • 4. Bakker, Elisabeth S.
    et al.
    Veen, Ciska G. F.
    Ter Heerdt, Gerard J. N.
    Huig, Naomi
    Sarneel, Judith M
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Ecology and Biodiversity Group, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands; Plant Ecophysiology Group, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    High grazing pressure of geese threatens conservation and restoration of reed belts2018Inngår i: Frontiers in Plant Science, E-ISSN 1664-462X, Vol. 9, artikkel-id 1649Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud.) beds are important habitat for marsh birds, but are declining throughout Europe. Increasing numbers of the native marsh bird, the Greylag goose (Anser anser L.), are hypothesized to cause reed bed decline and inhibit restoration of reed beds, but data are largely lacking. In this study, we experimentally tested the effect of grazing by Greylag geese on the growth and expansion of reed growing in belts along lake shorelines. After 5 years of protecting reed from-grazing with exclosures, reed stems were over 4-fold denser and taller than in the grazed plots. Grazing pressure was intense with 50-100% of the stems being grazed among years in the control plots open to grazing. After 5 years of protection we opened half of the exclosures and the geese immediately grazed almost 100% of the reed stems. Whereas this did not affect the reed stem density, the stem height was strongly reduced and similar to permanently grazed reed. The next year geese were actively chased away by management from mid-March to mid-June, which changed the maximum amount of geese from over 2300 to less than 50. As a result, reed stem density and height increased and the reed belt had recovered over the full 6 m length of the experimental plots. Lastly, we introduced reed plants in an adjacent lake where no reed was growing and geese did visit this area. After two years, the density of the planted reed was six to nine-fold higher and significantly taller in exclosures compared to control plots where geese had access to the reed plants. We conclude that there is a conservation dilemma regarding how to preserve and restore reed belts in the presence of high densities of Greylag geese as conservation of both reed belts and high goose numbers seems infeasible. We suggest that there are three possible solutions for this dilemma: (1) effects of the geese can be mediated by goose population management, (2) the robustness of the reed marshes can be increased, and (3) at the landscape level, spatial planning can be used to configure landscapes with large reed bed reserves surrounded by unmown, unfertilized meadows.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 5.
    Baladrón, Alejandro
    et al.
    CERIS, Civil Engineering Research and Innovation for Sustainability, Instituto Superior Técnico, University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, Lisboa, Portugal.
    Bejarano, María Dolores
    Natural Resources Department, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), Calle José Antonio Novais, 10, Madrid, Spain.
    Sarneel, Judith M.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Boavida, Isabel
    CERIS, Civil Engineering Research and Innovation for Sustainability, Instituto Superior Técnico, University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, Lisboa, Portugal.
    Trapped between drowning and desiccation: riverine plants under hydropeaking2022Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 829, artikkel-id 154451Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydropeaking is part of hydropower production. The discontinuous release of turbined water during hydropeaking generates sudden rise and falls of the water levels, as well as extended droughts. These artificial flow fluctuations impose challenging growing conditions for riverine vegetation. In order to identify vulnerable/resistant plant species to hydropeaking and to evaluate the impact of contrasting hydropeaking scenarios (simplified (i.e., sudden deep floods, frequent soil saturation and drought) and real-life, power plant-induced scenarios), we measured germination, survival, and morphological and physiological attributes of a selection of 14 plant species commonly found along riparian areas. Species were subject to different hydropeaking scenarios during three months (vegetative period) in the field and in a greenhouse. Half of the species performed worse under hydropeaking in comparison to the control (e.g., less germination and biomass, lower growth rates, reduced stem and root length, physiological stress) but none of the tested hydropeaking scenarios was clearly more disruptive than others. Betula pubescens, Alnus incana and Filipendula ulmifolia showed the largest vulnerability to hydropeaking, while other species (e.g., Carex acuta) were resistant to it. Both in the field and in the greenhouse, plants in perturbed scenarios accumulated more 13C than in the control scenario indicating limited capacity to perform 13C isotope discrimination and evidencing plant physiological stress. The highest 13C abundances were found under drought or flooding conditions in the greenhouse, and under the highest hydropeaking intensities in the field (e.g., Betula pubescens). Our results suggest that any hydropeaking scheme can be equally detrimental in terms of plant performance. Hydropeaking schemes that combine periods of severe drought with long and frequent flooding episodes may create a hostile environment for riverine species. Further research on "hydropeaking-tolerant" plant traits is key to draw the boundaries beyond which riverine species can germinate, grow and complete their life cycle under hydropeaking.

  • 6. Bejarano, Maria D.
    et al.
    Sarneel, Judith M.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Su, Xiaolei
    Sordo-Ward, Alvaro
    Shifts in Riparian Plant Life Forms Following Flow Regulation2020Inngår i: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 11, nr 5, artikkel-id 518Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Flow regulation affects bordering riparian plant communities worldwide, but how different plant life forms are affected by river regulation still needs further research. In northern Sweden, we selected 10 rivers ranging from free-flowing to low, moderately, and highly regulated ones. In 94 reaches across those rivers, we evaluated the relative abundance of woody and herbaceous (i.e., graminoids and forbs) life forms, their species richness, and their relative presence. We also explored which, and to what extent, hydrological variables drove species assembly within each life form. The relative abundance and species richness of each life form decreased across river categories with increasing levels of regulation. This was particularly apparent in herbaceous life forms, and the most drastic decreases were observed in all life forms in moderately or highly regulated reaches. Additionally, when river regulation increased, the relative presence of many species from all life forms decreased. Unlike woody species, only a few new herbaceous species appeared in regulated reaches. A canonical correspondence analyses (CCA) revealed that a wide range of hydrological variables explained the occurrence of woody species, while fewer variables explained variation in the graminoid and forb life forms. We conclude that flow regulation and its intensity result into clear shifts in the relative abundance of different life forms, as well as in changes of within-group species richness and composition. Consequently, the modification of certain flow attributes in flow regulation schemes, as well as the intensity of these modifications, may alter the ratio between herbaceous and woody species, ultimately impacting the functions and benefits derived from each life form.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 7. Beltman, B.
    et al.
    Van Der Ven, P. J. M.
    Verhoeven, J. T. A.
    Sarneel, Judith M.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Phosphate Release Upon Long- and Short -Term Flooding of Fen Meadows Depends on Land Use History and Soil pH2014Inngår i: Wetlands (Wilmington, N.C.), ISSN 0277-5212, E-ISSN 1943-6246, Vol. 34, nr 5, s. 989-1001Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Flooding of acidified and desiccated fen meadows is a management approach for mitigating loss of plant species as well as a short-term measure to prevent flooding in urban areas. Studies have shown that flooding events can cause extreme P release from soils. We questioned whether the occurrence of this 'internal eutrophication' from flooding depended on fertilization history and soil pH. A greenhouse experiment with soil cores from Ireland (turloughs) and from the Netherlands, exposed to flooding for 216 days (long-term) showed a substantial P release for sites with a history of fertilizer use only. Short-term flooding (20-25 days) caused little P release in all soils. There was no correlation between P release and initial soil pH (range 4.1-7.1). All flooded soils showed a significant decline in sulfate and increased iron in the pore water upon flooding. Field trials applying short term flooding to sites differing in soil pH, average soil moisture and history of fertilizer application showed there was no overall effect of flooding on phosphate, nitrate, ammonium, iron concentrations and pH of pore water. Sulfate concentrations significantlyincreased. Hence, problematic phosphate release is only induced by long term flooding of fen meadows with a history of fertilization.

  • 8. Fanin, Nicolas
    et al.
    Bezaud, Sophie
    Sarneel, Judith M.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Departement of Biology, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Cecchini, Sebastien
    Nicolas, Manuel
    Augusto, Laurent
    Relative Importance of Climate, Soil and Plant Functional Traits During the Early Decomposition Stage of Standardized Litter2020Inngår i: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 23, nr 5, s. 1004-1018Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Climatic factors have long been considered predominant in controlling decomposition rates at large spatial scales. However, recent research suggests that edaphic factors and plant functional traits may play a more important role than previously expected. In this study, we investigated how biotic and abiotic factors interacted with litter quality by analyzing decomposition rates for two forms of standardized litter substitutes: green tea (high-quality litter) and red tea (low-quality litter). We placed 1188 teabags at two different positions (forest floor and 8 cm deep) across 99 forest sites in France and measured 46 potential drivers at each site. We found that high-quality litter decomposition was strongly related to climatic factors, whereas low-quality litter decomposition was strongly related to edaphic factors and the identity of the dominant tree species in the stand. This indicates that the relative importance of climate, soil and plant functional traits in the litter decomposition process depends on litter quality, which was the predominant factor controlling decomposition rate in this experiment. We also found that burying litter increased decomposition rates, and that this effect was more important for green tea in drier environments. This suggests that changes in position (surface vs. buried) at the plot scale may be as important as the role of macroclimate on decomposition rates because of varying water availability along the soil profile. Acknowledging that the effect of climate on decomposition depends on litter quality and that the macroclimate is not necessarily the predominant factor at large spatial scales is the first step toward identifying the factors regulating decomposition rates from the local scale to the global scale.

