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  • 1.
    Albertsson, Pontus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Evaluation of Insight Training of Ambulance Drivers in Sweden Using DART: a New E-learning Tool2011In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 12, no 6, p. 621-629Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate whether a new e-learning tool for insight training of ambulance drivers can have an effect on drivers’ driving behaviors, perceived driving competence, competence to assess risks, self-reflection, and safety attitudes.

    Methods: A quasi-experimental study design, with participants nonrandomly assigned into a control and intervention group, was used. The intervention group participated in the insight-training course and the control group did not. Both groups completed a self- and peer assessment online questionnaire before and after the training.

    Results: The main finding is that the ambulance drivers assessed themselves through the instruments after the training, with the e-learning tool Driver Access Recording Tool (DART), as safer drivers in the areas of speed adaptation, closing up, and overtaking. In the answers from the group-based evaluation, the ambulance drivers responded that they were more reflective/analytical, had increased their risk awareness, and had changed their driving behaviors.

    Conclusions: After insight training, the ambulance drivers in this study assessed themselves as safer drivers in several important areas, including speed adaptation, closing up, and overtaking. In future training of ambulance drivers there should be more focus on insight training instead of previous training focusing on maneuvering capabilities.

  • 2.
    Alger, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Henriksson, Widar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Likvärdigheten i körprovet: en studie av samstämmighet i bedömningen2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As the consistency of assessment of the practical driving test has been called into question by the Swedish National Audit Office the purpose of this study was to examine the consistency of assessment of test-takers’ performance on the driving test. In order to examine inter-rater reliability the study was designed so that two raters assessed the same test-taker. The assessment was done on a two-step rating scale (pass/fail). Since the result can be affected by factors associated with the test-taker and the two raters, questionnaires were developed and these were filled in by the test-takers and the raters. Information about the administration of the test was collected via a specially designed form filled in by the second rater. The ordinary examiners’ performance was also rated by the supervising raters on a number of aspects. The result from the study indicated that the agreement between the assessments was very good. For 93 per cent of the tests the two raters chose the same mark on the two-grade scale. In the cases where ratings differed the analyses indicated only a few systematic differences among variables designed to provide possible explanations for differences in opinion. However none of these was problematic with respect to consistency of assessment. Results indicated that most tests were carried out in a satisfactory manner. All in all, the results indicate high consistency of assessment, both from a national and international perspective.

  • 3.
    Alger, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Henriksson, Widar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Wänglund, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Sammanhållet prov: Utvärdering av effekter av ett sammanhållet teoretiskt och praktiskt förarprov2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    On the 1st of September 2008 a new model for the Swedish driving-licence test was introduced. The new test model means that the theory test and the driving test are viewed as integrated and they are booked at the same time. First, the test-taker takes the theory test and then, on the same day or within a short time period, he or she takes the driving test. The driving test shall always be performed, irrespective of the result of the theory test. In order to obtain a driving licence the test-taker must pass both the theory test and the driving test within a two-month period from the point when the first test is passed – otherwise new fees must be paid and both tests must be retaken.

    The aim of this study was to examine whether the introduction of the new test model for licence category B has resulted in an improved pass-rate for the two parts of the test – the theory test and the driving test – and whether the integration of the test parts has improved.

    The study was conducted by comparing data from the driving-licence test before and after the new test model was introduced. The results on the theory test were examined by comparing results on the theory test from week 50 in 2007 with results from week 50 in 2008. The results indicated that the percentage of passed tests increased from 51 to 62. The average score on the test increased from 50.4 points in 2007 to 52.6 points in 2008. Thus, the average score in 2008 is above the cut-score for pass, which is 52 (out of 65 points).

    The results on the driving test were examined by comparing the driving tests carried out from the beginning of December 2007 to the end of February 2008 with driving tests conducted during the same period one year later. In order to obtain comparable groups, the analysis was based on those who passed the theory test in the new system. The result showed that the percentage of passed tests increased from 59 to 66.

    Moreover, the analysis indicated that there is a relationship between the theory and driving test in the sense that test-takers with higher scores on the theory test are more likely to pass the driving test.

    In conclusion, the results on both the theory and practical test have improved after the introduction of the new model for the driving-license test and the correlation between the theory test and the driving test is stronger after the change.

