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  • 1.
    Junkka, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Membership in and Presence of Voluntary Organisations during the Swedish Fertility Transition, 1880-19492018In: Historical Life Course Studies, E-ISSN 2352-6343, Vol. 5, p. 3-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the association between, participation in, and exposure to voluntary organisations and marital fertility during the European fertility transition from 1880 to 1949. This is achieved using individual-level longitudinal demographic data from northern Sweden linked with individual-level information on voluntary organisation membership and contextual level information on organisation activity. How living near an organisation influenced fertility is measured using mixed effect Cox regressions. The association to participation for both men and women is tested by matching members to a control group through propensity score matching before estimating differences in risks of another birth using Cox regressions. The results show that being exposed to an organisation was related to lower fertility. Joining a union or a temperance organisation showed even stronger negative associations, but only for male members, while female members showed no significant difference in fertility. The results suggest that reproductive decisions were not simple responses by the individual couple to structural changes but were also shaped within the social networks of which they were a part.

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  • 2.
    Junkka, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Shared practices: social networks and fertility decline during the Swedish demographic transition, 1850-19502018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis studies how social interactions influenced the fertility decline during the Swedish demographic transition between 1850 and 1950. This, to gain insights into how and why norms and values affected married couples' birth control practices, and how this shaped the fertility decline. Social interaction effects are studied in two different networks, voluntary associations and spatial communities using regression-based methods, in four research papers. The relationship between social interactions and fertility, in turn, is studied at different levels of society, on a macro-, meso- and micro-level. The results show that married couples reproductive practices were affected by social interactions during the whole study period. Members of unions, free churches and temperance associations had, in general, lower fertility than others. Additionally, couples living near a union or a free-church was also more inclined to limit their fertility. Finally, the results show significant spatial autocorrelations in fertility of neighbours and couples in adjacent neighbourhoods. These results suggest that increased use of birth control was diffused within social networks through social interaction mechanisms and collective action. However, the most substantial effects are seen during the fertility transition. This was a time of large-scale societal changes, which made the perceived net benefits of childbearing more uncertain. The results of this thesis indicate that couples drew upon the experiences of others to make more informed decisions. Over time, these new shared practices were formed into social norms, connecting ideas of respectability with family limitation, diffused within social networks.

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  • 3.
    Junkka, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Spatial diffusion of fertility decline in northern Sweden, 1850-19502019In: Annales de Démographie Historique, ISSN 0066-2062, E-ISSN 1776-2774, Vol. 138, no 2, p. 83-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines to what extend fertility behaviours of married couples were related to the behaviours of their married neighbours, in northern Sweden from 1850 to 1950. The relationship is being investigated at two geographical levels: between neighbourhoods and between neighbours. We show that couples in adjacent neighbourhoods had similar fertility at the onsetand during the fertility transition but not after nor before. The effects oflong-term changes in neighbour fertility present similar patterns but theopposite is true for short-term effects. Short-term effects only affected fertility before or after the fertility transition but not during the transition. The results suggest that the fertility of couples were affected by social interaction mechanisms within networks of neighbours during the whole study period, and that the effect was strongest during the fertility transition.

  • 4.
    Junkka, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå Universitet.
    The influence of voluntary associations on fertility during the Swedish demographic transition, 1880-1949Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the impact on marital fertility of participation in and exposure to voluntary associations during the European fertility transition from 1880 to 1949. This is achieved using individual-level longitudinal demographic data from northern Sweden linked with individual-level information on voluntary association membership and contextual level information on association activity. The effect of living near an association is measured using mixed effect Cox regressions. The effect of joining an association for men and women is tested by matching members to a control group through propensity score matching before estimating differences in risks of another birth using Cox regressions. The results show that being exposed to an association was associated with lower fertility. Joining a union or a temperance association showed even stronger negative effects, but only for male members, while female members showed no significant difference in fertility. The results suggest that reproductive decisions were not simple responses by the individual couple to structural changes, but were also shaped within the social networks of which they were a part.