  • 9.
    Herberg, Erik R.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Kiel School of Sustainability, Christian-Albrechts-Universitat zu Kiel, Kiel, Germany.
    Sarneel, Judith M.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Ecology & Biodiversity Group and Plant Ecophysiology Group, Utrecht University, CH Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Recruitment of riparian plants after restoration of geomorphic complexity in northern Sweden2017Inngår i: Applied Vegetation Science, ISSN 1402-2001, E-ISSN 1654-109X, Vol. 20, nr 3, s. 435-445Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Question: Restoration of channelized streams increases geomorphic complexity but it remains unclear how this interacts with processes that drive future vegetation changes (dispersal, germination and establishment). This study asks if increased geomorphic complexity increases recruitment conditions of sown seeds or affects post-dispersal natural seedling densities. Location: Vindel River catchment, northern Sweden. Methods: We selected seven study streams with paired reaches that differed in the degree to which geomorphic complexity was restored. Basic reaches used simple restoration methods while enhanced reaches additionally added large boulders and woody debris. We sowed seeds of six species at ten locations in each reach in 2014 and counted the number of seedlings after 8wk and the number of naturally occurring seedlings in a plot adjacent to the sowing locations in 2013 and 2014. Using factor analysis based on 34 complexity measurements, overall geomorphic complexity was quantified for eight of the 14 reaches. Results: Total numbers of sown (2014) and natural seedlings (2013 and 2014) summed per reach did not differ between restoration types when tested pair-wise. Enhanced restoration did not always significantly increase geomorphic complexity, which differed considerably between the streams. More complex reaches were steeper, had larger size sediment and more nutrient-poor soils. Total recruitment of sown species significantly decreased with increasing complexity. Numbers of natural seedlings differed considerably from 2013 to 2014, but were not related to complexity. In 2014, a potential parent plant of the same species occurred within the same plot for 71.8% of the natural seedlings that could be identified. Conclusions: The recruitment of sown seeds was affected by overall geomorphic complexity rather than by the enhanced restoration. The absence of a correlation between geomorphic complexity and natural seedlings could indicate that natural seedling dynamics are not solely determined by recruitment conditions, but also by dispersal.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 10. Hidding, Bert
    et al.
    Sarneel, Judith M
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Bakker, Elisabeth S
    Flooding tolerance and horizontal expansion of wetland plants: facilitation by floating mats?2014Inngår i: Aquatic Botany, ISSN 0304-3770, E-ISSN 1879-1522, Vol. 113, s. 83-89Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Water level fluctuations (WLF) can be important disturbances promoting the diversity of riparian plant communities, but are currently absent from many managed aquatic ecosystems. A lack of WLF is thought to reduce plant diversity and hamper hydrosere succession. However, a positive impact of WLF on plant diversity may crucially depend on nutrient availability and the presence of a potential ecosystem engineer, the floating plant Strati otes abides, that may provide structural support to riparian plants. We tested the interactive effects of 40 cm flooding, presence of S. abides and sediment nutrient availability (N and P) on growth and horizontal expansion of eight wetland plant species in a 10 week experiment. Seven out of eight species showed a significant elongation response to flooding. Compared to stagnant water levels, flooding in combination with high nutrient availability decreased horizontal expansion in two short species and increased it in two tall species, whereas flooding decreased horizontal expansion in two other short species under both nutrient levels. In this 10 week experiment, we observed no effect of S. abides on the measured plant parameters. This experiment shows short-term negative effects of flooding on most of the short species. On the long-term, we hypothesize that improvements in water quality and seedling recruitment due to drawdown may result in net positive effects of WLF in the riparian zone, but as the species that were rare in the field happened to be short, care should be taken to maintain rare species when allowing more WLF.

    (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 11.
    Hunter, William Ross
    et al.
    Agri-Food and Bioscience Institute Northern Ireland, Fisheries and Aquatic Ecosystems Branch, Belfast, United Kingdom; School of Geography and Environmental Science, University of Ulster, Coleraine, United Kingdom.
    Williamson, Ashley
    School of Geography and Environmental Science, University of Ulster, Coleraine, United Kingdom.
    Sarneel, Judith M.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Using the Tea Bag Index to determine how two human pharmaceuticals affect litter decomposition by aquatic microorganisms2021Inngår i: Ecotoxicology, ISSN 0963-9292, E-ISSN 1573-3017, Vol. 30, nr 6, s. 1272-1278Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study demonstrates that independent additive effects of two human pharmaceuticals, the antibiotic trimethoprim and the artificial estrogen 17a-Ethinylestradiol (EE2), inhibit plant litter decomposition by aquatic microorganisms. The constant release of pharmaceuticals, such as these, has the potential to affect aquatic microbial metabolism and alter biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nutrients. Here we advance the Tea Bag Index (TBI) for decomposition by using it in a series of contaminant exposure experiments testing how interactions between trimethoprim and EE2 affect aquatic microbial activity. The TBI is a citizen science tool used to test microbial activity by measuring the differential degradation of green and rooibos tea as proxies for respectively labile and recalcitrant litter decomposition. Exposure to either trimethoprim or EE2 decreased decomposition of green tea, suggesting additive effects upon microbial activity. Exposure to EE2 alone decreased rooibos tea decomposition. Consequently, trimethoprim and EE2 stabilized labile organic matter against microbial degradation and restricted decomposition. We propose that the method outlined could provide a powerful tool for testing the impacts of multiple interacting pollutants upon microbial activity, at a range of scales, across aquatic systems and over ecologically relevant time scales.

  • 12. Keuskamp, Joost A.
    et al.
    Dingemans, Bas J. J.
    Lehtinen, Taru
    Sarneel, Judith M.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Aquatic Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Hefting, Mariet M.
    Tea Bag Index: a novel approach to collect uniform decomposition data across ecosystems2013Inngår i: Methods in Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2041-210X, Vol. 4, nr 11, s. 1070-1075Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Changes in the balance between soil carbon storage and release can significantly amplify or attenuate global warming. Although a lot of progress has been made in determining potential drivers of carbon release through large-scale decomposition experiments, climate predictions are still hampered by data limitation at a global scale as a result of high effort and measurement costs of comparative litter decomposition studies.

    2. We introduce an innovative, cost-effective, well-standardised method to gather data on decomposition rate and litter stabilisation using commercially available tea bags as standardised test kits. By using two tea types with contrasting decomposability, we can construct a decomposition curve using a single measurement in time. The acquired Tea Bag Index (TBI) consists of two parameters describing decomposition rate (k) and litter stabilisation factor (S).

    3. The method was tested for its sensitivity and robustness in contrasting ecosystems and biomes, confirming that the TBI is sensitive enough to discriminate between these systems. Within an ecosystem, TBI is responsive to differences in abiotic circumstances such as soil temperature and moisture content. The collected k and S values are in accordance with expectations based on decomposition process literature. They are therefore interpretable within the current knowledge framework.

    4. Tea Bag Index is a unique, multifunctional method requiring few resources and minimal prior knowledge. The standardisation and simplicity of the method make it possible to collect comparable, globally distributed data through crowdsourcing. TBI can further provide an excellent decomposition reference and has the potential to increase reliability of soil carbon flux estimates based on extrapolations of decomposition data.

