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  • 1.
    Brouder, Patrick
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Creative Outposts: Tourism's Place in Rural Innovation2012In: Tourism Planning & Development, ISSN 2156-8316, E-ISSN 2156-8324, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 383-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the dynamics of local tourism innovation in order to see how tourism development benefits tourism stakeholders including the local community. The paper is concerned with the social impacts of tourism and contends that there is a latent positive social capital in rural communities. Some "creative outposts" manage not just to survive but to thrive, and tourism often acts as a catalyst for innovative local development. Examples of tourism innovation can be new and better interactions among tourism stakeholders as well as changes in institutional arrangements. Entrepreneurs and institutional stakeholders are interviewed to investigate the dynamics of local tourism innovation. The social dimension in which tourism stakeholders operate is poorly understood and this paper presents a case study of Jokkmokk village with results showing tourism has a subtle yet palpable positive social role in the community. Themes emerging from the interviews are: the tourist office and tourism firms co-evolve over time, tourism networks are loose and project-based, tourism is a desirable diversifier, and tourism contributes to the local leisure space. Particular focus is given to the fact that this is an Arctic rural community, and the research provides a basis for understanding tourism innovation systems in this context. Tourism development is found to be complementary to rural coping strategies in "creative outposts". 

  • 2.
    Brouder, Patrick
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    The Touristic Allure of the Far North and Far South: A review of: Polar Tourism: Human, Environmental and Governance Dimensions2012In: Tourism Geographies, ISSN 1461-6688, E-ISSN 1470-1340, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 646-648Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Brouder, Patrick
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Tourism development against the odds: the tenacity of tourism in rural areas2012In: Tourism Planning & Development, ISSN 2156-8316, E-ISSN 2156-8324, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 333-337Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Brouder, Patrick
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Staying Power: What Influences Micro-Firm Survival in Tourism?2013In: Tourism Geographies, ISSN 1461-6688, E-ISSN 1470-1340, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 125-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate how previous experience and location of entrepreneurs influence the survival of new tourism firms. The paper departs from recent evolutionary economic geography advancements, highlighting the importance of routines and skills as well as location-specific knowledge for firm success. While having been well-researched for manufacturing industries characterized by high entry barriers, little knowledge is currently available on the factors influencing survival rates in service sectors with low entry barriers. A quantitative approach applies hazard models to investigate the survival rates over a seven-year period of a total of 133 new micro-tourism firms started between 1999 and 2001 in the four northernmost counties of Sweden. The geo-referenced micro-database ASTRID links information on firm features (e.g. firm births and deaths, spatial coordinates and industry codes) to characteristics of entrepreneurs (e.g. age, education, previous experience). The main finding is that entrepreneurs with previous work experience in related sectors are more likely to survive and, in this case, entrepreneurs without local experience tend to be less successful. We find no evidence that new firms operating in regions specialized in tourism have a survival advantage. Our analysis also indicates that surviving firms improve performance over time. The paper thus contributes new knowledge on the determinants of micro-firm survival in tourism.

  • 5.
    Brouder, Patrick
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    A (ski) trip into the future: climate change and winter tourism in Polar Sweden in 20402013In: New issues in Polar tourism: communities, environments, politics / [ed] Dieter K. Müller; Linda Lundmark; Raynald H. Lemelin, Dordrecht: Springer, 2013, p. 149-161Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research shows that many polar tourism entrepreneurs are not ready to adapt to climate change even though some areas within the polar north are more exposed and adaptive capacities of entrepreneurs vary. Moreover, sensitivities of communities to climate change are dependent on the importance of current and future winter tourism in the locale relative to other industries, thus questioning whether communities should focus on winter-tourism development. Current trends reveal a promulgation of a four seasons' approach to tourism in Polar Sweden in order to reduce sensitivities. However, there is also further winter-tourism development potential since the north inland of Sweden is more secure than many other European winter sport destinations. An important question is as follows: how can regions in the polar north capitalize on their natural assets and develop winter tourism without risking a lock-in effect through increased regional sensitivity to climate change? This chapter maps the exposed area in Polar Sweden and generates basic climate impact scenarios for the future based on plausible alternatives due to climate change and tourism business and institutional development. The discussion utilizes the Arctic Tourism Innovation System (ATIS) framework, where the necessary roles and complementary relationships of institutions and entrepreneurs in creating sustainable paths for polar communities are highlighted.

  • 6.
    Brouder, Patrick
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Climate change in Northern Sweden: intra-regional perceptions of vulnerability among winter-oriented tourism businesses2011In: Journal of Sustainable Tourism, ISSN 0966-9582, E-ISSN 1747-7646, Vol. 19, no 8, p. 919-933Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is a potential threat to society and business. Although research has noted that the tourism sector may be robust on the macro scale, significant losses at local levels have been suggested. This paper examines Upper Norrland, in Northern Sweden, by measuring the perceptions of winter-oriented tourism entrepreneurs. Their perceptions of potential threats from climate change are assessed, including how entrepreneurs view the future, in terms of climate change impacts and sustainability of the region as a winter-tourism destination. A quantitative survey of entrepreneurs (n = 63) gave responses along geographical and operator dimensions to reveal local differences within the Upper Norrland region, showing the coastland to be perceived as more exposed to change than inland areas. Venue-based businesses see climate change as a higher priority than activity-based, potentially mobile, businesses, regardless of their location. The general perception among businesses is that climate change will not drastically impact the tourism sector over the next 10 years. A basic model for mapping local differences is outlined to stimulate further study of the under-researched intra-regional nuances in climate change and tourism research. A case is made for regional planners to use this tool and to educate local businesses on adaptation techniques.

  • 7.
    Carson, Doris A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Brouder, Patrick
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. School of Tourism & Hospitality, University of Johannesburg, South Africa.
    de la Barre, Suzanne
    Vancouver Island University.
    Editorial: Communities and New Development Paths in the Sparsely Populated North2017In: Journal of Rural and Community Development, E-ISSN 1712-8277, Vol. 12, no 2-3, p. i-xiArticle in journal (Other academic)
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