  • 5.
    Junkka, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Voluntary Associations and Net Fertility During the Swedish Demographic Transition2018In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 819-848Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the role of changing social relations for fertility decline during the European fertility transition. The growth of voluntary associations at the end of the nineteenth century entailed a radical shift in the landscape of social relations in Sweden. By combining micro-census data from 1890 to 1900 with local-level membership data for three voluntary association groups, this article assesses the effect of parish-level voluntary association size on net fertility in Sweden using mixed-effects Poisson regression models. The results show that the adoption of fertility limitation during the transition period was associated with the creation and diffusion of the idea of respectability within large social network organisations, an idea that has previously been shown to be connected to fertility limitation. Furthermore, by applying a social network perspective, the results show that the strength of the effect was dependent on the structure of the social networks in terms of size, density, and homogeneity. Voluntary association size had the strongest effect for the free churches, which created dense heterogeneous networks through systems of social control, while the size of the temperance association showed no effect on fertility because the connections between nodes were sparse.

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  • 6.
    Junkka, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Edvinsson, Sören
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Gender and fertility within the free churches in the Sundsvall region, Sweden, 1860–19212016In: The History of the Family, ISSN 1081-602X, E-ISSN 1873-5398, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 243-266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of secularization in the European fertility decline has been of interest to demographers, who often explore the relationship on a macro-level or by identifying religious affiliation by proxy. However, the relationship has not been thoroughly studied on an individual level utilizing indicators of personal religious conviction and affiliation. The aim of the present article is to examine reproductive practices by religious affiliation in order to understand the impact of secularization on fertility decline. This is accomplished using event history analysis of longitudinal parish register data from Sundsvall (1860–1921) where religious affiliation is identified on a family level. Reproductive practices are analysed using cohort TFR, descriptive statistics and Cox proportional hazard regressions. Free-church affiliates had, overall, a higher probability of having another child than did affiliates to the state church. However, these differences decreased over time, and as fertility dropped throughout society free-church affiliates showed the strongest significant reduction in probability of another birth. This indicates that over time, within the free churches, ideas about respectability and restraint came to mean that birth control, in the form of abstinence within marriage, became an important practice in the formation of gendered religious identities - leading to a relatively early decrease in fertility.

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  • 7.
    Junkka, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Hiltunen, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Infectious disease mortality among infants, seasonality and ambient temperature in Sweden, 1868-18922022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate variability, such as ambient temperature, is crucial for infants' vulnerability to infectious diseases. However, little is known about how climate variability affects infectious disease mortality among infants in high mortality settings. We investigate the association between ambient temperature, seasonality and cause-specific infant mortality. Parish register data from the Sundsvall region in Northern Sweden covering the period 1868-1892 were used in combination with daily temperature data from Härnösand. Mortality due to water- and food-born diseases, airborne infectious diseases, and other causes were modelled as a function of temperature exposure in the previous 14 days using time-series analysis. We found that airborne infectious disease mortality was not related to cold temperatures but rather to seasonality, and that the summer mortality peak due to water- and foodborne infections were associated with high temperatures and not with seasonality. 

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  • 8.
    Junkka, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Hiltunen, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Temperature- and seasonality-related infectious disease mortality among infants: a retrospective time-series study of Sweden, 1868–18922024In: Vienna Yearbook of Population Research, ISSN 1728-4414, E-ISSN 1728-5305, Vol. 22, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate conditions, such as ambient temperatures, play a crucial role in infants' vulnerability to infectious diseases. However, little is known about how climate conditions, such as temperatures and seasonality, affect infectious disease mortality among infants in high mortality settings. The aim of our study was to investigate the association between cause-specific infant mortality and ambient temperatures and seasonality. We applied a retrospective study design using parish register data from Sweden covering the 1868–1892 period in combination with daily temperature data. Mortality due to water- and foodborne diseases, airborne infectious diseases and other causes was modelled as a function of temperature exposure in the previous 14 days using distributed lagged non-linear models. We found that airborne infectious diseasemortality was not related to cold temperatures, but rather to seasonality. The summer peaks in mortality due to water- and foodborne infections were associated with high temperatures, and not with seasonality. The increased vulnerability of infants to infectious diseases at high temperatures is a significant future risk, given that global temperatures are projected to rise in the coming decades.

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  • 9.
    Junkka, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Lena, Karlsson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Schumann, Barbara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Climate vulnerability of Swedish newborns: Gender differences and time trends of temperature-related neonatal mortality, 1880–19502021In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 192, article id 110400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In resource-poor societies, neonatal mortality (death in the first 28 days of life) is usually very high.Young infants are particularly vulnerable to environmental health risks, which are modified by socioeconomicfactors that change over time. We investigated the association between ambient temperature and neonatalmortality in northern Sweden during the demographic transition.