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  • 4.
    Alger, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Agreement of driving examiners' assessments: evaluating the reliability of the Swedish driving test2013In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 19, p. 22-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine the consistency of examiner assessments of test-takers' performance on the Swedish driving test. The study included 535 tests and was designed so that the ordinary examiner and a supervising examiner assessed the same test-taker. The assessment was done on a two-grade rating scale (pass/fail). Since the result can be affected by factors associated with the test-taker and the two examiners, questionnaires were developed and these were filled in by the test-takers and the examiners. Information about the administration of the test was collected via a specially designed form filled in by the supervising examiner. Using this form, the ordinary examiners' performance was rated on a number of aspects. The result from the study indicated that the agreement between the assessments was very good. For 93% of the tests the two examiners chose the same mark on the two-grade scale. In the cases where ratings differed, the analysis indicated only a few systematic differences among variables designed to provide possible explanations for differences in opinion. However, none of these was problematic with respect to consistency of assessment. Results indicated that most tests were carried out in a satisfactory manner.

  • 5.
    Alger, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Beskrivning av data om det praktiska förarprovet 1998-2005 och analys av tillförlitligheten2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this report was to examine the reliability of data from the driving test 1998-2005 and give a basic presentation of data from these years. In order to improve the quality of the data tests that do not appear to have been completed and unnecessary duplicates were removed. After cleaning and recoding, the data can be regarded as reliable.

    From the basic presentation in the report you find that there are certain differences between groups during this period. A larger proportion of test-takers below the age of 20, who make up around half the test-takers, pass the test compared to older test-takers and had a lower average of failed aspects. More men than women took the test and a larger percentage of women were registered by a driving school. A larger proportion of test-takers who were registered by a driving school passed than those who registered themselves. If you divide the test-takers by gender and type of registration a somewhat larger percentage of the men passed the driving test. As for average number of mistakes there are no major differences between the sexes except for manoeuvring.

    As for the content of the test, attention and traffic behaviour are the areas with the largest number of fails. Security check, street crossing and driving towards a goal are the most common areas to test while efficient braking is rare. When you study the content of the test at the main offices and sub-offices you will find that motorway, lanes, signalled crossing and roundabouts are more common at the main offices, while the opposite is true for narrow and wide roads, turning around, left or right.

    As for changes over time you find that the percentage of test-takers registered by driving schools has decreased over the period, as has the percentage of passed tests, both as a total and the percentage who passed their first test. The percentage of passed tests among those who registered for the test themselves has decreased, but there is no obvious downwards trend for those who were registered via a driving school. Efficient braking has become even rarer.

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  • 6.
    Alger, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Beskrivning av data om det praktiska förarprovet 2007-2008 och analys av tillförlitligheten2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this report was to examine the reliability of data from the driving test for passenger cars 2007-2008 and give a basic presentation of data. The quality of the data was improved by removing tests that do not appear to have been completed and unnecessary duplicates.

    Two major changes occurred during these years. One was that a new driving test and a new test form, for which the data was registered via a digital pen, were introduced in December 2007. Previously data from the test forms had been scanned optically. The work with the new type of data registration led to data for 2007 not being scrutinized in the usual way, which in turn led to these not having the same quality as previous years. Introduction of the digital pen meant that problems caused by the scanning disappeared. However, it turned out that unintentional markings with the digital pen could lead to duplicates being registered. The other major change was the introduction of a new test model in September 2008. From then on it was not only those who had passed the theory test who took the driving test, which must be considered when comparing data with previous years.

    From the basic presentation in the report you will find that there are certain differences between groups. Test-takers below the age of 20 pass the are more likely to pass the test than older test-takers. More men than women took the test and a larger percentage of women were registered by a driving school. A larger proportion of the test-takers who were registered by a driving school passed the test than those who registered themselves. If you divide the test-takers by gender and type of registration a somewhat larger percentage of the men passed the driving test. As for average number of mistakes there are no major differences between the sexes except for manoeuvring. When you study the content of the test at the main offices and sub-offices you find that motorway, driving in lanes, light signal controlled intersection and roundabouts are more commonly tested at the main offices, while the opposite is true for narrow and wide roads/highways, turning around, left or right/ approaching or turning off main roads.

    As for changes over time the security check, which earlier was tested on almost all tests, has become less common in 2008 while revers­ing has been tested very often.The percentage of test-takers registered by driving schools have decreased over the period, as has the percentage of passed tests. Bear in mind, though, that the test model has changed.

