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  • 1. Abord-Hugon Nonet, Guénola
    et al.
    Aggestam Pontoppidan, Caroline
    Dale Ditlev-Simonsen, Caroline
    Hermes, Jan
    Lankoski, Leena
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Maheshwari, Sanchi
    Perrotta Berlin, Maria
    Petro Sebhatu, Samuel
    Solitander, Nikodemus
    Sundemo, Mattias
    PRME Nordic Chapter2021Ingår i: Responsible management education: the PRME global movement / [ed] Mette Morsing, London: Routledge, 2021, 1, s. 182-197Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
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  • 2.
    Bergman, Mats A.
    et al.
    Södertörns Högskola.
    Johansson, Per
    Uppsala University.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Spagnolo, Giancarlo
    Stockholm School of Economics.
    Privatization and quality: evidence from elderly care in Sweden2016Ingår i: Journal of Health Economics, ISSN 0167-6296, E-ISSN 1879-1646, Vol. 49, s. 109-119Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-contractible quality dimensions are at risk of degradation when the provision of public services is privatized. However, privatization may increase quality by fostering performance-improving innovation, particularly if combined with increased competition. We assemble a large data set on elderly care services in Sweden between 1990 and 2009 and estimate how opening to private provision affected mortality rates – an important and not easily contractible quality dimension – using a difference-in-difference-in-difference approach. The results indicate that privatization and the associated increase in competition significantly improved non-contractible quality as measured by mortality rates. 

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 3.
    Bergman, Mats A.
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Jordahl, Henrik
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Choice and competition in the welfare state: home care as the ideal quasi-market2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    We study a reform by which a standardized model of choice and competition was introduced in tax-financed home care in a majority of Swedish municipalities. The market for home care is of particular interest since it is close to the ideal quasi-market. For identification, we exploit the different timing of reform implementation across municipalities. We find that the introduction of free choice and free entry in home care increased perceived quality by about one quarter of a standard deviation without affecting costs. Since satisfaction is unrelated to the private market share, the underlying mechanism seems to be new choice opportunities rather than competition or an advantage of private providers.

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  • 4.
    Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Sverige.
    Indén, Tobias
    Juridisk Institut, Syddansk Universitet, Odense, Danmark.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nationalekonomi.
    Madell, Tom
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Juridiska institutionen.
    Offentlig upphandling: på rätt sätt och till rätt pris2011Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 5.
    Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Södertörns University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Per
    IFAU, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Spagnolo, Giancarlo
    Stockholm School of Economics SITE, Sweden.
    Privatization and quality: evidence from elderly care in Sweden2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-contractible quality dimensions are at risk of degradation when the provision of public services is privatized. However, privatization may increase quality by fostering performance-improving innovation, particularly if combined with increased competition. We assemble a large data set on elderly care services in Sweden between 1990 and 2009 and estimate how opening to private provision affected mortality rates--an important and not easily contractible quality dimension--using a difference-in-difference-in-difference approach. The results indicate that privatization and the associated increase in competition significantly improved non-contractible quality as measured by mortality rates. It also reduced the cost per resident, although left total cost unaffected.

  • 6. Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Lundberg, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Stake, Johan Y.
    Interactions Across Firms and Bid Rigging2020Ingår i: Review of Industrial Organization, ISSN 0889-938X, E-ISSN 1573-7160, Vol. 56, nr 1, s. 107-130Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We evaluate whether an econometric technique that is used in the spatial econometrics and network effects literature can be adopted as a test for collusive bidding in public procurement auctions. The proposed method is applied to the Swedish asphalt cartel that was discovered in 2001. Our dataset covers the period 1995–2009, which makes it possible to test for conditional independence between complementary cartel bids before and after 2001. Our estimates show a significant positive correlation between complementary cartel bids during the cartel period, whereas a non-significant correlation is shown during the later period. The variance of the parameter estimate of interest also differs between the periods, which suggests a structural change in bidding behavior among cartel members between the two periods.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
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  • 7.
    Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Nationalekonomi, Södertörns högskola, Huddinge, Sverige.
    Lundberg, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Stake, Johan Y.
    Nationalekonomi, Södertörns högskola, Huddinge, Sverige.
    Using spatial econometrics to test for collusive behavior in procurement auction dataManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 8.
    Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Sverige.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Att utvärdera anbud: utvärderingsmodeller i teori och praktik2009Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 9.
    Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    ECON, Centre for Economic Analysis, Stockholm.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nationalekonomi.
    Auctioned and re-auctioned children in 19th century Sweden2000Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    During the 19th century, poor and orphan Swedish children were boarded out. The foster-parents, compensation was determined in English auctions. Some children were re-auctioned. We use historical data from such auctions to study whether informational asymmetry and possibly adverse selection affected the outcome in the market for re-auctioned children. The empirical findings are consistent with some informational asymmetry.