    Methods: Parish register data and temperature data in coastal Vasterbotten, ¨ Sweden, between 1880 and 1950were used. Total and sex-specific neonatal mortality was modelled as a function of mean temperature, adjustingfor age, seasonality and calendar time, using discrete-time survival analysis. A linear threshold function wasapplied with a cut point at 14.5 ◦C (the minimum mortality temperature). Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed. Further analyses were stratified by study period (1800–1899, 1900–1929,and 1930–1950).

    Results: Neonatal mortality was 32.1 deaths/1000 live births, higher in boys than in girls, and decreased between1880 and 1950, with high inter-annual variability. Mean daily temperature was +2.5 ◦C, ranging from − 40.9 ◦Cto +28.8 ◦C. At − 20 ◦C, the OR of neonatal death was 1.56 (CI 1.30–1.87) compared to the reference at +14.5 ◦C.Among girls, the OR of mortality at − 20 ◦C was 1.17 (0.88–1.54), and among boys, it was 1.94 (1.53–2.45). Atemperature increase from +14.5 to +20 ◦C was associated with a 25% increase of neonatal mortality (OR 1.25,CI 1.04–1.50). Heat- and cold-related risks were lowest between 1900 and 1929.

    Conclusions: In this remote sub-Arctic region undergoing socio-economic changes, we found an increased mortality risk in neonates related to low but also to high temperature. Climate vulnerability varied across time andwas particularly high among boys. This demonstrates that environmental impacts on human health are complexand highly dependent on the specific local context, with many, often unknown, contributing determinants ofvulnerability. 

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  • 10.
    Junkka, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Vikström, Lotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    The emergence of social gaps in mental health: a longitudinal population study in Sweden, 1900-19592020In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 15, no 4, article id e0232462Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the recent decades, social inequalities in mental health have increased and are now one of the most persistent features of contemporary society. There is limited knowledge about when this pattern emerged or whether it has been a historically fixed feature. The objective of this study was to assess whether socioeconomic and gender gaps in mental health changed during the period 1900–1959 in Sweden. We used historical micro data which report all necessary information on individuals’ demographic characteristics, occupational attainment and mental disorders (N = 2,450) in a Swedish population of 193,893. Changes over time was tested using multilevel Cox proportional hazard models. We tested how gender-specific risks of mental disorder changed and how gender-specific socioeconomic status was related to risks of mental disorder later in life. We found a reversal in gender gaps in mental health during the study period. Women had a lower risk than men in 1900 and higher risks in 1959. For men, we found a negative gradient in SES risks in 1900 and a positive gradient in 1959. For women, we found no clear SES gradient in the risk of mental disorder. These findings suggest that the contemporary patterns in socioeconomic and gender gaps in mental disorder emerged during the 1940s and 1950s and have since then persisted.

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  • 11.
    Junkka, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Vikström, Lotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Healthy migrant perspectives on disability and mobility in a nineteenth-century population2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The strong association between weak health and immobility suggests why there is insufficient knowledge on how disability affects human migration, historically and today. Swedish parish registers digitized by the Demographic Data Base (DDB), Umeå University, enable this study to investigate a 19th-century population of more than 35,000 including a group long hidden in research and society because of disability. First, rates and regressions demonstrate that disability impeded the migration of both men and women albeit with variations by disability type and over time. During industrialisation the overall migration risk was increasing, but not in case of disability. Second, spatial analysis shows that disability limited the distance migrants crossed, especially in the pre-industrial period and among women. During industrial time, migrants’ distance and destinations became less determined by disability. We address healthy migrant perspectives and lock-in mechanisms to discuss the disability differences in migration.

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  • 12.
    Karlsson, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Junkka, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Schumann, Barbara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Ambient temperature and stillbirth risks in northern Sweden, 1880–19502021In: Environmental Epidemiology, ISSN 2474-7882, Vol. 5, no 6, article id e176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Climate vulnerability of the unborn can contribute to adverse birth outcomes, in particular, but it is still not well under-stood. We investigated the association between ambient temperature and stillbirth risk among a historical population in northern Sweden (1880–1950).