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    BVM nr 51
  • 7.
    Alger, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Provtagares uppfattning om förarprovet: Enkätundersökning före och efter införandet av sammanhållet förarprov2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den första september 2008 infördes en ny provmodell, ”sammanhållet förarprov”, för körkort behörighet B. Detta innebar att kunskapsprovet och körprovet bokas samtidigt och genomförs samma dag eller nära i tid. Provtagarna börjar med att genomföra kunskapsprovet och oavsett resultat på kunskapsprovet genomför de därefter körprovet. Provtagarna måste få godkänt på båda proven inom en tvåmånadersperiod från det första godkända provet för att få körkort. I annat fall får de göra om båda proven och betala nya provavgifter.

    Denna studie hade som syfte att undersöka om införandet av sammanhållet förarprov påverkat hur provtagarna ser på provet och hur de förbereder sig. En enkät skickades ut till ett slumpmässigt urval bestående av 500 provtagare som genomfört kunskapsprovet före förändringen (augusti 2008) och 500 provtagare som genomfört det efter förändringen (augusti 2010). Urvalsgrupperna utgjordes till hälften av provtagare som fått godkänt och till hälften av provtagare som fått underkänt.

    Det som den nya provmodellen fört med sig är att fler anmäls via trafikskola och något färre väljer att först läsa teori och sedan övningsköra. Inställningen till reglerna kring provet har också förändrats och de nya reglerna har vunnit större acceptans än när de först infördes. I övrigt är det, utifrån de påståenden som prövades i enkäten, inga större skillnader.

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  • 8.
    Bertilsson, Frida
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stenlund, Tova
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Self-regulated use of retrieval practice: associations with individual differences in non-cognitive and cognitive factors2024In: European Journal of Psychology of Education, ISSN 0256-2928, E-ISSN 1878-5174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Retrieval practice is a learning strategy that has repeatedly been found to have positive effects on memory and learning. However, studies indicate that students rarely use retrieval practice on a voluntary basis. The objective of the present study was to examine students’ self-regulated use of retrieval practice, and to determine whether sex and individual differences in cognitive and non-cognitive aspects are related to optional use of practice testing. A classroom study was conducted with 146 upper-secondary school students taking courses in mathematics and Swedish. An ABAB design was used to compare students’ optional and non-optional use of retrieval practice (i.e., repeated online quizzing). Students performed cognitive tasks to assess working memory capacity and fluid intelligence and completed self-reports of non-cognitive factors related to school achievement, such as grit, need for cognition (NFC), conscientiousness and openness. Quiz use was then compared using paired- and independent-samples t-tests, and hierarchical linear regression analyses explored relations to individual differences. The results showed that students completed significantly fewer quizzes in the optional sections than in the non-optional sections, and that females completed significantly more optional quizzes than males in Swedish, but not in mathematics. Further, the results showed that conscientiousness predicted optional quiz use in mathematics, whereas sex, NFC, conscientiousness, and openness predicted quiz use in Swedish. To conclude, although the findings show a relatively low optional/self-regulated use of practice testing, in line with earlier research, they suggest that sex and non-cognitive factors, such as personality characteristics, can predict optional use of practice testing.

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  • 9.
    Dennhag, Inga
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ybrandt, Helene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The relationship between clients' personality traits, working alliance and therapy2017In: Current Issues in Personality Psychology, ISSN 2353-4192, Vol. 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This study investigated the relationships between client personality traits, and changes in those traits after cognitive behavioral or psychodynamic short-term therapy, and clients' perceived working alliances with their therapists and their clinical outcomes at a university training clinic in Sweden.

    Design: This was a longitudinal study, with the measures collected at pre- and post-therapy.

    Methods: The sample consisted of 138 clients with moderate psychological symptoms. Personality traits were measured using the Health-Relevant Personality Inventory, a health-relevant instrument that measures five factors.

    Results: The results showed that Antagonism, Impulsivity, Hedonic Capacity, and Negative Affectivity improved significantly during therapy, while Alexithymia did not. Pre-therapy personality traits were not related to perceived working alliances (as measured by the Working Alliance Inventory) or therapeutic outcomes (as measured by the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation Outcome Measure). Post-therapy personality traits negative affectivity, hedonic capacity and alexithymia were related to working alliance, and changes in personality traits were predictive of therapy outcome. The change in Hedonic Capacity and Negative Affectivity explained about 20% of the variance in post-therapy symptoms after controlling for pre-therapy symptoms.

    Conclusions: The results suggest that therapeutic foci on hedonism (extraversion) and negative affectivity (neuroticism) could be important for working alliance formation and symptom reduction in therapy. Future research should examine whether changes in clients' negative affectivity or hedonic capacity mediates the relation between perceived working alliance quality and clinical outcome in training and other psychotherapeutic contexts.