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  • 10.
    Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Huddinge, Sverige.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Kvalitet och styckkostnader i äldreboende2013Ingår i: Den offentliga sektorn: en antologi om att mäta produktivitet och prestationer / [ed] Lars Hultkrantz, Stockholm: Fritzes, 2013, 1, s. 115-133Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Den offentliga sektorn : en antologi om att mäta produktivitet och prestationer
  • 11.
    Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Södertörns University, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Sourcing for government goods and services: theory and evidence from Swedish cities and municipalities2013Ingår i: Charting a course in public procurement innovation and knowledge sharing / [ed] Gian Luigi Albano; Keith F. Snide; Khi V. Thai, Boca Raton: PrAcademics Press , 2013Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Departing from a simple normative theory for the choice between lowest price, highest quality (beauty contest) and more complex scoring rules, we empirically investigate the behavior of cities and authorities. We survey a gross sample of 40 procuring entities about perceived key characteristics of products bought in 650 public procurements and collect data on award methods for these procurements. We compare actual scoring rules against the theoretical norms and analyze what product characteristics make deviation from the norm more or less likely. In addition, a control group of 100 authorities was surveyed about similar but hypothetical procurements. We find that more complex scoring rules are used more often when framework agreements are procured and less so when the procuring authority reports that they experience significant uncertainty about the delivered quality. Low weight given to price in the bid award process is associated with low perceived uncertainty concerning delivered quality.

  • 12.
    Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Tender evaluation and award methodologies in public procurement2011Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The EU procurement directives stipulate that public contracts are awarded to the lowest bidder or to the bidder with the economically most advantageous offer; the latter requiring that a scoring rule must be specified. We provide a simple theoretical framework for tender evaluation and discuss the pros and cons of common scoring rules, e.g., highest quality (beauty contest) and price-and-quality-based evaluation. Some descriptive facts are presented for a sample of Swedish public procurements. We argue that the most common method, price-to-quality scoring, is flawed for several reasons. It is non-transparent, making accurate representation of the procurer’s preferences difficult. It is often open to strategic manipulation, due to dependence on irrelevant alternatives, and it is unreasonably non-linear in bid prices. We prefer quality-to-price scoring, where money values are assigned to different quality levels. When the costs of quality are relatively well-known, however, lowest price is the preferable award criteria.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 13.
    Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Södertörns Högskola.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Tender evaluation and supplier selection methods in public procurement2013Ingår i: Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, ISSN 1478-4092, E-ISSN 1873-6505, Vol. 19, nr 2, s. 73-83Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The EU procurement directives stipulate that public contracts be awarded to the lowest bidder or to the bidder with the economically most advantageous tender; the latter requiring that a scoring rule be specified. We provide a simple theoretical framework, based on standard microeconomic theory, for tender evaluation (scoring and weighing) and discuss the pros and cons of methods such as highest quality (beauty contest), lowest price and price-and-quality-based evaluations. We argue that the most common method, price-to-quality scoring, is inappropriate for several reasons. It is non-transparent, making accurate representation of the procurer's preferences difficult. It is often open to strategic manipulation, due to dependence on irrelevant alternatives, and it tends to impose particular and unjustified non-linearity in bid prices. The alternative quality-to-price scoring method, where money values are assigned to different quality levels, is a better alternative. However, when the cost of quality is relatively well-known and several providers can offer optimal quality lowest price is the preferable award criteria, while beauty contests may be preferred when purchasing budgets are inflexible.