    Methods: We used digitized parish records and daily temperature data from the study region covering coastal and inland communi-ties some 600 km north of Stockholm, Sweden. The data included 141,880 births, and 3,217 stillbirths, corresponding to a stillbirth rate of 22.7 (1880–1950). The association between lagged temperature (0–7 days before birth) and stillbirths was estimated using a time-stratified case-crossover design. Incidence risk ratios (IRR) with 95% confidence intervals were computed, and stratified by season and sex.

    Results: We observed that the stillbirth risk increased both at low and high temperatures during the extended summer season (April to September), at −10°C, and the IRR was 2.3 (CI 1.28, 4.00) compared to the minimum mortality temperature of +15°C. No clear effect of temperature during the extended winter season (October to March) was found. Climate vulnerability was greater among the male fetus compared to the female counterparts.

    Conclusion: In this subarctic setting before and during industrialization, both heat and cold during the warmer season increased the stillbirth risk. Urbanization and socio-economic development might have contributed to an uneven decline in climate vulnerability of the unborn.

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  • 13.
    Karlsson, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Junkka, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Schumann, Barbara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Socioeconomic disparities in climate vulnerability: neonatal mortality in northern Sweden, 1880–19502021In: Population and environment, ISSN 0199-0039, E-ISSN 1573-7810, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 149-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to analyse the association between season of birth, temperature and neonatal mortality according to socioeconomic status in northern Sweden from 1880 to 1950. The source material for this study comprised digitised parish records combined with local weather data. The association between temperature, seasonality, socioeconomic status and neonatal mortality was modelled using survival analysis. We can summarise our findings according to three time periods. During the first period (1880–1899), temperature and seasonality had the greatest association with high neonatal mortality, and the socioeconomic differences in vulnerability were small. The second period (1900–1929) was associated with a decline in seasonal and temperature-related vulnerabilities among all socioeconomic groups. For the last period (1930–1950), a new regime evolved with rapidly declining neonatal mortality rates involving class-specific temperature vulnerabilities, and there was a particular effect of high temperature among workers. We conclude that the effect of season of birth on neonatal mortality was declining for all socioeconomic groups (1880–1950), whereas weather vulnerability was pronounced either when the socioeconomic disparities in neonatal mortality were large (1880–1899) or during transformations from high to low neonatal rates in the course of industrialisation and urbanisation.

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  • 14.
    Liselotte, Eriksson
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Junkka, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Vikström, Lotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Supply or demand?: Institutionalization of the mentally ill in the emerging Swedish welfare state, 1900–19592021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Historical studies on the institutionalization of the mentally ill have primarily relied on data on institutionalized patients rather than the population at risk. Consequently, the underlying factors of institutionalization are unclear. Using Swedish longitudinal microdata from 1900–1959 reporting mental disorders, we examine whether supply-side factors such as distance to institutions and number of asylum beds influenced the risk of institutionalization, in addition to demand-side factors such as access to family. Institutionalization risks were associated with the supply of beds and proximity to an asylum, but also dependent on families’ unmet demand for care of relatives. As the supply of mental care met this family-driven demand in the 1930s, the relative risk of institutionalization increased among those lacking family networks.

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  • 15.
    Liselotte, Eriksson
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Junkka, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Vikström, Lotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Supply or demand? Institutionalization of the mentally ill in the emerging Swedish welfare state, 1900–592022In: History of Psychiatry, ISSN 0957-154X, E-ISSN 1740-2360, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 180-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Historical studies on the institutionalization of the mentally ill have primarily relied on data for institutionalized patients rather than the population at risk. Consequently, the underlying factors of institutionalization are unclear. Using Swedish longitudinal microdata from 1900–59 reporting mental disorders, we examine whether supply factors, such as distance to institutions and number of asylum beds, influenced the risk of institutionalization, in addition to demand factors such as access to family. Institutionalization risks were associated with the supply of beds and proximity to an asylum, but also dependent on families’ unmet demand for care of relatives. As the supply of mental care met this family-driven demand in the 1930s, the relative risk of institutionalization increased among those lacking family networks.