  • 13.
    Lembrechts, Jonas J.
    et al.
    Research Group PLECO (Plants and Ecosystems), University of Antwerp, Wilrijk, Belgium.
    van den Hoogen, Johan
    Department of Environmental Systems Science, Institute of Integrative Biology, ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Dorrepaal, Ellen
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Larson, Keith
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Sarneel, Judith M.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Walz, Josefine
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Nijs, Ivan
    Research Group PLECO (Plants and Ecosystems), University of Antwerp, Wilrijk, Belgium.
    Lenoir, Jonathan
    UMR 7058 CNRS ‘Ecologie et Dynamique des Systèmes Anthropisés’ (EDYSAN), Univ. de Picardie Jules Verne, Amiens, France.
    Global maps of soil temperature2022Inngår i: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 28, nr 9, s. 3110-3144Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research in global change ecology relies heavily on global climatic grids derived from estimates of air temperature in open areas at around 2 m above the ground. These climatic grids do not reflect conditions below vegetation canopies and near the ground surface, where critical ecosystem functions occur and most terrestrial species reside. Here, we provide global maps of soil temperature and bioclimatic variables at a 1-km2 resolution for 0–5 and 5–15 cm soil depth. These maps were created by calculating the difference (i.e. offset) between in situ soil temperature measurements, based on time series from over 1200 1-km2 pixels (summarized from 8519 unique temperature sensors) across all the world's major terrestrial biomes, and coarse-grained air temperature estimates from ERA5-Land (an atmospheric reanalysis by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts). We show that mean annual soil temperature differs markedly from the corresponding gridded air temperature, by up to 10°C (mean = 3.0 ± 2.1°C), with substantial variation across biomes and seasons. Over the year, soils in cold and/or dry biomes are substantially warmer (+3.6 ± 2.3°C) than gridded air temperature, whereas soils in warm and humid environments are on average slightly cooler (−0.7 ± 2.3°C). The observed substantial and biome-specific offsets emphasize that the projected impacts of climate and climate change on near-surface biodiversity and ecosystem functioning are inaccurately assessed when air rather than soil temperature is used, especially in cold environments. The global soil-related bioclimatic variables provided here are an important step forward for any application in ecology and related disciplines. Nevertheless, we highlight the need to fill remaining geographic gaps by collecting more in situ measurements of microclimate conditions to further enhance the spatiotemporal resolution of global soil temperature products for ecological applications.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 14.
    Maes, S.L.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Forest Ecology and Management Group (FORECOMAN), Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Dietrich, J.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Midolo, G.
    Department of Spatial Sciences, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Praha-Suchdol, Czech Republic.
    Schwieger, S.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Kummu, M.
    Water and development research group, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland.
    Vandvik, V.
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Aerts, R.
    Amsterdam Institute for Life and Environment (A-LIFE), Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Althuizen, I.H.J.
    Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; NORCE Climate and Environment, Norwegian Research Centre AS, Bergen, Norway.
    Biasi, C.
    Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland; Department of Ecology, University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Björk, R.G.
    Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Gothenburg Global Biodiversity Centre, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Böhner, H.
    Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, Faculty of Biosciences, Fisheries and Economics, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Carbognani, M.
    Department of Chemistry, Life Sciences and Environmental Sustainability, University of Parma, Parma, Italy.
    Chiari, G.
    Department of Chemistry, Life Sciences and Environmental Sustainability, University of Parma, Parma, Italy.
    Christiansen, C.T.
    Terrestrial Ecology Section, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Center for Permafrost, Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Clemmensen, K.E.
    Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Cooper, E.J.
    Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, UiT—the Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Cornelissen, J.H.C.
    Amsterdam Institute for Life and Environment (A-LIFE), Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Elberling, B.
    Center for Permafrost, Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Faubert, P.
    Carbone Boréal, Département des Sciences Fondamentales, Université du Québec à Chicoutimi, QC, Chicoutimi, Canada.
    Fetcher, N.
    Institute for Environmental Science and Sustainability, Wilkes University, PA, Wilkes-Barre, United States.
    Forte, T.G.W.
    Department of Chemistry, Life Sciences and Environmental Sustainability, University of Parma, Parma, Italy.
    Gaudard, J.
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Gavazov, K.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Guan, Z.
    State Key Laboratory of Herbage Improvement and Grassland Agro-Ecosystems and College of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China.
    Guðmundsson, J.
    Agricultural University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Gya, R.
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Hallin, S.
    Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hansen, B.B.
    Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Trondheim, Norway; Gjærevoll Centre for Biodiversity Foresight Analyses & amp; Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Haugum, S.V.
    Department of Biological Sciences, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; The Heathland Centre, Alver, Norway.
    He, J.-S.
    State Key Laboratory of Herbage Improvement and Grassland Agro-Ecosystems and College of Pastoral Agriculture Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, China; Institute of Ecology, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Key Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes of the Ministry of Education, Peking University, Beijing, China.
    Hicks Pries, C.
    Department of Biological Sciences, Dartmouth College, NH, Hanover, United States.
    Hovenden, M.J.
    Biological Sciences, School of Natural Sciences, University of Tasmania, TAS, Hobart, Australia; Australian Mountain Research Facility, ACT, Canberra, Australia.
    Jalava, M.
    Water and development research group, Aalto University, Espoo, Finland.
    Jónsdóttir, I.S.
    Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland.
    Juhanson, J.
    Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jung, J.Y.
    Division of Life Sciences, Korea Polar Research Institute, Incheon, South Korea.
    Kaarlejärvi, E.
    Research Centre for Ecological Change, Organismal and Evolutionary Biology Research Programme, Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kwon, M.J.
    Korea Polar Research Institute, Incheon, South Korea; Institute of Soil Science, Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
    Lamprecht, R.E.
    University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, Kuopio, Finland.
    Le Moullec, M.
    Gjærevoll Centre for Biodiversity Foresight Analyses & amp; Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; Greenland Institute of Natural Resources, Nuuk, Greenland.
    Lee, H.
    NORCE, Norwegian Research Centre AS, Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen, Norway; Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway.
    Marushchak, M.E.
    University of Eastern Finland, Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, Kuopio, Finland.
    Michelsen, A.
    Terrestrial Ecology Section, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Munir, T.M.
    Department of Geography, University of Calgary, AB, Calgary, Canada.
    Myrsky, E.M.
    Arctic Centre, University of Lapland, Rovaniemi, Finland; Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Nielsen, C.S.
    Center for Permafrost, Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; SEGES Innovation P/S, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Nyberg, M.
    Biological Sciences, School of Natural Sciences, University of Tasmania, TAS, Hobart, Australia.
    Olofsson, J.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Óskarsson, H.
    Agricultural University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Parker, T.C.
    Ecological Sciences, The James Hutton Institute, Aberdeen, United Kingdom.
    Pedersen, E.P.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Terrestrial Ecology Section, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Petit Bon, M.
    Department of Wildland Resources, Quinney College of Natural Resources and Ecology Center, Utah State University, UT, Logan, United States; Department of Arctic Biology, University Centre in Svalbard, Longyearbyen, Norway.
    Petraglia, A.
    Department of Chemistry, Life Sciences and Environmental Sustainability, University of Parma, Parma, Italy.
    Raundrup, K.
    Greenland Institute of Natural Resources, Nuuk, Greenland.
    Ravn, N.M.R.
    Terrestrial Ecology Section, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Rinnan, R.
    Center for Volatile Interactions, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Rodenhizer, H.
    Center for Ecosystem Science and Society, Northern Arizona University, AZ, Flagstaff, United States.
    Ryde, I.
    Terrestrial Ecology Section, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Center for Permafrost, Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Schmidt, N.M.
    Department of Ecoscience, Aarhus University, Roskilde, Denmark; Arctic Research Centre, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Schuur, E.A.G.
    Center for Ecosystem Science and Society, Northern Arizona University, AZ, Flagstaff, United States; Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, AZ, Flagstaff, United States.
    Sjögersten, S.
    School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Loughborough, United Kingdom.
    Stark, S.
    Arctic Centre, University of Lapland, Rovaniemi, Finland.
    Strack, M.
    Department of Geography and Environmental Management, University of Waterloo, ON, Waterloo, Canada.
    Tang, J.
    The Ecosystems Center, Marine Biological Laboratory, MA, Woods Hole, United States.
    Tolvanen, A.
    Natural Resources Institute Finland, Helsinki, Finland.
    Töpper, J.P.
    Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Bergen, Norway.
    Väisänen, M.K.
    Arctic Centre, University of Lapland, Rovaniemi, Finland; Ecology and Genetics Research Unit, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    van Logtestijn, R.S.P.
    Amsterdam Institute for Life and Environment (A-LIFE), Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Voigt, C.
    Department of Environmental and Biological Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland; Institute of Soil Science, Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
    Walz, J.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Weedon, J.T.
    Amsterdam Institute for Life and Environment (A-LIFE), Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Yang, Y.
    State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Ylänne, H.
    School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland.
    Björkman, M.P.
    Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Gothenburg Global Biodiversity Centre, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sarneel, J. M.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Dorrepaal, E.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Environmental drivers of increased ecosystem respiration in a warming tundra2024Inngår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 629, nr 8010, s. 105-113Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Arctic and alpine tundra ecosystems are large reservoirs of organic carbon1,2. Climate warming may stimulate ecosystem respiration and release carbon into the atmosphere3,4. The magnitude and persistency of this stimulation and the environmental mechanisms that drive its variation remain uncertain5–7. This hampers the accuracy of global land carbon–climate feedback projections7,8. Here we synthesize 136 datasets from 56 open-top chamber in situ warming experiments located at 28 arctic and alpine tundra sites which have been running for less than 1 year up to 25 years. We show that a mean rise of 1.4 °C [confidence interval (CI) 0.9–2.0 °C] in air and 0.4 °C [CI 0.2–0.7 °C] in soil temperature results in an increase in growing season ecosystem respiration by 30% [CI 22–38%] (n = 136). Our findings indicate that the stimulation of ecosystem respiration was due to increases in both plant-related and microbial respiration (n = 9) and continued for at least 25 years (n = 136). The magnitude of the warming effects on respiration was driven by variation in warming-induced changes in local soil conditions, that is, changes in total nitrogen concentration and pH and by context-dependent spatial variation in these conditions, in particular total nitrogen concentration and the carbon:nitrogen ratio. Tundra sites with stronger nitrogen limitations and sites in which warming had stimulated plant and microbial nutrient turnover seemed particularly sensitive in their respiration response to warming. The results highlight the importance of local soil conditions and warming-induced changes therein for future climatic impacts on respiration.

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  • 15.
    Nilsson, Christer
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Polvi, Lina E
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Gardeström, Johanna
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Maher Hasselquist, Eliza
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Lind, Lovisa
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Sarneel, Judith M
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Riparian and in-stream restoration of boreal streams and rivers: success or failure?2015Inngår i: Ecohydrology, ISSN 1936-0584, E-ISSN 1936-0592, Vol. 8, nr 5, s. 753-764Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We reviewed follow-up studies from Finnish and Swedish streams that have been restored after timber floating to assess the abiotic and biotic responses to restoration. More specifically, from a review of 18 case studies (16 published and 2 unpublished), we determined whether different taxonomic groups react differently or require different periods of time to respond to the same type of restoration. Restoration entailed returning coarse sediment (cobbles and boulders) and sometimes large wood to previously channelized turbulent reaches, primarily with the objective of meeting habitat requirements of naturally reproducing salmonid fish. The restored streams showed a consistent increase in channel complexity and retention capacity, but the biotic responses were weak or absent in most species groups. Aquatic mosses growing on boulders were drastically reduced shortly after restoration, but in most studies, they recovered after a few years. Riparian plants, macroinvertebrates and fish did not show any consistent trends in response. We discuss seven alternative explanations to these inconsistent results and conclude that two decades is probably too short a time for most organisms to recover. We recommend long-term monitoring using standardized methods, a landscape-scale perspective and a wider range of organisms to improve the basis for judging to what extent restoration in boreal streams has achieved its goal of reducing the impacts from timber floating.

  • 16.
    Nilsson, Christer
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Riis, Tenna
    Sarneel, Judith M.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Biology Department of Utrecht University, in the Netherlands.
    Svavarsdóttir, Kristín
    Ecological Restoration as a Means of Managing Inland Flood Hazards2018Inngår i: BioScience, ISSN 0006-3568, E-ISSN 1525-3244, Vol. 68, nr 2, s. 89-99Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many streams and rivers experience major floods. Historically, human societies have responded to such floods by moving away from them or by abating them, the latter with large negative impacts on stream and river ecology. Societies are currently implementing a strategy of "living with floods,"which may involve ecological restoration. It further involves flood mapping, forecasting, and warning systems. We evaluate 14 different stream-and river-restoration measures, which differ in their capacity to modify water retention and runoff. We discuss these restoration measures in the light of predicted changes in climate and flooding and discuss future restoration needs. We focus on the Nordic countries, where substantial changes in the water cycle are foreseen. We conclude that sustainable solutions require researchers to monitor the effect of flood management and study the relative importance of individual restoration measures, as well as the side effects of flood attenuation.