  • 14.
    Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Tendering design when price and quality is uncertain: theory and evidence from public procurement2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Departing from a simple normative theory for the choice between lowest price, highest quality (beauty contest) and more complex scoring rules, we empirically investigate the behavior of local and central authorities. We survey a gross sample of 40 contracting entities about perceived key characteristics of products bought in 651 public procurements and collect data on supplier selection methods for these procurements. We compare actual scoring rules with theoretical norms and analyze what product characteristics make deviation from the norm more or less likely. In addition, a control group of 275 authorities was surveyed about similar but hypothetical procurements. We find that more complex scoring rules are used more often when the authority is uncertain about costs and about delivered quality, in accordance with our hypotheses. However, authority effects are also found to directly and indirectly influence the choice of supplier-selection method, suggesting that tendering design is partially driven by local habits or institutional inertia.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 15.
    Bergman, Mats
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Giancarlo, Spagnolo
    Public procurement and non-contractible quality: evidence from elderly care2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Many quality dimensions are hard to contract upon and are at risk of degradation when the service is procured rather than produced in-house. On the other hand, procurement may foster performance-improving innovation. We assemble a large data set on elderly care services in Sweden for the 1990-2009 period, including survival rates, our measure of non-contractible quality, and indicators of subjectively perceived quality of service. We estimate the effects of municipalities’ decision to procure rather than produce in-house on non-contractible quality using a difference-in-difference approach and controlling for a number of other potential determinants. The results indicate that procurement significantly increases non-contractible quality as measured by survival rate, reduces the cost per resident but does not affect subjectively perceived quality.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
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  • 16.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nationalekonomi.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nationalekonomi.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Assessment of green public procurement as a policy tool: Cost-efficiency and competition considerations2009Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Public procurement is officially regarded as an effective means to secure environmental improvement. Estimates by the European Commission indicate that public authorities within the European Union typically purchase goods and services corresponding to approximately 16 percent of GNP per annum. Hence, it is believed, private firms can be stimulated to invest in sustainable production technologies if the market power of public bodies is exerted through Green Public Procurement (GPP) policies. In this paper we assess whether GPP is a cost-efficient policy tool, and if so whether its implementation can, from a welfare perspective, deter or stimulate entry to procurement markets.

  • 17.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nationalekonomi.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nationalekonomi.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Assessment of green public procurement as a policy tool: Cost-efficiency and competition considerations2009Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 18.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Inst. Ekonomi och Samhälle, Högskolan Dalarna/Dep. of Economics, Dalarna University.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Asymmetric information and distance: An empirical assessment of geographical credit rationing2005Ingår i: Journal of Economics and Business, ISSN 0148-6195, E-ISSN 1879-1735, Vol. 57, nr 1, s. 39-59Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Does the geographical proximity between the borrowing firm and the lending bank, matter in credit risk management? If so, the bank might expose itself to a greater risk by lending to distant firms and should therefore respond by rationing them harder. In this paper, we incorporate geographical credit rationing in a simple theoretical model, and derive implications, which are empirically testable. We use data on corporate loans granted between the years of 1994 and 2000 by a leading Swedish bank, and find no evidence of geographical credit rationing.

  • 19. Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    Friman, Eva
    Mogren, Anna
    Palmer, Henrietta
    Sund, Per
    Carstedt, Göran
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Statistik.
    Robertsson, Barbro
    Rodhe, Håkan
    Svärd, Linn
    Evaluation of integration of sustainable development in higher education in Sweden2020Ingår i: International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, ISSN 1467-6370, E-ISSN 1758-6739, Vol. 21, nr 4, s. 685-698Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Since 2006, higher education institutions (HEIs) in Sweden, should according to the Higher Education Act, promote sustainable development (SD). In 2016, the Swedish Government asked the Swedish higher education authority to evaluate how this study is proceeding. The authority chose to focus on education. This paper aims to produce a report on this evaluation.

    Design/methodology/approach: All 47 HEIs in Sweden were asked to write a self-evaluation report based on certain evaluation criteria. A panel was appointed consisting of academics and representatives for students and working life. The panel wrote an evaluation of each HEI, a report on general findings and recommendations, and gave an overall judgement of each HEI in two classes as follows: the HEI has well-developed processes for integration of SD in education or the HEI needs to develop their processes.

    Findings: Overall, a mixed picture developed. Most HEIs could give examples of programmes or courses where SD was integrated. However, less than half of the HEIs had overarching goals for integration of SD in education or had a systematic follow-up of these goals. Even fewer worked specifically with pedagogy and didactics, teaching and learning methods and environments, sustainability competences or other characters of education for SD. Overall, only 12 out of 47 got a higher judgement.

    Originality/value: This is a unique study in which all HEIs in a country are evaluated. This provides unique possibilities for identifying success factors and barriers. The importance of the leadership of the HEIs became clear.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
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  • 20.
    Fåhraeus, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    - Hur gick det till? En utvärdering av Sjuksköterskeprogrammet i Lycksele: "En sjuksköterskeutbildning med IT- och Glesbygdsprofil"2002Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 21.
    Granlund, David
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Indén, Tobias
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Juridiska institutionen.
    Lundberg, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Wikström, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Det offentliga som konkurrent på kommersiella marknader - En samhällsekonomisk analys med exemplet konferensmarknaden2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här rapporten analyseras samhällsekonomiska effekter av att det offentliga konkurrerar med privata företag på kommersiella marknader. Den innehåller även en pilotstudie av marknaden för en – och tvådagarskonferenser tillämpad på Umeåregionen.