  • 16.
    Sundvall, Samuel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Junkka, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Better off in the city? Economic outcomes of rural out‐migration in Sweden: sibling study of cohorts 1960–19842024In: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines disparities in income levels and employment status between individuals who migrate from rural areas and their siblings who remained in rural settings in Sweden for cohorts born 1960–1984. Utilizing comprehensive Swedish register data, we track the economic outcomes at age 35 or rural residents who migrated between ages 15 and 25, comparing them to non-migrating siblings. Our analysis, employing binomial logit and log-linear models for employment odds and income levels, respectively, reveals that while rural out-migration generally leads to higher income, it does not significantly impact employment status. The study underscores the role of individual and family-specific factors—such as gender and education—and broader time- and place-dependent structures in mediating migration's effects. We find that income disparity between migrants and non-migrants has increased since the 1990s and that the differences increase with the urbanization level of the destination.

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  • 17.
    Vikström, Lotta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Junkka, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Haage, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Ett annorlunda liv?: Följder av funktionsnedsättningar i 1800-talets Sverige2019In: Funktionsnedsättning i arbetsliv och välfärd: rapport från forskarseminariet i Umeå 16–17 januari 2019, Försäkringskassan; Analys och prognos , 2019, p. 15-29Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad innebar funktionsnedsättningar för människors delaktighet i 1800-talets samhälle? Studien besvarar frågan genom att undersöka över 35,000 unga personers chanser att hitta ett första jobb där levnadsbanan för 15-åringar följs upp närmare. Funktionsnedsättningar medförde svårigheter på både arbets- och partnermarknaden även om det inte var omöjligt att skaffa jobb, gifta sig och bilda familj. Det vittnar om att nedsatt funktionsförmåga innebar ett annorlunda liv och möjligen socialt utanförskap, men inte alltid. Följderna varierade beroende på typ av nedsättning där omgivningens attityder till olika funktionsnedsättningar och könsbundna förväntningar tycks ha spelat roll. Fysiska nedsättningar hade inte lika negativa effekter för arbete, giftermål och överlevnad som psykiska nedsättningar. Resultaten bygger på kyrkböcker digitaliserade av Demografiska Databasens (DDB), Umeå Universitet, där prästerna noterade funktionsavvikelser och händelser i församlingsbornas liv (t.ex. yrke, giftermål, barnafödande). Studien belyser hur levnadsvillkor och möjligheter till delaktighet i samhället via arbete gestaltade sig för individer i historisk tid till följd av funktionsnedsättningar – förhållanden som dröjer sig kvar än idag.

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  • 18.
    Vikström, Lotta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Junkka, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Karhina, Kateryna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Doctor in Public Health and Epidemiology, Department of Psychosocial Science, University of Bergen, Norway.
    Two centuries of disability disadvantages in Swedish partnerships2022In: Disability & Society, ISSN 0968-7599, E-ISSN 1360-0508Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Partnership signifies a key transition for social recognition in society. This study identifies long-term trends of disability and partnership in Sweden evidenced by the chances to marry or cohabit during two centuries (1800s–2010s). We compare results from studies within one comprehensive disability project, making use of quantitative life-course analysis and population records. Our findings uncover a remarkably persistent trend from the 1800s until the 2010s. Disability impeded both men and women’s partnership chances significantly (by about 60%), with some variations across disability types, genders, and periods. That disabled people did not enjoy greater access to a partner relative to others while Sweden moved from a poor country to a wealthy welfare state, suggests that disability persistently affords fewer possibilities to participate in social life and society. Our study is exceptional by combining disability with partnership and comparing recent results with the past.

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  • 19.
    Vikström, Lotta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Junkka, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Karhina, Kateryna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Two Centuries of Disability Disadvantages in Swedish Partnerships2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Partnership signifies a key transition for social recognition in society. This study identifies long-term trends of disability and partnership in Sweden evidenced by the chances to marry or cohabit during two centuries(1800s–2010s). We compare results from studies within one comprehensive disability project, making use of quantitative life-course analysis and population records. Our findings uncover a remarkably persistent trendfrom the 1800s until the 2010s. Disability impeded both men and women’s partnership chances significantly (by about 60%), with some variations across disability types, genders, and periods. That disabled people did not enjoy greater access to a partner relative to others while Sweden moved from a poor country to a wealthy welfare state, suggests that disability persistently affords fewer possibilities to participate in social life and society. Our study is exceptional by combining disability with partnership and comparing recent results with the past.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 20.
    Vikström, Lotta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Junkka, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Namatovu, Fredinah
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Karhina, Kateryna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    A longitudinal study of how disability affects mortality in Swedish Populations from the 1800s, 1900s and 2000s2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Studies from across the world show that disability limits people’s health and social wellbeing in present-day populations. This disadvantage can lead to premature death, but there is dearth knowledge about the relationship between disability and mortality and changes over time.   