  • 17.
    Nilsson, Christer
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Sarneel, Judith M.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Ecology & Biodiversity Group and Plant Ecophysiology Group, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Palm, Daniel
    Gardeström, Johanna
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Pilotto, Francesca
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Polvi, Lina E.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Lind, Lovisa
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Holmqvist, Daniel
    Lundqvist, Hans
    How do biota respond to additional physical restoration of restored streams?2017Inngår i: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 20, nr 1, s. 144-162Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Restoration of channelized streams by returning coarse sediment from stream edges to the wetted channel has become a common practice in Sweden. Yet, restoration activities do not always result in the return of desired biota. This study evaluated a restoration project in the Vindel River in northern Sweden in which practitioners further increased channel complexity of previously restored stream reaches by placing very large boulders (> 1 m), trees (> 8 m), and salmonid spawning gravel from adjacent upland areas into the channels. One reach restored with basic methods and another with enhanced methods were selected in each of ten different tributaries to the main channel. Geomorphic and hydraulic complexity was enhanced but the chemical composition of riparian soils and the communities of riparian plants and fish did not exhibit any clear responses to the enhanced restoration measures during the first 5 years compared to reaches restored with basic restoration methods. The variation in the collected data was among streams instead of between types of restored reaches. We conclude that restoration is a disturbance in itself, that immigration potential varies across landscapes, and that biotic recovery processes in boreal river systems are slow. We suggest that enhanced restoration has to apply a catchment-scale approach accounting for connectivity and availability of source populations, and that low-intensity monitoring has to be performed over several decades to evaluate restoration outcomes.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 18. Ochoa-Hueso, Raúl
    et al.
    Borer, Elizabeth T.
    Seabloom, Eric W.
    Hobbie, Sarah E.
    Risch, Anita C.
    Collins, Scott L.
    Alberti, Juan
    Bahamonde, Héctor A.
    Brown, Cynthia S.
    Caldeira, Maria C.
    Daleo, Pedro
    Dickman, Chris R.
    Ebeling, Anne
    Eisenhauer, Nico
    Esch, Ellen H.
    Eskelinen, Anu
    Fernández, Victoria
    Güsewell, Sabine
    Gutierrez-Larruga, Blanca
    Hofmockel, Kirsten
    Laungani, Ramesh
    Lind, Eric
    López, Andrea
    McCulley, Rebecca L.
    Moore, Joslin L.
    Peri, Pablo L.
    Power, Sally A.
    Price, Jodi N.
    Prober, Suzanne M.
    Roscher, Christiane
    Sarneel, Judith M.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Schütz, Martin
    Siebert, Julia
    Standish, Rachel J.
    Ayuso, Sergio Velasco
    Virtanen, Risto
    Wardle, Glenda M.
    Wiehl, Georg
    Yahdjian, Laura
    Zamin, Tara
    Microbial processing of plant remains is co-limited by multiple nutrients in global grasslands2020Inngår i: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 26, nr 8, s. 4572-4582Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Microbial processing of aggregate-unprotected organic matter inputs is key for soil fertility, long-term ecosystem carbon and nutrient sequestration and sustainable agriculture. We investigated the effects of adding multiple nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium plus nine essential macro- and micro-nutrients) on decomposition and biochemical transformation of standard plant materials buried in 21 grasslands from four continents. Addition of multiple nutrients weakly but consistently increased decomposition and biochemical transformation of plant remains during the peak-season, concurrent with changes in microbial exoenzymatic activity. Higher mean annual precipitation and lower mean annual temperature were the main climatic drivers of higher decomposition rates, while biochemical transformation of plant remains was negatively related to temperature of the wettest quarter. Nutrients enhanced decomposition most at cool, high rainfall sites, indicating that in a warmer and drier future fertilized grassland soils will have an even more limited potential for microbial processing of plant remains.

  • 19. Pioli, Silvia
    et al.
    Sarneel, Judith M.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Ecology & Biodiversity, Institute of Environmental Biology, Utrecht University, the Netherlands; Plant Ecophysiology, Institute of Environmental Biology, Utrecht University, the Netherlands.
    Thomas, Haydn J. D.
    Domene, Xavier
    Andres, Pilar
    Hefting, Mariet
    Reitz, Thomas
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Sanden, Taru
    Piscova, Veronika
    Aurela, Mika
    Brusetti, Lorenzo
    Linking plant litter microbial diversity to microhabitat conditions, environmental gradients and litter mass loss: Insights from a European study using standard litter bags2020Inngår i: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, ISSN 0038-0717, E-ISSN 1879-3428, Vol. 144, artikkel-id 107778Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Plant litter decomposition is a key process for carbon dynamics and nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. The interaction between litter properties, climatic conditions and soil attributes, influences the activity of microorganisms responsible for litter mineralization. So far, studies using standardized litters to investigate the response of bacterial and fungal communities under different environmental conditions are scarce, especially along wide geographic ranges.

    We used a standardized protocol to investigate the diversity of bacteria and fungi in plant litter with the aim of: (i) comparing the microbial communities of native and exotic litters with the community of local soil along a European transect from northern Finland to southern Italy, (ii) defining whether and to what extent, litter types with different traits represent selective substrates for microbial communities, (iii) disentangling the abiotic drivers of microbial diversity, and (iv) correlating the microbial diversity and species co-occurrences patterns with litter mass loss.

    We buried native litter and three exotic standardized litters (Deschampsia cespitosa, rooibos tea and green tea) at 12 European study sites. We determined litter mass loss after 94 days. We used an automated molecular DNA-based fingerprinting (ARISA) to profile the bacterial and fungal communities of each litter type and soil (180 samples in total).

    Microbial communities in native and exotic litters differed from local soil assemblages. Green tea and D. cespitosa litter represented more selective substrates compared to native litter and rooibos. Soil moisture and soil temperature were the major drivers of microbial community structure at larger scales, though with varying patterns according to litter type. Soil attributes (i.e. moisture and C/N ratios) better explained the differences in microbial abundances than litter type. Green tea degraded faster than all other litter types and accounted for the largest number of positive co-occurrences among microbial taxa. Litter mass loss was positively correlated with fungal evenness and with the percentage of positive co-occurrences between fungi.

    Our findings suggest that the microbial community at larger scales reflects the complex interplay between litter type and soil attributes, with the latter exerting a major influence. Mass loss patterns are in part determined by inter- and intra-kingdom interactions and fungal diversity.

  • 20.
    Polvi, Lina E.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Sarneel, Judith M.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Ecology & Biodiversity Group and Plant Ecophysiology Group, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Ecosystem engineers in rivers: An introduction to how and where organisms create positive biogeomorphic feedbacks2018Inngår i: WIREs Water, E-ISSN 2049-1948, Vol. 5, nr 2, artikkel-id e1271Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecosystem engineers substantially alter physical flow characteristics and shape a river's form and function. Because the recurrence interval of geomorphic processes and disturbances in rivers commonly match the temporal scale of plants' life cycles or alterations by animals, the resulting feedbacks are an important component of rivers. In this review, we focus on biota that directly or indirectly induce a physical change in rivers and cause positive feedbacks on the functioning of that organism. We provide an overview of how various ecosystem engineers affect rivers at different temporal and spatial scales and plot them on a conceptual gradient of river types. Various plants engineer the river environment through stabilizing sediment and reducing flow velocities, including macrophytes, woody plants, and algal mats and biofilms. Among animals that engineer, beaver that build dams cause substantial changes to river dynamics. In addition, benthic macroinvertebrates and mussels can stabilize sediment and reduce velocities, and aquatic and riparian grazers modulate the effect of plants. Humans are also considered river ecosystem engineers. Most of the ecosystem engineers reported in literature occur in rivers with low to intermediate relative stability, intermediate channel widths, and small to intermediate grain sizes. Ecosystem engineers that create positive biogeomorphic feedbacks are important to take into account when managing river systems, as many common invasive species are successful due to their engineering capabilities. River restoration can use ecosystem engineers to spur holistic recovery. Future research points towards examining ecosystem engineers on longer spatial and temporal scales and understanding the co-evolution of organisms and landforms through engineering. 

  • 21. Sanden, Taru
    et al.
    Spiegel, Heide
    Wenng, Hannah
    Schwarz, Michael
    Sarneel, Judith M.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Learning Science during Teatime: Using a Citizen Science Approach to Collect Data on Litter Decomposition in Sweden and Austria2020Inngår i: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, nr 18, s. 1-14, artikkel-id 7745Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The decay of organic material-litter decomposition-is a critical process for life on Earth and an essential part of the global carbon cycle. Yet, this basic process remains unknown to many citizens. The Tea Bag Index (TBI) measures decomposition in a standardized, measurable, achievable, climate-relevant, and time-relevant way by burying commercial tea bags in soil for three months and calculating proxies to characterize the decomposition process (expressed as decomposition rate (k) and stabilization factor (S)). We measured TBI at 8 cm soil depth with the help of school and farm citizen scientists in 2015 in Sweden and in 2016 in Austria. Questionnaires to the participating schools and farms enabled us to capture lessons learned from this participatory data collection. In total >5500 citizen scientists participated in the mass experiments, and approximately 50% of the tea bags sent out yielded successful results that fell well within previously reported ranges. The average decomposition rates (k) ranged from 0.008 to 0.012 g d(-1) in Sweden and from 0.012 to 0.015 g d(-1) in Austria. Stabilization factors (S) were up to four times higher in Sweden than Austria. Taking part in a global experiment was a great incentive for participants, and in future experiments the citizen scientists and TBI would benefit from having enhanced communication between the researchers and participants about the results gained.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 22.
    Sarneel, J. M. Judith
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Ecology & Biodiversity Group and Plant Ecophysiology Group, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Veen, G. F. Ciska
    Legacy effects of altered flooding regimes on decomposition in a boreal floodplain2017Inngår i: Plant and Soil, ISSN 0032-079X, E-ISSN 1573-5036, Vol. 421, nr 1-2, s. 57-66Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Since long-term experiments are scarce, we have poor understanding of how changed flooding regimes affect processes such as litter decomposition. We simulated short- and long-term changed flooding regimes by transplanting turfs between low (frequently flooded) and high (in-frequently flooded) elevations on the river bank in 2000 (old turfs) and 2014 (young turfs). We tested how incubation elevation, turf origin and turf age affected decomposition of standard litter (tea) and four types of local litter. For tea, we found that the initial decomposition rate (k) and stabilization (S) of labile material during the second decomposition phase were highest at high incubation elevation. We found intermediate values for k and S in young transplanted turfs, but turf origin was not important in old turfs. Local litter mass loss was generally highest at high incubation elevations, and effects of turf origin and turf age were litter-specific. We conclude that incubation elevation, i.e., the current flooding regime, was the most important factor driving decomposition. Soil origin (flooding history) affected decomposition of tea only in young turfs. Therefore, we expect that changes in flooding regimes predominantly affect decomposition directly, while indirect legacy effects are weaker and litter- or site-specific.

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  • 23.
    Sarneel, Judith
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    The dispersal capacity of vegetative propagules of riparian fen species2013Inngår i: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 710, nr 1, s. 219-225Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Flowing water can disperse a high number of seeds and vegetative propagules over long distances and is therefore a very important dispersal vector in wetland habitats. Although the dispersal of seeds is relatively well studied, the dispersal of vegetative propagules has received less attention. However, in riparian and aquatic systems where many species have clonal growth forms, it can be very important. The relative importance of vegetative propagules in the dispersal of fen species was assessed first by determining their relative abundance in the field and second, by determining the buoyancy of plant fragments of ten fen species experimentally. On average, vegetative propagules made up 3.2-58.9% of the total propagule number (mainly Elodea nutallii). Buoyancy of the tested species ranged from 25 days to over 6 months. Surprisingly, the propagules of Stratiotes aloides and Hydrocharis morsus-ranae increased buoyancy when spring started (after ca. 100 days). The results demonstrate that vegetative propagules of riparian and aquatic fen species have a high capacity to disperse over long distances via water and are therefore likely to play an important role in the colonisation of new habitats. Especially because in nine out of the ten species tested, over 50% of the propagules were still viable after 6 months of floating.