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  • 10.
    Hakelind, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Examining skills and abilities during the pandemic: psychology students’ and examiners’ perceptions of a digital osce2022In: Psychology Learning and Teaching, ISSN 1475-7257, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 278-295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Finding valid and reliable ways to assess complex clinical skills within psychology is a challenge. Recently, there have been some examples of applying Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) in psychology for making such assessments. The aim of this study was to examine students’ and examiners’ perceptions of a digital OSCE in psychology regarding quality and students’ feelings about the OSCE. Participants were 51 students enrolled in the Programme for Master of Science in Clinical Psychology during two semesters and nine examiners assessing each OSCE occasion, at Umeå University, Sweden. Web-based questionnaires were used for data collection. Psychometric analyses indicated that the subscales in the student questionnaire had adequate or close to adequate levels of item and scale reliability. Both students and examiners felt that the digital OSCE was realistic, valid and well-aligned with professional practice. Although students perceived the digital OSCE as stressful, the results showed that they were focused and concentrated and found the OSCE to be a positive learning experience, implying that the stress did not affect performance to any significant extent. Based on the examiners’ experiences, it can be concluded that there are both advantages and disadvantages which need to be considered when planning future digital OSCEs.

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  • 11.
    Henriksson, Widar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Stenlund, TovaUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.Sundström, AnnaUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.Wiberg, MarieUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Proceedings from the conference: The GDE-model as a guide in driver training and testing: Umeå, May 7-8, 20072007Conference proceedings (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12.
    Henriksson, Widar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Stenlund, Tova
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Wiberg, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    The GDE-model as a guide in driver training and testing.: Proceedings from the conference, Umeå, May 7-8, 20072007Report (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Henriksson, Widar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Wiberg, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    The Swedish driving-license test: A summary of studies from the department of educational measurement2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 1990, the Department of Educational Measurement at Umeå University has been commissioned to study the Swedish drivinglicense test by the Swedish National Road Administration, SNRA. Over the past few years several studies have been conducted in order to develop and improve the Swedish driving-license test. The focus of the majority of the studies has been the theory test.

    The aims of this paper were threefold: firstly to describe the development of the driver education and the driving-license test in Sweden during the past century; secondly, to summarize the findings of our research, which is related to important issues in test development; and finally, to make some suggestions for further research.

  • 14.
    Höglund, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hakelind, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Impact of group interventions on stress and sleep problems in primary careManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The majority of patients who seek help for stress and sleep problems do so in primary health care in Sweden. However, the resources for psychological treatment are limited. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a low-intensity student-led group interventions, applying cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with an indicated prevention approach in primary care for recovery and reducing symptoms of stress and sleep disturbance.

    Methods: Using a quasi-experimental design, interventions were conducted for stress (n=274, mean age=38 years, 75% women) and sleep (n=106, mean age=44 years, 56% women) problems in consecutively recruited primary care patients. These were compared with a control group (n=221, mean age=45 years, 91% women) recruited via social media. The interventions were CBT-based psychoeducative group interventions that consisted of four 90-min sessions and led by psychology students. Assessment was completed at pre- and post-intervention and at 3-month follow-up. Main outcome measures were the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale and the Shirom-Melamed Burnout Questionnaire for the stress intervention, and the Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire for the sleep intervention. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the 15-item Patient Health Questionnaire were used to assess anxiety, depression and somatization as secondary outcome measures for both interventions. Analysis of covariance (pre- vs post-intervention) and reliable change index (pre-intervention vs three-month follow-up) were applied.

    Results: Statistically significant, but small effects of improved health in comparison to the control group were found on stress and burnout (η2=.021-.030) in the stress intervention, and on sleep (η2=.017) in the sleep intervention. The proportion of patients in the stress intervention with a reliable improvement at three-month follow-up was 28% for stress and 59% for burnout, and 0% and 33%, respectively, for the control group. Among those with a reliable improvement in burnout, 31% also met a recovery criterion (<4.0). In the sleep intervention, 25% of the patients showed a reliable improvement in sleep and 61% in burnout, and 6% and 33%, respectively, for the control group. The effects of the stress intervention were statistically significant, but small on anxiety and depression (η2=.021-.047), as were the effects of the sleep intervention on stress and burnout (η2=.017-.026). 