    OBJECTIVES: Unique access to longitudinal micro data on comprehensive Swedish populations enabled us to examine how disability affects premature death in men and women from the 1800s until 2010. 

    METHODS: Cox proportional regressions were used to estimate mortality hazards by disability status, gender and socio-economic indicators in three study populations from the 1800s, 1900s and 2000s. We followed all adults having disability from age 25 to compare their premature death risks (< age 43) relative to non-disabled groups.

    RESULTS: Irrespective of gender and century studied, the adjusted hazard ratios show that adults with disabilities had a significantly higher premature death risk relative to adults without disabilities, and it increased over time. In the 1800s, disability about doubled this risk (HR: 2.31, CI: 1.65–3.22) and it tripled from 1900–1959 (HR 3.01, CI 2.60– 3.48). At the turn of the 21th century, the mortality risk was almost ten-folded (HR 9.90, CI 8.03–10.5). 

    CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first comprehensive estimates on how disability increased mortality in Swedish populations from the 1800s until the 2000s. Across three centuries, disability was associated with a profoundly higher relative death risk in adults aged 25–42. This risk grew when the general survival in Sweden improved and it was the highest in the 1990–2010 period. Fundamental societal changes and extensive welfare provisions promoting equality in gender, health and social wellbeing of all citizens have not come to include younger generations with disabilities. 

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  • 21.
    Vikström, Lotta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Karhina, Kateryna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Junkka, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Two Centuries of Inequalities: Disability and Partnership in Sweden2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study brings together a unique selection of results that reveal how disabilities shaped the marriage/cohabitation chances in Swedish populations from the 1800s until recent decades. Using longitudinal population registers and a life-course approach, multivariate statistical analysis helps to estimate the impact of disability on partnership relative to other individual-level attributes in different temporal contexts of Swedish society. While there were some differences by type of disability and gender, the overall finding is that disabilities kept weakening people’s partnership chances to a similarly high extent (with about 60% or even more), as Sweden moved from being a poor country in the 1800s to a modern welfare state. We discuss the findings from social inequalities perspectives arguing that disabled people’s partnership chances not only represent how potential partners perceive disability; these chances also reflect general attitudes in society towards disability that work to compromise disabled people’s participation in social life and society. Our long-term results uncover a remarkable persistence in the relationship between disability and partnership in turn suggesting that social inequalities persist being associated with disability in spite of profound structural changes and extensive welfare measures in Sweden to create a more equal society for all.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 22.
    Vikström, Lotta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Karhina, Kateryna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Department of Psychosocial Science, University of Bergen, Norway.
    Junkka, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Two centuries of inequalities: disability and partnership in Sweden2022In: The Routledge handbook of contemporary inequalities and the life course / [ed] Magda Nico; Gary Pollock, London: Routledge, 2022, p. 136-151Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study brings together a unique selection of results that reveal how disabilities shaped the marriage/cohabitation chances in Swedish populations from the 1800s until recent decades. Using longitudinal population registers and a life course approach, multivariate statistical analysis helps to estimate the impact of disability on partnership relative to other individual-level attributes in different temporal contexts of Swedish society. While there were some differences by type of disability and gender, the overall finding is that disabilities kept weakening people’s partnership chances to a similarly high extent (with about 60% or even more), as Sweden moved from being a poor country in the 1800s to a modern welfare state. We discuss the findings from social inequalities perspectives arguing that disabled people’s partnership chances not only represent how potential partners perceive disability; these chances also reflect general attitudes in society towards disability that work to compromise disabled people’s participation in social life and society. Our long-term results uncover a remarkable persistence in the relationship between disability and partnership in turn suggesting that social inequalities persist being associated with disability in spite of profound structural changes and extensive welfare measures in Sweden to create a more equal society for all.

1 - 22 of 22
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