  • 24.
    Sarneel, Judith
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Huig, N.
    Veen, G. F.
    Rip, W.
    Bakker, E. S.
    Herbivores Enforce Sharp Boundaries Between Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystems2014Inngår i: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 17, nr 8, s. 1426-1438Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The transitions between ecosystems (ecotones) are often biodiversity hotspots, but we know little about the forces that shape them. Today, often sharp boundaries with low diversity are found between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. This has been attributed to environmental factors that hamper succession. However, ecosystem properties are often controlled by both bottom-up and top-down forces, but their relative importance in shaping riparian boundaries is not known. We hypothesize that (1) herbivores may enforce sharp transitions between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems by inhibiting emergent vegetation expansion and reducing the width of the transition zone and (2) the vegetation expansion, diversity, and species turnover are related to abiotic factors in the absence of herbivores, but not in their presence. We tested these hypotheses in 50 paired grazed and ungrazed plots spread over ten wetlands, during two years. Excluding grazers increased vegetation expansion, cover, biomass, and species richness. In ungrazed plots, vegetation cover was negatively related to water depth, whereas plant species richness was negatively related to the vegetation N:P ratio. The presence of (mainly aquatic) herbivores overruled the effect of water depth on vegetation cover increase but did not interact with vegetation N:P ratio. Increased local extinction in the presence of herbivores explained the negative effect of herbivores on species richness, as local colonization rates were unaffected by grazing. We conclude that (aquatic) herbivores can strongly inhibit expansion of the riparian vegetation and reduce vegetation diversity over a range of environmental conditions. Consequently, herbivores enforce sharp boundaries between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.

  • 25.
    Sarneel, Judith M.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Ecology and Biodiversity Group and Plant Ecophysiology Group, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Effects of experimental snowmelt and rain on dispersal of six plant species2016Inngår i: Ecohydrology, ISSN 1936-0584, E-ISSN 1936-0592, Vol. 9, nr 8, s. 1464-1470Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Water flows affect dispersal of propagules of many plant species, and rivers and streams are therefore very important dispersal vectors. However, small water flows such as trough rain and snowmelt are much more common, but their effects on dispersal are barely studied. The importance of this form of dispersal deserves attention, especially when considering that climate change is predicted to change the amounts of rain and snow worldwide. Dispersal through melting snow and rain was addressed experimentally, using artificial soils mounted on slopes with different angles and subjected to a melting snow pack or an equivalent amount of dripping water. Seeds on the soil moved on average 3.02 cm (+/- 1.81 SE) in rain treatments and 0.23 cm (+/- 0.3 SE) in snowmelt treatments. Tracking plastic granules in field conditions further showed that snowmelt exhibited minimal dispersal capacity. Dispersal distances by rain were enhanced by increasing slope angles and with decreasing seed volume. Given that many species in cold environments have small seeds, dispersal by rain could provide an important (secondary) dispersal mechanism in these habitats.

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  • 26.
    Sarneel, Judith M.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Barel, Janna M.
    Aquatic Ecology & Environmental Biology, Faculty of Science, Radboud Institute for Biological and Environmental Sciences, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Duddigan, Sarah
    Soil Research Centre and Department of Geography & Environmental Science, University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom.
    Keuskamp, Joost A.
    Ecology & Biodiversity Group, Institute of Environmental Biology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands; Biont Research, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Pastor, Ada
    GRECO, Institute of Aquatic Ecology, University of Girona, Girona, Spain.
    Sandén, Taru
    Department for Soil Health and Plant Nutrition, Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety (AGES), Vienna, Austria.
    Blume-Werry, Gesche
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Reasons to not correct for leaching in TBI; Reply to Lind et al. (2022)2023Inngår i: Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 13, nr 6, artikkel-id e10133Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
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  • 27.
    Sarneel, Judith M.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Bejarano, Maria D.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Natural Resources Department, Technical University of Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    van Oosterhout, Martin
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Local flooding history affects plant recruitment in riparian zones2019Inngår i: Journal of Vegetation Science, ISSN 1100-9233, E-ISSN 1654-1103, Vol. 30, nr 2, s. 224-234Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Many rivers across the globe are severely impacted by changed flooding regimes, resulting in drastic shifts in vegetation, but the processes driving the exchange of flood‐sensitive and flood‐tolerant species are understood less. We studied the role of long‐term and recent flooding histories for riparian plant recruitment in response to various changes in flooding regime.

    Location: Vindel River catchment (Northern Sweden).

    Methods

    We experimentally changed long‐term flooding regimes by transplanting turfs between high and low elevations in 2000 and in 2014 (= 8 per treatment). We sowed seeds of five riparian species in both transplanted turfs and non‐transplanted controls and counted seedling numbers over two growing seasons. Further, we inventoried natural seedling frequencies in 190 plots in 19 reaches in 2013 and 2014, and related natural seedling numbers to plot flooding history in the period 2012–2014.

    Results: We observed effects of long‐term flooding history in the second year of the transplantation study (2015), but not in the first year. In 2015, turfs transplanted to locations with less flooding resulted in higher plant recruitment while transplantation to sites with more frequent flooding reduced recruitment compared to the controls. Since these differences were only found in recently transplanted turfs and not in older turfs, the legacy effect of long‐term flooding history can be transient. In the field seedling survey, similar differences were found between flooding‐history categories in 2013, but not in 2014, when the moisture conditions of the most recent year determined flooding. Further, lowest seedling numbers were observed when the previous flooding occurred in winter, and higher seedling numbers when floods occurred in spring or not at all.

    Conclusions: Both long‐term and recent flooding histories can affect plant recruitment, and their influence should be taken into account when designing restoration projects.

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  • 28. Sarneel, Judith M.
    et al.
    Beltman, Boudewijn
    Buijze, Anneke
    Groen, Roderick
    Soons, Merel B.
    The role of wind in the dispersal of floating seeds in slow-flowing or stagnant water bodies2014Inngår i: Journal of Vegetation Science, ISSN 1100-9233, E-ISSN 1654-1103, Vol. 25, nr 1, s. 262-274Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    QuestionWhat is the role of wind in the dispersal of waterborne seeds in slow-flowing and stagnant water bodies at different temporal and spatial scales? (i) Is there a direct effect of wind on seed dispersal speed and distance? (ii) Are prevailing wind conditions reflected in the seed deposition patterns during a year? (iii) What are the long-term (multiple year) effects of prevailing wind conditions on the pattern and composition of shoreline seed banks? LocationThe Westbroekse Zodden (5210N; 507E) and De Weerribben (52 degrees 46N; 5 degrees 55E) fen reserves in The Netherlands. MethodsReal-time seed movement tracking experiments were conducted at different wind speeds. Additionally, we performed a seed trap experiment using artificial grass mats and carried out seed bank analyses using a seedling emergence test. ResultsWind speed and direction strongly determined the dispersal process and the resulting deposition patterns of floating seeds in shallow lakes or ponds. Wind speed directly influenced dispersal speed and distance. Increasing wind speed increased dispersal speed but decreased dispersal distance. Over multiple seasons, more seeds were deposited at downwind shorelines than at upwind shorelines, showing that wind-driven hydrochory resulted in directional transport according to the prevailing wind direction. The species composition of deposited seeds was also affected, with proportionally more water-dispersed seeds being deposited at down-wind shorelines. These effects of wind speed and directionality will have consequences for the colonization of riparian zones in lentic systems and, therefore, also influence management and restoration. In the long term, local seed banks in riparian zones reflected the prevailing wind conditions poorly, showing that additional processes, such as differential germination and predation, also play important roles at longer time scales. ConclusionsWind plays an important role in the dispersal of waterborne seeds in lentic systems and (prevailing) wind speed and direction are reflected in seed dispersal trajectories and deposition patterns.

  • 29.
    Sarneel, Judith M.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Ecology & Biodiversity, Institute of Environmental Biology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands; Plant Ecophysiology, Institute of Environmental Biology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Hefting, Mariet M.
    Kowalchuk, George A.
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Van der Velden, Merit
    Visser, Eric J. W.
    Voesenek, Laurentius A. C. J.
    Jansson, Roland
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Alternative transient states and slow plant community responses after changed flooding regimes2019Inngår i: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 25, nr 4, s. 1358-1367Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change will have large consequences for flooding frequencies in freshwater systems. In interaction with anthropogenic activities (flow regulation, channel restoration and catchment land-use) this will both increase flooding and drought across the world. Like in many other ecosystems facing changed environmental conditions, it remains difficult to predict the rate and trajectory of vegetation responses to changed conditions. Given that critical ecosystem services (e.g. bank stabilization, carbon subsidies to aquatic communities or water purification) depend on riparian vegetation composition, it is important to understand how and how fast riparian vegetation responds to changing flooding regimes. We studied vegetation changes over 19 growing seasons in turfs that were transplanted in a full-factorial design between three riparian elevations with different flooding frequencies. We found that (a) some transplanted communities may have developed into an alternative stable state and were still different from the target community, and (b) pathways of vegetation change were highly directional but alternative trajectories did occur, (c) changes were rather linear but faster when flooding frequencies increased than when they decreased, and (d) we observed fastest changes in turfs when proxies for mortality and colonization were highest. These results provide rare examples of alternative transient trajectories and stable states under field conditions, which is an important step towards understanding their drivers and their frequency in a changing world.