    Conclusion: The results suggest that psychology students can effectively provide a low-intensity group-delivered CBT intervention for patients exhibiting symptoms of stress, burnout and sleep disturbance in routine general medical practice, offering promising opportunities for scalability expansion. Although the average treatment effects were small, a substantial proportion of the patients showed reliable improvement or recovery at 3-month follow-up. This suggests that the interventions decrease the prevalence of burnout and sleep disturbance or improve the well-being of individuals experiencing mental distress. 

  • 15.
    Knekta, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    'It was, Perhaps, the Most Important One': Students' Perceptions of National Tests in Terms of Test-Taking Motivation2019In: Assessment in education: Principles, Policy & Practice, ISSN 0969-594X, E-ISSN 1465-329X, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 202-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine ninth-grade students' perception of a Swedish national test in science (high-stakes for the students) and a field trial (low-stakes for the students), in terms of test-taking motivation. The study is based on semi-structured interviews with 12 students. Overall, the students had a positive perception of the national test; they were motivated to do their best, believed they did well and found the test important and good. Several students were nervous before the test and some during the test whereas others felt okay, or even enjoyed taking the national test. The students talked about less effort and test anxiety in the field trial and perceived the test as less important compared to the national test. The interviews provided a rich understanding of the different aspects of test-taking motivation as described by the expectancy-value theory. Furthermore, they indicated how the test administration could be adjusted so as to achieve higher test validity.

  • 16.
    Mynttinen, Sami
    et al.
    Finnish Vehicle Administration, PL 120, 00101 Helsinki, Finland.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Koivukoski, Marita
    Finnish Vehicle Administration, PL 120, 00101 Helsinki, Finland.
    Hakuli, Kari
    Finnish Vehicle Administration, PL 120, 00101 Helsinki, Finland.
    Keskinen, Esko
    Department of Psychology, Turku University, Assistentinkatu 7, 20014 Turku, Finland.
    Henriksson, Widar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Are novice drivers overconfident?: A comparison of self-assessed and examiner-assessed driver competences in a Finnish and a Swedish sample.2009In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 120-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of subjective driving skill have usually assessed perceived driving skill in relation to the skills of the average driver. In order to examine whether novice drivers are overconfident with respect to their actual skills, a different method was used in the present study, where specific aspects of perceived driver competence were compared with assessments made by a driver examiner. A Finnish (n = 2847) and a Swedish (n = 805) sample of driving test candidates completed self-assessments and took a practical driving test; the instruments differed between the countries. The results indicated that about 50 percent of the Finnish and between 25 and 35 percent of the Swedish candidates made realistic assessments of their competence in the areas Vehicle manoeuvring, Economical driving and Traffic safety. The proportion of those who overestimated their competence was greater among the Swedish candidates than the Finnish candidates. This might be explained by greater possibilities of practicing self-assessment in the Finnish driver education. Furthermore, the results indicate that males are not overconfident to a greater extent than females. In conclusion, when perceived competence is related to actual competence instead of the skills of the average driver, the majority of drivers are no longer found to overestimate their skills.

  • 17.
    Mynttinen, Sami
    et al.
    Finnish Vehicle Administration.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Vissers, Jan
    DHV Environment and Transportation, The Netherlands.
    Koivukoski, Marita
    Finnish Vehicle Administration.
    Hakuli, Kari
    Finnish Vehicle Administration.
    Keskinen, Esko
    Dept of Psychology, University of Turku, Finland.
    Self-assessed driver competence among novice drivers: a comparison of driving test candidate assessments and examiner assessments in a Dutch and Finnish sample2009In: Journal of Safety Research, ISSN 0022-4375, E-ISSN 1879-1247, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 301-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Problem This study examined novice drivers’ overconfidence by comparing their self-assessed driver competence with the assessments made by driving examiners.

    Method A Finnish (n = 2,739) and a Dutch sample (n = 239) of drivers license candidates assessed their driver competence in six areas and took the driving test.

    Result and discussion In contrast to previous studies where drivers have assessed their skill in comparison to the average driver, a smaller proportion overestimated and a larger proportion made realistic self-assessments of their driver competence in the present study, where self-assessments were compared with examiner assessments. Between 40% and 50% of the candidates in both samples made realistic assessments and 30% to 40% overestimated their competence. The proportion of overestimation was greater in the Dutch than in the Finnish sample, which might be explained by greater possibilities for practicing self-assessment in the Finnish driver education system. Similar to other self-assessment studies that indicate that incompetence is related to overestimation, a larger proportion of candidates that failed the test overestimated their skill compared to those who passed. In contrast to other studies, males did not overestimate their skills more than females, and younger driver candidates were not more overconfident than older drivers.