    Svensk konkurrenslagstiftning inkluderar regler om konkurrensbegränsande offentlig säljverksamhet. Reglerna gäller för den offentliga sektorn i sin helhet, dvs stat, primärkommuner (kommun) eller landstingskommuner (landsting) och juridiska personer vars verksamhet den offentliga sektorn har ett dominerande inflytande över. Inflytandet kan ta sig formen av ägande, finansieringsvillkor, styrelse, lag och avtal. Frågan om det offentliga som konkurrent är även samhällsekonomiskt relevant då snedvridning av konkurrens i form av exempelvis underprissättning till följd av stöd, kan innebära en samhällsekonomisk förlust.

    Sammantaget visar den samhällsekonomiska analysen att det inte går att dra några generella slutsatser om att konkurrens från den offentliga sektorn på marknader med en etablerad kommersiell verksamhet alltid är problematisk. Även i situationer där konkurrensen sker på olika villkor kan fördelarna med den offentliga aktörens medverkan överväga nackdelarna. Baserat på pilotstudien och olika scenarios avseende  konferensmarknaden i Umeå, är det möjligt att dra slutsatsen att fördelarna med offentliga aktörer kan dominera nackdelarna under förutsättning att den offentliga aktörens produktionskostnad maximalt är en procent högre än en privat aktörs produktionskostnad för motsvarande konferens. Analysen visar att subventioner till offentliga aktörer överskridande 1,3 miljoner kronor inte kan motiveras utifrån ett samhällsekonomiskt perspektiv i något scenario. I scenariot där den offentliga aktören ägnar sig åt underprissättning överväger nackdelarna även om verksamheten klarar sig utan subvention.

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  • 22.
    Grape, Ove
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Socialt arbete.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Nordström, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Kompetenspoolen, ett alternativ till att bryta långtidsarbetslöshet: en process- och samhällsekonomisk utvärdering2005Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 23.
    Hyytinen, Ari
    et al.
    School of Business and Economics, University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Toivanen, Otto
    Helsinki Center of Economic Research (HECER), Finland.
    Politics and procurement: Evidence from cleaning contracts2008Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the effects of politics on public procurement in Swedish municipalities in 199098 using data on cleaning services. No procuring municipality committed to a standard auction format or to an explicit scoring rule. Political identity of the governing party is not correlated with the decision to procure, the decision to restrict entry, or the number of invited firms. However, leftwing municipalities are more likely not to invite “inhouse firms”. In our data, the lowest bidder does not win 58% of the time, and conditional on the lowest bid not winning, the municipalities end up paying a premium of 43%. Our discrete choice analysis shows that while all municipalities are price sensitive, leftwing councils 1.5 as price sensitive as rightwing councils. Conditional on bids, leftwing councils are more likely to choose a local firm. Politics thus matter and affect procurement outcomes.

  • 24.
    Hyytinen, Ari
    et al.
    University of Jyväskylä, School of Business and Economics.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Toivonen, Otto
    Aalto University & KU Leuven, Faculty of Business and Economics (FBE); CEPR.
    Design of public procurement auctions: evidence from cleaning contracts2018Ingår i: The Rand Journal of Economics, ISSN 0741-6261, E-ISSN 1756-2171, Vol. 49, nr 2, s. 398-426Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze a regime change from beauty contests to first‐price sealed‐bid and scoring auctions, using Swedish data on public procurement of cleaning services. In beauty contests, the lowest bid often lost, leaving substantial money on the table. The procurement costs were similar before and after the regime change: (i) Entry strongly decreases the procurement cost but did not change. Entry would have decreased had the municipalities not adjusted the objects of auctions. (ii) Municipalities favored in‐house suppliers in the old regime, leading to more aggressive bidding by others. With favoritism reduced, these changes balanced each other out.