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  • 30.
    Sarneel, Judith M.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Ecology and Biodiversity Group, Institute of Environmental Biology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Hefting, Mariet M.
    Ecology and Biodiversity Group, Institute of Environmental Biology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Sandén, Taru
    Department for Soil Health and Plant Nutrition, Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety (AGES), Vienna, Austria.
    van den Hoogen, Johan
    Department of Environmental Systems Science, Institute of Integrative Biology, ETH Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Routh, Devin
    Department of Environmental Systems Science, Institute of Integrative Biology, ETH Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland; Science IT, University of Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Adhikari, Bhupendra S.
    Department of Habitat Ecology, Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun, India.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    Environmental Science Center, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.
    Aleksanyan, Alla
    Department of Geobotany and Plant Ecophysiology, Institute of Botany aft. A.L. Takhtajyan NAS of RA, Yerevan, Armenia.
    Althuizen, Inge H. J.
    Department of Biological Sciences and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; NORCE Norwegian Research Centre AS, Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen, Norway.
    Alsafran, Mohammed H. S. A.
    Environmental Science Center, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar.
    Atkins, Jeff W.
    USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, SC, New Ellenton, United States.
    Augusto, Laurent
    ISPA, Bordeaux Sciences AgroVillenave d'Ornon, France.
    Aurela, Mika
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Climate System Research, Helsinki, Finland.
    Azarov, Aleksej V.
    Belgorod Federal Agrarain Scientific Center, Belgorod, Russian Federation.
    Barrio, Isabel C.
    Faculty of Environmental and Forest Sciences, Agricultural University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland.
    Beier, Claus
    Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Bejarano, María D.
    Department of Natural Systems and Resources, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
    Benham, Sue E.
    Forest Research, Surrey, United Kingdom.
    Berg, Björn
    Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Bezler, Nadezhda V.
    All-Russian Institute of Sugar and Sygar Beet Named after D. Mazlumov, Ramon, Russian Federation.
    Björnsdóttir, Katrín
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bolinder, Martin A.
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Carbognani, Michele
    Department of Chemistry, Life Sciences and Environmental Sustainability, University of Parma, Parma, Italy.
    Cazzolla Gatti, Roberto
    Biological Institute, Tomsk State University, Tomsk, Russian Federation; Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Chelli, Stefano
    School of Biosciences and Veterinary Medicine, University of Camerino, Camerino, Italy.
    Chistotin, Maxim V.
    All-Russian Research Institute of Agrochemistry Named after D. Pryanishnikov, Moscow, Russian Federation.
    Christiansen, Casper T.
    Center for Permafrost (CENPERM), Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Terrestrial Ecology Section, Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Courtois, Pascal
    AgroParisTech, Université de Lorraine, Nancy, France.
    Crowther, Thomas W.
    Department of Environmental Systems Science, Institute of Integrative Biology, ETH Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Dechoum, Michele S.
    Departamento de Ecologia e Zoologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, SC, Florianópolis, Brazil.
    Djukic, Ika
    Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Duddigan, Sarah
    Department of Geography and Environmental Science, University of Reading, Reading, United Kingdom.
    Egerton-Warburton, Louise M.
    , Chicago Botanic Garden, IL, Glencoe, United States.
    Fanin, Nicolas
    ISPA, Bordeaux Sciences AgroVillenave d'Ornon, France.
    Fantappiè, Maria
    Consiglio per la Ricerca in Agricoltura e l'Analisi dell'Economia Agraria, Rome, Italy.
    Fares, Silvano
    National Research Council of Italy Institute for Agriculture and Forestry Systems in the Mediterranean, Naples, Italy.
    Fernandes, Geraldo W.
    Departamento de Genética, ICB/Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, MG, Belo Horizonte, Brazil; Knowledge Center for Biodiversity, MG, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.
    Filippova, Nina V.
    Yugra State University, Russian Federation.
    Fliessbach, Andreas
    Research Institute of Organic Agriculture, Frick, Switzerland.
    Fuentes, David
    [NO CONNECTION TO ANY AFFILIATION IN XML].
    Godoy, Roberto
    Instituto de Ciencias Ambientales y Evolutivas, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile.
    Grünwald, Thomas
    Institute of Hydrology and Meteorology, TUD Dresden University of Technology, Tharandt, Germany.
    Guzmán, Gema
    alusian Institute of Agricultural and Fisheries Research and Training (IFAPA), Camino de Purchil, Granada, Spain.
    Hawes, Joseph E.
    Applied Ecology Research Group, School of Life Sciences, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, United Kingdom; Earth Research Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, California, USA; Institute of Science and Environment, University of Cumbria, Ambleside, Cumbria, UK.
    He, Yue
    College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Sino-French Institute for Earth System Science, Peking University, Beijing, China; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Laxenburg, Austria.
    Hero, Jean-Marc
    School of Anthropology and Conservation, Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology, University of Kent, Canterbury, United Kingdom; School of Science, Technology and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, QLD, Australia.
    Hess, Laura L.
    Earth Research Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, California, USA.
    Hogendoorn, Katja
    School of Agriculture, Food and Wine, University of Adelaide, SA, Adelaide, Australia.
    Høye, Toke T.
    Department of Ecoscience and Arctic Research Centre, Aarhus University, Aarhus C, Denmark.
    Jans, Wilma W. P.
    Wageningen Environmental Research, Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg S.
    Institute of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Iceland, Reykjavík, Iceland.
    Keller, Sabina
    Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Kepfer-Rojas, Sebastian
    Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Kuz'menko, Natalya N.
    Federal Scientific Center for Fiber Crops, Tver, Russian Federation.
    Larsen, Klaus S.
    Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lembrechts, Jonas J.
    Research Group Plants and Ecosystems (PLECO), University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Li, Junhui
    Center for Ecosystem Science and Society, Northern Arizona University, AZ, Flagstaff, United States; Department of Earth System Science, University of California, CA, Irvine, United States.
    Limousin, Jean-Marc
    CEFE, Univ Montpellier, CNRS, EPHE, IRD, Montpellier, France.
    Lukin, Sergey M.
    Upper Volga Federal Agrarain Scientific Center, Vladimir, Russian Federation.
    Marques, Renato
    Departamento de Solos e Engenharia Agrícola, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba, Brazil.
    Marín, César
    Centro de Investigación e Innovación para el Cambio Climático (CiiCC), Universidad Santo Tomás, Valdivia, Chile.
    McDaniel, Marshall D.
    Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University, IA, Ames, United States.
    Meek, Qi
    Department of Renewable Resources, Faculty of Agricultural, Life and Environmental Science, University of Alberta, AB, Edmonton, Canada.
    Merzlaya, Genrietta E.
    All-Russian Research Institute of Agrochemistry Named after D. Pryanishnikov, Moscow, Russian Federation.
    Michelsen, Anders
    Center for Permafrost (CENPERM), Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Montagnani, Leonardo
    Forest Services, Autonomous Province of Bozen-Bolzano, Bolzano, Italy; Libera Universita di Bolzano, Facoltà di Scienze e Tecnologie, Piazza Università, Bolzano, Italy.
    Mueller, Peter
    Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, MD, Edgewater, United States; Institute of Plant Science and Microbiology, Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
    Murugan, Rajasekaran
    Soil Biology and Plant Nutrition, Faculty of Organic Agricultural Sciences, University of Kassel, Witzenhausen, Germany; Valli Sustainability Research and Education, Tamil Nadu, Kanchipuram, India.
    Myers-Smith, Isla H.
    Department of Forest and Conservation Sciences, Faculty of Forestry, Forest Sciences Centre, University of British Columbia, BC, Vancouver, Canada; School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
    Nolte, Stefanie
    School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom; Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science, Lowestoft, United Kingdom.
    Ochoa-Hueso, Raúl
    Department of Biology, University of Cádiz, Campus de Excelencia Internacional Agroalimentario (ceiA3), Cádiz, Spain.
    Okafor, Bernard N.
    National Horticultural Research Institute, Ibadan, Nigeria.
    Okorkov, Vladimir V.
    Upper Volga Federal Agrarain Scientific Center, Vladimir, Russian Federation.
    Onipchenko, Vladimir G.
    Department of Ecology and Plant Geography, Biological Faculty, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russian Federation.
    Orozco, María C.
    Department of Biological Sciences, Universidad de los Andes, Bogotá, Colombia.
    Parkhurst, Tina
    School of Environmental and Conservation Sciences, Murdoch University, Murdoch, WA, Australia.
    Peres, Carlos A.
    School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom.
    Petit Bon, Matteo
    Department of Arctic Biology, University Centre in Svalbard, Svalbard, Longyearbyen, Norway; Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, Faculty of Biosciences Fisheries and Economics, Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway; Department of Wildland Resources, Quinney College of Natural Resources and Ecology Center, Utah State University, UT, Logan, United States.
    Petraglia, Alessandro
    Department of Chemistry, Life Sciences and Environmental Sustainability, University of Parma, Parma, Italy.
    Pingel, Martin
    Department of Applied Ecology, Hochschule Geisenheim University, Geisenheim, Germany.
    Rebmann, Corinna
    Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Leipzig, Germany.
    Scheffers, Brett R.
    Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, University of Florida, FL, Gainesville, United States.
    Schmidt, Inger
    Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Scholes, Mary C.
    School of Animal, Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Sheffer, Efrat
    Institute of Plant Science and Genetics in Agriculture, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel.
    Shevtsova, Lyudmila K.
    All-Russian Research Institute of Agrochemistry Named after D. Pryanishnikov, Moscow, Russian Federation.
    Smith, Stuart W.
    Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; Ecological Science Department, James Hutton Institute, Aberdeen, United Kingdom.
    Sofo, Adriano
    Department of European and Mediterranean Cultures: Architecture, Environment, Cultural Heritage (DiCEM), University of Basilicata, Matera, Italy.
    Stevenson, Pablo R.
    Universidad de Los Andes, Bogotá, Colombia.
    Strouhalová, Barbora
    Departement of Physical Geography and Geoecology, Faculty of Science, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Sundsdal, Anders
    Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; Faculty of Technology, Natural Sciences and Maritime Sciences, University of South-Eastern, Notodden, Norway.
    Sühs, Rafael B.
    Programa de pós-graduacão em Ecologia, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, SC, Florianópolis, Brazil.
    Tamene, Gebretsadik
    Department of Natural Resource Management, College of Agriculture and Environmental, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.
    Thomas, Haydn J. D.
    School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom.
    Tolunay, Duygu
    Ecology and Biodiversity Group, Institute of Environmental Biology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Tomaselli, Marcello
    Department of Chemistry, Life Sciences and Environmental Sustainability, University of Parma, Parma, Italy.
    Tresch, Simon
    Institute for Applied Plant Biology, Witterswil, Switzerland.
    Tucker, Dominique L.
    Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, OH, Cleveland, United States; Center for Energy, Environment and Sustainability, Department of Biology, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, United States.
    Ulyshen, Michael D.
    USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, GA, Athens, United States.
    Valdecantos, Alejandro
    Department of Ecology, University of Alicante, Alicante, Spain; Multidisciplinary Institute for Environmental Studies, IMEM, University of Alicante, Alicante, Spain.
    Vandvik, Vigdis
    Department of Biological Sciences and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
    Vanguelova, Elena I.
    Centre for Forest Protection, Forest Research, Surrey, United Kingdom.
    Verheyen, Kris
    Department of Environment, Forest and Nature Lab, Gent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Wang, Xuhui
    College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Sino-French Institute for Earth System Science, Peking University, Beijing, China.
    Yahdjian, Laura
    Cátedra de Ecología, Facultad de Agronomía, Buenos Aires, UBA, Argentina; Instituto de Investigaciones Fisiológicas y Ecológicas Vinculadas a la Agricultura (IFEVA), Facultad de Agronomía, Universidad de Buenos Aires and CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
    Yumashev, Xaris S.
    Chelyabinsk, Russian Federation.
    Keuskamp, Joost A.
    Ecology and Biodiversity Group, Institute of Environmental Biology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands; Biont Research, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Reading tea leaves worldwide: decoupled drivers of initial litter decomposition mass-loss rate and stabilization2024Inngår i: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248, Vol. 27, nr 5, artikkel-id e14415Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The breakdown of plant material fuels soil functioning and biodiversity. Currently, process understanding of global decomposition patterns and the drivers of such patterns are hampered by the lack of coherent large-scale datasets. We buried 36,000 individual litterbags (tea bags) worldwide and found an overall negative correlation between initial mass-loss rates and stabilization factors of plant-derived carbon, using the Tea Bag Index (TBI). The stabilization factor quantifies the degree to which easy-to-degrade components accumulate during early-stage decomposition (e.g. by environmental limitations). However, agriculture and an interaction between moisture and temperature led to a decoupling between initial mass-loss rates and stabilization, notably in colder locations. Using TBI improved mass-loss estimates of natural litter compared to models that ignored stabilization. Ignoring the transformation of dead plant material to more recalcitrant substances during early-stage decomposition, and the environmental control of this transformation, could overestimate carbon losses during early decomposition in carbon cycle models.