  • 25.
    Indén, Tobias
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Juridiska institutionen.
    Lindström, Hanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Erixon, Olof (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Svenskt Näringsliv.
    Frödén, Dan (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Tenders Sverige AB.
    Nilsson, Magnus (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Peak Procurement AB.
    Spånberg, Emma (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    SNS.
    Cope, Malin (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Konkurrensverket.
    Wallenklint, Joakim (Medarbetare/bidragsgivare)
    Konkurrensverket.
    Överprövningar av offentliga upphandlingar: En intervjustudie om skillnader mellan LOU och LUF2014Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att analysera möjliga förklaringar till att upphandlingarsom görs enligt Lagen (2007:1092) om offentlig upphandling inom områdenavatten, energi, transporter och posttjänster (LUF) tycks föranleda en mindre andelöverprövningar än upphandlingar som görs enligt Lagen (2007:1091) om offentligupphandling (LOU). Den senare lagstiftningen är tillämplig på offentliga upphandlingarav tjänster, varor och byggentreprenader som inte faller under de områdensom anges i LUF (se ovan).Tillgänglig statistik visar att överprövning är mer vanligt förekommande blandupphandlingar som regleras av LOU. Detta förhållande kvarstår med hänsyn tagentill att det är mer vanligt att upphandla enligt LOU än LUF. För att belysa möjligaförklaringar till detta har 28 intervjuer genomförts med beställare/upphandlare frånstatliga och kommunala organ samt med företrädare för leverantörer från olikabranscher.Utgångspunkterna för intervjuerna har varit frågor relaterade till upphandlingssituationen(t.ex. organisation och kompetens), juridiska faktorer (t.ex. förhandlingsmöjligheter)samt leverantörernas syn på upphandling (t.ex. överprövningsom affärsstrategi).Intervjuerna ger vid handen att en avgörande anledning till att upphandlingarenligt LUF överprövas i mindre utsträckning än upphandlingar enligt LOU är detmer omfattande förhandlingsutrymme som till skillnad från LOU finns i LUF. Frånupphandlarsidan menar de intervjuade att förhandling förebygger och ger möjlighetatt hantera missförstånd och felaktigheter under upphandlingens gång. Dettaanses minska risken för att en leverantör upplever sig felbehandlad eller upphandlingensom illa genomförd. En annan intressant iakttagelse är att de intervjuadeupphandlarna beskriver att de branscher som upphandlas enligt LOU i högreutsträckning präglas av en ”överprövningskultur”. Av de intervjuade nämner fleraatt LUF-upphandlingar ofta är mer komplexa och att myndigheter som upphandlarunder LUF därför håller sig med upphandlare med hög marknadsspecifikkompetens. En sådan lösning är något som skulle vara mer resurskrävande förkommunala organ, då de ofta förfogar över en i högre grad diversifieradupphandlingsportfölj.

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  • 26.
    Lindström, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    The National Institute of Economic Research (NIER), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Green Public Procurement: An empirical analysis of the uptake of organic food policy2022Ingår i: Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, ISSN 1478-4092, E-ISSN 1873-6505, Vol. 28, nr 3, artikel-id 100752Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the uptake of a voluntary green public procurement policy in Sweden. The policy, decided in 2006, stated a national goal for the public sector to increase its share of organic food purchases to 25% by 2010. The overall purpose was to increase organic farming. Municipalities, which are highly independent authorities with self-determination, were encouraged to formulate own political goals. Based on survey data on organic food purchases for the period 2003–2016, supplemented with data on municipality characteristics, we analyse the determinants of the local uptake of the national policy, accounting for potential selection bias. The main finding is that local political goals are set and that these have in turn, a significant and positive effect on the share of organic food purchases. This suggests that there is an uptake of the voluntary policy. Also, we find that the increase in expenditures per capita devoted to organic food is quite substantial following the adoption of a local policy.

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    fulltext
  • 27.
    Lindström, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Konjunkturinstitutet.
    How Green Public Procurement can drive conversion of farmland: An empirical analysis of an organic food policy2020Ingår i: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 172, artikel-id 106622Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies a Green Public Procurement (GPP) policy decided by the Swedish government in 2006, stating objectives related to organic farming. The policy aims to increase the public sector's organic food purchases, in order to incentivise Swedish farmers to convert to organic practices, thereby contributing to national environmental quality objectives. We analyse the effect of organic food procurement on organic agricultural land, using panel data from 2003 to 2016 including information on municipalities' organic food purchases, land use, and direct subsidies aimed at organic production. Based on different specifications and mainly FGLS estimations, we conclude that the 2006 organic food policy is associated with a significant positive impact on organic agricultural land. A significant effect of direct agricultural policy in the form of subsidies is also found.

  • 28.
    Lundberg, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Att utvärdera mot pris och kvalitet - Om utvärderingsmodeller, delaktighet & tillgänglighet: En rapport skriven på uppdrag av Myndigheten för delaktighet2020Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 29.
    Lundberg, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Distributional Effects of Lower Food Prices in a Rich Country2012Ingår i: Journal of Consumer Policy, ISSN 0168-7034, E-ISSN 1573-0700, Vol. 35, nr 2, s. 373-391Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Controlling for differences in taxes and transportation costs, the Nordic Competition Authorities claims, in a report from 2005, that food prices are 11% higher in Sweden compared to the EU-15 countries. One explanation for this put forward in the report is the limited competition on this market which suggests there to be a potential for lower food prices. This paper focuses on distributional effects of a price decrease on food. Based on a simple model of household utility, the households demand for food is derived and estimated. Price and income elasticities for different income groups are then calculated based on these parameter estimates. Our results suggest that food is a normal good with an average income elasticity of approximately 0.18 and a price elasticity of 0.45. In addition, and of importance from a policy perspective, the results indicate the income elasticity to differ across income groups while price elasticities are constant.

  • 30.
    Lundberg, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nationalekonomi.
    Distributional Effects of Lower Food Prices in a Rich Country: Calculations Based on Estimates of Household Demand for Food2008Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 31.
    Lundberg, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nationalekonomi.
    Join the Club?  On the Attractiveness of Golf Club Membership2008Ingår i: The Empirical Economics Letters, ISSN 1681-8997, Vol. 7, nr 11, s. 1125-1132Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 32.
    Lundberg, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Join the Club: On the Attractiveness of Golf Club Membership2005Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to analyze determinants of the attractiveness of membership in Swedish golfclubs. This is modeled as a utility maximization problem and is estimated using a unique data set that includes 99 percent of all golf clubs in Sweden. We find that the annual membership fees and the member profile have a significant impact on the club´s attractiveness as well as a number of other important characteristics of the club and the municipality in which the club is located. The latter result indicates that not only the characteristics of the club itself but also its location matter for its attractiveness.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 33.
    Lundberg, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Westin, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Hushållens efterfrågan på dagligvaror och val av dagligvarubutik i Umeå kommun.2004Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande rapport är att analysera vilka faktorer som påverkar hushållens efterfrågan på dagligvaror samt vilka faktorer som styr hushållens val av dagligvarubutik. Den ekonometriska analysen bygger på ett datamaterial bestående av totalt 116 enkätsvar från hushåll i Umeå kommun. Enkäten omfattar information om hushållens sammansättning, inkomstnivå, bostadsområde, val av dagligvarubutik för olika typer av inköp (stora inköp (veckohandel), medelstora inköp samt mindre inköp (kompletteringshandel)), hushållets utgifter för dagligvaror per månad, hushållets storlek etc.