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  • 31.
    Sarneel, Judith M.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Plant Ecophysiology, Institute of Environmental Biology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands; Ecology & Biodiversity, Institute of Environmental Biology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Hefting, Mariet M.
    Ecology & Biodiversity, Institute of Environmental Biology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Visser, Eric J. W.
    Department of Experimental Plant Ecology, Institute for Water and Wetland Research, Radboud University, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Díaz-Sierra, Rubén
    Mathematical and Fluid Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED), Madrid, Spain.
    Voesenek, Laurentius A. C. J.
    Plant Ecophysiology, Institute of Environmental Biology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Kowalchuk, George A.
    Ecology & Biodiversity, Institute of Environmental Biology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Species traits interact with stress level to determine intraspecific facilitation and competition2022Inngår i: Journal of Vegetation Science, ISSN 1100-9233, E-ISSN 1654-1103, Vol. 33, nr 5, artikkel-id e13145Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Questions: Flooding and drought stress are expected to increase significantly across the world and plant responses to these abiotic changes may be mediated by plant–plant interactions. Stress tolerance and recovery often require a biomass investment that may have consequences for these plant–plant interactions. Therefore, we questioned whether phenotypic plasticity in response to flooding and drought affected the balance between competition and facilitation for species with specific adaptations to drought or flooding.

    Location: Utrecht University. Methods: Stem elongation, root porosity, root:shoot ratio and biomass production were measured for six species during drought, well-drained and submerged conditions when grown alone or together with conspecifics. We quantified competition and facilitation as the ‘neighbour intensity effect’ directly after the 10-day treatment and again after a seven-day recovery period in well-drained conditions.

    Results: Water stress, planting density and species identity interactively affected standardized stem elongation in a way that could lead to facilitation during submergence for species that preferably grow in wet soils. Root porosity was affected by the interaction between neighbour presence and time-step. Plant traits were only slightly affected during drought. The calculated neighbour interaction effect indicated facilitation for wetland species during submerged conditions and, after a period to recover from flooding, for species that prefer dry habitats.

    Conclusions: Our results imply that changing plant–plant interactions in response to submergence and to a lesser extent to drought should be considered when predicting vegetation dynamics due to changing hydroclimatic regimes. Moreover, facilitation during a recovery period may enable species maladapted to flooding to persist.

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  • 32.
    Sarneel, Judith M.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Janssen, Roel H.
    Rip, Winnie J.
    Bender, Irene M. A.
    Bakker, Elisabeth S.
    Windows of opportunity for germination of riparian species after restoring water level fluctuations: a field experiment with controlled seed banks2014Inngår i: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 51, nr 4, s. 1006-1014Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Restoration activities aiming at increasing vegetation diversity often try to stimulate both dispersal and germination. In wetlands, dispersal and germination are coupled as water and water level fluctuations (WLF) simultaneously influence seed transport and germination conditions (soil moisture). Water regime shifts have been shown to affect vegetation composition. However, the interactions between WLF, dispersal and subsequent germination as drivers of such changes are still poorly understood, especially within the complexity of a field situation.

    2. We tested the effect of soil moisture on ten riparian species in the greenhouse and sowed these species on 135 field locations in nine wetlands with recently restored WLF. We used quantile regressions to test the effects of WLF on the window of opportunity for germination from sown seeds and other seeds naturally dispersed to our plots, as well as on community diversity.

    3. Soil moisture significantly affected germination both in the greenhouse and in the field. In the complexity of a field situation, a flooding depth just below the soil level, an intermediate flooding duration and a high flooding frequency provided the best opportunities for maximal germination. This was because these conditions enhanced germination from the seed bank as well as increasing germination from dispersed seeds. Seedling diversity showed identical patterns.

    4. Other known (i.e., light conditions) and unknown factors played a role as we found low and variable germination, even under optimal conditions. We found evidence that WLF can affect vegetation zonation as flooded seedling communities contained more species with high moisture affinity.

    5. Synthesis and applications. Water level fluctuations provide clear windows of opportunity for germination both from the seed bank and from dispersed seeds. Water regime changes are therefore likely to strongly affect recruitment opportunities and subsequent community assembly in riparian ecosystems, for instance through climate change or management. Water level fluctuations can be used as management tool to stimulate plant recruitment and seedling diversity in riparian wetlands.

  • 33.
    Sarneel, Judith M.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Ecology & Biodiversity Group and Plant Ecophysiology Group, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Kardol, Paul
    Nilsson, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    The importance of priority effects for riparian plant community dynamics2016Inngår i: Journal of Vegetation Science, ISSN 1100-9233, E-ISSN 1654-1103, Vol. 27, nr 4, s. 658-667Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Questions The order of plant species arrival can affect recruitment and subsequent plant community development via priority effects, but is often overlooked. Priority effects occur when early-colonizing plant species affect the establishment of later-arriving species, and are hypothesized to depend on species identity and habitat conditions. In riparian ecosystems on the banks of rivers, a strong moisture gradient induces a zonation of plant species with different degrees of adaptation to soil moisture. Further, riparian zones receive seeds during floods and later in the season via wind dispersal. As such, we questioned if recruitment in riparian zones is primarily affected by (1) environmental conditions (i.e. soil moisture), (2) arrival order, and (3) species identity, or an interaction between these factors.

    Location Riparian zones of tributaries in the Vindel River catchment, northern Sweden.

    Method We designed a controlled greenhouse experiment and a large-scale field experiment where we sowed five plant species representing different dispersal events and habitat moisture preferences. We sowed seeds in three arrival order treatments (all species simultaneously, species group A phased 3wk before group B, and vice versa) and under different soil moisture treatments in the greenhouse (dry, dry-after-wet and wet) and under a range of moisture conditions in the field.

    Results We found strong priority effects as early-arriving species grew bigger and often produced higher seedling densities compared to later-arriving species, both in the greenhouse and after two growing seasons in the field. Priority effects in the greenhouse were strongest in the dry and dry-after-wet treatments and weaker under wet conditions. Consistent but weaker patterns were observed in the field after the first growing season. The relative abundance of species in plant communities assembled without phased arrival interacted with soil moisture and species identity. Priority effects were strongest for species with a low relative abundance (i.e. less competitive species).

    Conclusions Our findings that priority effects influenced recruitment and interacted with soil moisture suggest that priority effects should be considered when addressing riparian vegetation changes after shifts in flooding regimes. This is especially important because floods will not only affect habitat conditions, but also the phasing of seed arrival.

  • 34.
    Sarneel, Judith M.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Ecology & Biodiversity Group, Utrecht University, the Netherlands; Plant Ecophysiology Group, Utrecht University, the Netherlands.
    Sundqvist, Maja K.
    Molau, Ulf
    Björkman, Mats P.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    Decomposition rate and stabilization across six tundra vegetation types exposed to >20 years of warming2020Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 724, s. 1-8, artikkel-id 138304Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Litter decomposition is an important driver of soil carbon and nutrient cycling in nutrient-limited Arctic ecosystems. However, climate change is expected to induce changes that directly or indirectly affect decomposition. We examined the direct effects of long-term warming relative to differences in soil abiotic properties associated with vegetation type on litter decomposition across six subarctic vegetation types.

    Methods: In six vegetation types, rooibos and green tea bags were buried for 70–75 days at 8 cm depth inside warmed (by open-top chambers) and control plots that had been in place for 20–25 years. Standardized initial decomposition rate and stabilization of the labile material fraction of tea (into less decomposable material) were calculated from tea mass losses. Soil moisture and temperature were measured bi-weekly during summer and plant-available nutrients were measured with resin probes.

    Results: Initial decomposition rate was decreased by the warming treatment. Stabilization was less affected by warming and determined by vegetation type and soil moisture. Soil metal concentrations impeded both initial decomposition rate and stabilization.

    Conclusions: While a warmer Arctic climate will likely have direct effects on initial litter decomposition rates in tundra, stabilization of organic matter was more affected by vegetation type and soil parameters and less prone to be affected by direct effects of warming.