    Det begränsade empiriska materialet gör det inte möjligt att utifrån de resultat som presenteras dra några statistiskt säkerställda slutsatser. Däremot ger den ekonometriska analysen möjlighet att formulera hypoteser som kan studeras ytterligare i en mer omfattande studie. Därmed skall denna rapport ses som en förstudie till en mer omfattande studie baserad på ett utskick om cirka 3 000 enkäter. Ett mer sådant empiriskt underlag skulle även göra det möjligt att använda mer sofistikerade ekonometriska metoder.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 34.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nationalekonomi.
    An empirical analysis of regional differences in municipal competitive procurement in Sweden2001Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies regional differences in price and competition in municipal competitive procurement in Sweden. The bidding process is a first-price, sealed bid auction. The piecewise pseudo-maximum likelihood estimator presented in Donald and Paarsch (1993) is applied to data on cleaning service contracts. The results show higher estimated costs for completing the contract, but lower estimated bids in the major city area of Stockholm compared with the rest of the country. This is explained by lower profit margins and higher operational costs. An analysis is also carried out of why the lowest bidder is not always the contracted bidder in all auctions.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    An empirical analysis of regional differences in municipal competitive procurement in Sweden
  • 35.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Auction Formats and Award Rules in Swedish Procurement Auctions2006Ingår i: Rivista di Politica Economica, ISSN 0035-6468, Vol. 96, nr 1-2, s. 91-116Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 36.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Auction Formats and Award Rules in Swedish Procurement Auctions2005Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides an empirical analysis of outcomes from Swedish procurement auctions given award criterion and auction format. The auctions are single unit first-price sealed bid auctions or its simultaneous counterpart, and contracts can be awarded to lowest bidder or in accordance with qualitative criteria. The empirical results provide no evidence of differences in winning bids depending on the auction format. The award rule on the other hand matters, a horizontal comparison show higher winning bids on contracts awarded to some other but the lowest bidder. The effect of bidder interaction and bidder identity is also considered.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 37.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Auction Formats and Award Rules in Swedish Procurement Auctions2007Ingår i: The Economics of Public Procurement, Palgrave Macmillan , 2007Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 38.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Bidder Behaviour in Swedish Simultaneous Procurement Auctions2005Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Given no capacity constraints and the same set of competitors one would expect the same identity of the bidder having the lowest cost to complete all contracts simultaneously auctioned. Results based on bid level data from Swedish procurement auctions of internal cleaning service contracts suggests otherwise. The same bidder is found on simultaneous auctioned contracts although this bidder has not submitted the lowest bid on all contracts. A possible explanation is that bidders submit aggressive bids on some contracts in order to be given other contracts with less aggressive bids and thereby maximizing the total profit.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 39.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Nationalekonomi.
    Child Auctions in Nineteenth Century Sweden: An Analysis of Price Differences2000Ingår i: The Journal of human resources, ISSN 0022-166X, E-ISSN 1548-8004, Vol. 35, nr 2, s. 279-298Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 40.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Financial incentives in child auctions in nineteenth-century Sweden2015Ingår i: The World of Child Labor: An Historical and Regional Survey / [ed] Hugh D. Hindman, Routledge, 2015, s. 597-599Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 41.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nationalekonomi.
    Going once, going twice, SOLD!: the economics of past and present public procurement in Sweden2001Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about the economic aspects of public procurement of services through auctionsin Sweden. It focuses on two different institutions, auctions used to find foste r-parents forboarded out children in the 19th century, and auctions of cleaning service contracts in the 20 thcentury. I n both cases, the contracting entity is the municipality or its representative, thelowest bidder wins the auction, and is paid in accordance with his/her bid.In the child auctions, c hildren were allotted to foster-parents by means of an open biddingprocess, the descending English auction, where the bids were given continuously to theauctioneer. In modern public procurement sealed bids ar e used in accordance with the firstprice,sealed bid auction. The first part of this thesis is about price formation in the childauctions and a study is made of the children who were auctioned several times, indicatingasymmetric information among bidders or adverse selection in this market. These subjects arestudied using field data on 601 child auctions held in Northern Sweden during the period 1863to 1889. The empirical findings in the first paper suggest that the foster-parents had a cleareconomic motive in these auctions. The child characteristics significantly affect the amount ofcompensation paid to the foster-parent. There is also evidence that farmers preferred older,more productive children. The second paper studies whether a re-auctioned child commandeda higher or lower price than a child that was not re-auctioned. The results indicate some formof asymmetric information because foster-parents demanded a higher level of compensationfor a re-auctioned child. The results also suggest that the probability that a child was reauctionedincreased if he/she was not healthy.The third paper in the thesis discusses a kind of "paradox". Although there is a competitiveeffect on the bids in the auction of cleaning service contracts, the contracting entity has anoption, given by law, to restrict the number of bidders. In th is paper, an implementation costis introduced fo r the contracting entity to justify such a restriction. The results, based onSwedish municipality data, indicate that contract and municipality characteristics, assumed toaffect the implementation cost, affect the volume of the procurement, and the number ofbidders, but not necessarily the choice of allocation mechanism. The final paper studiesregional differences in bids, costs, and competition in municipal procurement using the samedata as in paper [3]. The results show higher estimated costs for completing the contract, butlower estimated mean bids in the major city area of Stockholm compared with the res t of thecountry. This is explained by lower profit margins and higher operational costs in the majorcity area. An analysis is also carried out of why the lowest bidder is not always the contractedbidder.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Going once, going twice, SOLD!: the economics of past and present public procurement in Sweden
  • 42.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Klara, färdiga, vårda!: En utvärdering av det nätbaserade sjuksköterskeprogrammet i Lycksele2005Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 43.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nationalekonomi.
    On financial Incentives in child auctions in 19th century Sweden2009Ingår i: The world of Child Labor: An Historical and regional Survey / [ed] Hugh D. Hindman, Sharpe Me Inc , 2009, 1, s. 597-600Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 44.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nationalekonomi.
    Restrictions on competition in municipal competitive procurement in Sweden2001Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The bidding process in public procurement in Sweden is a first-price, sealed bid auction. Although there is a competitive effect on the bids in this type of auction, the contracting entity can through the choice of allocation mechanism, restrict the number of bidders. This paper studies this choice and imposes an implementation cost on the contracting entity to motivate such a restriction. The results, based on data for Swedish municipalities, suggest that contract specifications and municipality characteristics (that are assumed to influence the implementation cost), affect the volume of the procurement and the number of bidders, but not necessarily the choice of allocation mechanism.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Restrictions on competition in municipal competitive procurement in Sweden
  • 45.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Restrictions on Competition in Municipal Competitive Procurement in Sweden2005Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The bidding process in public procurement in Sweden is a first-price sealed bid auction. Although there is a competitive effect on the bids in this type of auction, the contracting entity can through the choice of procurement procedure, restrict the number of bidders. This paper studies this choice and imposes an implementation cost on the contracting entity to motivate such a restriction. The results, based on data for Swedish municipalities, suggest that contract specifications and municipality characteristics (that are assumed to influence the implementation cost); affect the volume of the procurement and the number of bidders, but not necessarily the choice of procurement procedure.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 46.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Restrictions on Competition in Municipal Competitive Procurement in Sweden2005Ingår i: International Advances in Economic Research, ISSN 1083-0898, E-ISSN 1573-966X, Vol. 11, nr 3, s. 329-342Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The bidding process in public procurement in Sweden is a first-price sealed bid auction. Although there is a competitive effect on the bids in this type of auction, the contracting entity can, through the choice of procurement procedure, restrict the number of bidders. This paper studies this choice and imposes an implementation cost on the contracting entity to motivate such a restriction. The results, based on data for Swedish municipalities, suggest that contract specifications and municipality characteristics (that are assumed to influence the implementation cost) affect the volume of the procurement and the number of bidders but not necessarily the choice of procurement procedure.