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  • 35.
    Sofo, Adriano
    et al.
    Department of European and Mediterranean Cultures: Architecture, Environment and Cultural Heritage (DiCEM), Università degli Studi della Basilicata, Matera, Italy.
    Khanghahi, Mohammad Yaghoubi
    Department of Soil, Plant and Food Sciences, Università degli Studi di Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy.
    Curci, Maddalena
    Department of Soil, Plant and Food Sciences, Università degli Studi di Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy.
    Reyes, Francesco
    Department of Life Sciences, Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Briones, Maria J. I.
    Department of Ecology and Animal Biology, Universidade de Vigo, Pontevedra, Spain.
    Sarneel, Judith M.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Cardinale, Domenico
    Independent Researcher, Matera, Italy.
    Crecchio, Carmine
    Department of Soil, Plant and Food Sciences, Università degli Studi di Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, Italy.
    Earthworm-driven changes in soil chemico-physical properties, soil bacterial microbiota, tree/tea litter decomposition, and plant growth in a mesocosm experiment with two plant species2023Inngår i: PLANTS, E-ISSN 2223-7747, Vol. 12, nr 6, artikkel-id 1216Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Earthworms and soil microorganisms contribute to soil health, quality, and fertility, but their importance in agricultural soils is often underestimated. This study aims at examining whether and to what extent the presence of earthworms (Eisenia sp.) affected the (a) soil bacterial community composition, (b) litter decomposition, and (c) plant growth (Brassica oleracea L., broccoli; Vicia faba L., faba bean). We performed a mesocosm experiment in which plants were grown outdoors for four months with or without earthworms. Soil bacterial community structure was evaluated by a 16S rRNA-based metabarcoding approach. Litter decomposition rates were determined by using the tea bag index (TBI) and litter bags (olive residues). Earthworm numbers almost doubled throughout the experimental period. Independently of the plant species, earthworm presence had a significant impact on the structure of soil bacterial community, in terms of enhanced α- and β-diversity (especially that of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidota, Myxococcota, and Verrucomicrobia) and increased 16S rRNA gene abundance (+89% in broccoli and +223% in faba bean). Microbial decomposition (TBI) was enhanced in the treatments with earthworms, and showed a significantly higher decomposition rate constant (kTBI) and a lower stabilization factor (STBI), whereas decomposition in the litter bags (dlitter) increased by about 6% in broccoli and 5% in faba bean. Earthworms significantly enhanced root growth (in terms of total length and fresh weight) of both plant species. Our results show the strong influence of earthworms and crop identity in shaping soil chemico-physical properties, soil bacterial community, litter decomposition and plant growth. These findings could be used for developing nature-based solutions that ensure the long-term biological sustainability of soil agro- and natural ecosystems.

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  • 36. Souza e Brito, Betania Guedes
    et al.
    Magalhães Veloso, Maria das Dores
    Sarneel, Judith M.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Dolabela Falcão, Luiz Alberto
    Ribeiro, Juliana Martins
    Frazão, Leidivan Almeida
    Fernandes, Geraldo Wilson
    Litter decomposition in wet and dry ecosystems of the Brazilian Cerrado2020Inngår i: Soil Research, ISSN 1838-675X, Vol. 58, nr 4, s. 371-378Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Decomposition of plant litter is a crucial process in carbon and nutrient cycling in all ecosystems, but our understanding of drivers of this process in Brazilian Cerrado (savanna) ecosystems is limited. We determined the decomposition rate and the stabilisation factor in areas of cerrado sensu stricto and palm swamp (vereda) in Bonito de Minas, Minas Gerais, south-eastern Brazil. These two major Cerrado ecosystems differ markedly in environmental conditions, but primarily in water and soil conditions. We used the standardised Tea Bag Index method, characterised soil parameters, and microbial activity to evaluate the decomposition process between these ecosystems. We found higher decomposition rates in the palm swamp compared to cerrado sensu stricto, possibly due to higher soil temperature and humidity conditions and higher microbial biomass.

  • 37.
    Stroud, J.T.
    et al.
    School of Biological Sciences, Georgia Institute of Technology, GA, Atlanta, United States.
    Delory, B.M.
    Institute of Ecology, Leuphana University Lüneburg, Lüneburg, Germany; Copernicus Institute of Sustainable Development, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Barnes, E.M.
    Thomas H. Gosnell School of Life Sciences, Rochester Institute of Technology, NY, Rochester, United States.
    Chase, J.M.
    German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany; Institute of Computer Science, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany.
    De Meester, L.
    Leibniz Institut für Gewässerökologie und Binnenfischerei (IGB), Müggelseedamm 310, Berlin, Germany; Institute of Biology, Freie Universität Berlin, Königin-Luise-Strasse 1–3, Berlin, Germany; Laboratory of Aquatic Ecology, Evolution, and Conservation, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Dieskau, J.
    German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany; Department of Geobotany and Botanical Garden, Martin-Luther University, Germany.
    Grainger, T.N.
    Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, ON, Guelph, Canada.
    Halliday, F.W.
    Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oregon State University, OR, Corvallis, United States.
    Kardol, P.
    Department of Forest Mycology and Plant Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Knight, T.M.
    German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany; Department of Community Ecology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ), Halle (Saale), Germany; Institute of Biology, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany.
    Ladouceur, E.
    German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany; Institute of Computer Science, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany.
    Little, C.J.
    School of Environmental Science, Simon Fraser University, BC, Burnaby, Canada.
    Roscher, C.
    German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research (iDiv) Halle-Jena-Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany; Department of Physiological Diversity, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ), Leipzig, Germany.
    Sarneel, Judith M.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Temperton, V.M.
    Institute of Ecology, Leuphana University Lüneburg, Lüneburg, Germany.
    van Steijn, Tamara L.H.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Werner, C.M.
    Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Sustainability, Southern Oregon University, OR, Ashland, United States.
    Wood, C.W.
    Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, PA, Philadelphia, United States.
    Fukami, T.
    Departments of Biology and Earth System Science, Stanford University, CA, Stanford, United States.
    Priority effects transcend scales and disciplines in biology2024Inngår i: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although primarily studied through the lens of community ecology, phenomena consistent with priority effects appear to be widespread across many different scenarios spanning a broad range of spatial, temporal, and biological scales. However, communication between these research fields is inconsistent and has resulted in a fragmented co-citation landscape, likely due to the diversity of terms used to refer to priority effects across these fields. We review these related terms, and the biological contexts in which they are used, to facilitate greater cross-disciplinary cohesion in research on priority effects. In breaking down these semantic barriers, we aim to provide a framework to better understand the conditions and mechanisms of priority effects, and their consequences across spatial and temporal scales.

  • 38. van Leeuwen, Casper H. A.
    et al.
    Sarneel, Judith M.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    van Paassen, Jose
    Rip, Winnie J.
    Bakker, Elisabeth S.
    Hydrology, shore morphology and species traits affect seed dispersal, germination and community assembly in shoreline plant communities2014Inngår i: Journal of Ecology, ISSN 0022-0477, E-ISSN 1365-2745, Vol. 102, nr 4, s. 998-1007Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Seed dispersal and germination are two primary processes influencing plant community assembly. On freshwater shores, water levels regulate both processes. However, it is still unclear how water levels, shore morphology and species traits interactively affect seed dispersal and germination, and how these interactions determine plant community assembly. We hypothesize that a drawdown water regime enhances seed establishment compared to a year-round stable water level, that this increases species richness and diversity, and that this is modulated by species traits and shore morphology. 2. Germination of 20 wetland plant species with different dispersal capacities (floating capacity expressed as seed floatation half-time) and soil moisture preferences for germination (Ellenberg F) was tested on artificial shores in 24 outdoor ponds in two complementary experiments over 8 weeks. The 'dispersal experiment' tested the effect of water regime on recruitment of hydrochorously dispersing seeds. The 'seed bank experiment' tested the effect of water regime on germination from a sown seed bank, on steep and gradual shores. 3. In the dispersal experiment, the drawdown regime increased recruitment and species richness. Longer floating species colonized a larger shoreline section. Soil moisture preference for germination did not determine colonization patterns. 4. In the seed bank experiment, the drawdown regime increased the number of seedlings on gradual sloping shores, but not on steep shores. The number of germinating seedlings corresponded to the area subjected to the drawdown regime in both shore types. Species richness was not affected by water regime or shore morphology, and species traits did not determine shoreline colonization. Most seeds germinated in moist soil conditions for all species. 5. Synthesis. A spring drawdown instead of stable water regime stimulates establishment of hydrochorously dispersing seeds in temperate wetlands, leading to higher species richness and diversity. Germination from the seed bank is more affected by water regime and shore surface than by the tested species traits. Species traits, water levels and shore morphology together determine wetland plant community assembly, with dispersal as the main driver of seedling community diversity. Water-level regulations and shore morphology can be used to influence plant communities in wetland restoration.

  • 39. Veen, GF (Ciska)
    et al.
    Sarneel, Judith M
    Department of Aquatic Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Ravensbergen, Lone
    Huig, Naomi
    van Paassen, Jose
    Rip, Winnie
    Bakker, Elisabeth S
    Aquatic grazers reduce the establishment and growth of riparian plants along an environmental gradient2013Inngår i: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 58, nr 9, s. 1794-1803Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    1. The establishment of riparian plants is determined by abiotic conditions and grazing, although it is usually presumed that the former are most important. We tested the impact of aquatic grazers on the survival and growth of establishing riparian plants and whether the impact of grazing interacts with abiotic conditions.

    2. We conducted an experiment across 10 Dutch wetlands, covering a large range of water depth and nutrient availability. We introduced 1-year-old plants of an emergent (common reed, Phragmites australis) and a floating (water soldier, Stratiotes aloides) species in individual enclosures (n=5 per site) that excluded predominantly waterbirds, which were the most abundant grazers, and on adjacent unprotected plots. Survival and growth were measured during one growing season.

    3. Grazing reduced growth (as biomass) of Phragmites and Stratiotes by a mean of 25 and 60%, respectively. Grazing decreased survival of Stratiotes, but not of Phragmites. Shallow water, water-level fluctuations, eutrophic conditions and enough light favoured both growth and survival of Phragmites. Growth of Stratiotes was unaffected by these factors, but they reduced its survival. For both species, grazing effects on biomass were consistent across environmental conditions, but for Phragmites, grazing effects on survival were influenced by abiotic conditions.

    4. We conclude that aquatic grazers significantly reduce the establishment and growth of macrophytes in the riparian zone over a wide range of environmental conditions.

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