  • 47.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Vårda(n)de resurser?: En regional och samhällsekonomisk lönsamhetsbedömning av det nätbaserade Sjuksköterskeprogrammet i Lycksele2007Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 48.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Arve, Malin
    Norwegian School of Economics, Bergen, Norway.
    Bergman, Mats
    Södertörns högskola, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Lars
    Handelshögskolan, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Konjunkturrådets rapport 2022: Offentlig upphandling – i gränslandet mellan ekonomi och juridik2022Rapport (Refereegranskat)
  • 49.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Bergman, Mats
    Södertörn University, Sweden.
    Sourcing for Government Goods and Services: Theory and Evidence from Swedish Cities and Authorities2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 50.
    Lundberg, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Bergman, Mats
    Tendering design when price and quality is uncertain2017Ingår i: International Journal of Public Sector Management, ISSN 0951-3558, E-ISSN 1758-6666, Vol. 30, nr 4, s. 310-327Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze how local and central authorities choose between lowest price and more complex scoring rules when they design supplier-selection mechanisms for public procurements. Five hypotheses are tested: a high level of cost uncertainty and highly non-verifiable quality makes the use of the lowest-price supplier-selection method less likely. Organizational habits and transaction-cost considerations influence the choice of mechanism. Strong quality concerns make complex rules more likely.

    Design/methodology/approach – The analysis departures from normative theory (rational choice) and is based on the regression analysis and survey data comprising a gross sample of 40 contracting authorities and detailed information about 651 procurements.

    Findings – More complex scoring rules are used more often when the authority is uncertain about costs and about delivered quality. Authority effects are also found to directly and indirectly influence the choice of supplier-selection method, suggesting that tendering design is partly driven by local habits and institutional inertia.

    Practical implications – The authors argue that, from a normative point of view, lowest price is an adequate method when the degree of uncertainty is low, for example, because the procured products are standardized and since quality can be verified. When there is significant cost uncertainty, it is better to use the so-called economically most advantageous tender (EMAT) method. (Preferably this should be done by assigning monetary values to different quality levels.) If there is significant uncertainty concerning delivered quality, the contracting authority should retain a degree of discretion, so as to be able to reward good-quality performance in observable but non-verifiable quality dimensions; options to extend the contract and subjective assessments of quality are two possibilities. The main findings are that EMAT and more complex scoring rules are used more often when the contracting authorities report that they experience substantial uncertainty concerning delivered quality and actual costs and that these factors tend to decrease the weight given to price, in line with the predictions. However, the authors also find that this result is mainly driven by variations between authorities, rather than by between-products variation for the same authority. This is from a training of professionals and regulation perspective of policy relevance.

    Social implications – Contract allocation based on habits rather than rational ground could implicate the waste of resources (tax payers money) as it adventures the matching of the preferences of the public sector (the objective, subject matter, of the procurement) and what the potential supplier offers in its tender.

    Originality/value – Although the principles for supplier selection are regulated by law they give the contracting authority substantial freedom in designing the scoring rule and in choosing what quality criteria to use. The tension between different objectives and the more general question whether the choices made by authorities reflect rational decision making or institutional inertia together motivate the current study. While the design of the supplier-selection mechanism is an important consideration in procurement practice, it has attracted relatively little attention from the academic community.

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