    Impact on traffic safety Although a great proportion of the candidates made a realistic assessment of their own driver competence, overestimation is still a problem that needs to be dealt with. To improve the accuracy of novice drivers’ self-assessment, methods for self-assessment training should be developed and implemented in the driver licensing process.

  • 18.
    Näsström, Gunilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Alger, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Samstämmighet mellan kursplan och prov: En studie av kunskapsprovet för körkortsbehörighet AM2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to improve traffic safety a new driving licence category – AM – was introduced on the 1st of October, 2009 which is required to drive a moped class I. In order to obtain this driving licence the aspiring driver must attend a mandatory training course, which includes driving practice, and pass a theory test. The Swedish driving training system is criterion-referenced and consists of three parts – a syllabus with aims, a driver education and a driving test. In order for this system to work these three parts must be aligned. The aim of this study was to examine the syllabus for driver education for driving licence category AM with regard to its content and structure as well as to examine the alignment of the aims of the syllabus to the items in the theory test. Six assessors have analysed the syllabus and a theory test with the help of Bloom’s revised taxonomy. Since certain aims in the syllabus are richer in content these were given more weight in order to give a more correct analysis which resulted in an acceptable level of alignment between the syllabus and the theory test. However, some of the curricular aims are expected to be met during the mandatory training course which means that the alignment between syllabus and the theory test cannot be expected to be perfect.

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    BVM nr 47
  • 19.
    Näsström, Gunilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Alger, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Utvärdering av kunskapsprovet för körkortsbehörighet AM2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to improve traffic safety a new driving licence category – AM – was introduced on the 1st of October, 2009 which is required in order to drive a moped class I. In order to obtain this driving licence the aspiring driver must attend a mandatory training course, which includes driving practice, and pass a theory test. The aim of this study was to analyse the results from the theory test for driving licence category AM during its first year in order to examine its reliability as well as any differences in test results between groups based on various background factors. All test results that the Swedish Transport Agency has gathered during the year were analysed. 17 275 persons took at least one theory test. 98.4 of these were 15 years old. The results showed that the items and the test were of adequate quality since reliability was found to be at a reasonable level and two concurrent test versions were parallel as to level of difficulty. For many items the degree of discrimination was deemed to be at a too low level and this has to be taken into consideration in future test construction. The analysis of the test results showed that 46 per cent of the test-takers passed their first test. While there were no differences in the percentage of passed tests in regard to gender and age there were differences in regard to how they were registered for the test. Test-takers who had been registered for the test by a driving school were more likely to pass the theory test on their first attempt. Private driving practice is not allowed so all who registered for the test had completed mandatory training. The analysis of test results over time showed that the percentage of passed tests increased during the spring and summer. The conclusion from the study is that the theory test for AM is of adequate quality. Since the test has only been in use since 2009 repeated studies of the test results and the quality of the test should be carried out in order to examine whether the quality is maintained and to study trends in test results.

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    BVM nr 48
  • 20.
    Stenlund, Tova
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Henriksson, Widar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Jämförelse av innehåll i den gamla och den nya kursplanen för den svenska förarutbildningen2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A new curriculum has been introduced for the Swedish driver education with the intention to (among others) include higher levels of skills and knowledge. The purpose of the present study was to describe and compare the old and the new curriculum for the Swedish driver education by using an instrument specific for this purpose. Bloom’s revised taxonomy and an integrated taxonomy were empirically tested and confirmed reliable and useable as instruments for describing the content in both the old and new curriculum. Three raters classified the objectives in the curriculum with the aid of the instruments and the results showed changes in the required knowledge and skills. One of the major changes was the decreasing demands of the cognitive skill remember and factual knowledge and the increased emphasis on the cognitive skill evaluate and on metacognitive knowledge in the theoretical objectives in the new curriculum. Further, the results showed that the emphasis on the psychomotor skill of mechanism has decreased in the practical objectives. The conclusion of this analysis is that the curriculum of the Swedish driver education has developed as intended. Though, in an education system it is important to have an agreement between goals of education and measurement. In future studies, it is therefore important to examine the alignment between objectives and measurement.

  • 21.
    Stenlund, Tova
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Henriksson, Widar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Samstämmighet mellan mål och prov: En studie av det svenska förarutbildningssystemet2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    In 2006 a new curriculum for driver education and a new theory test were introduced in Sweden. As the driver education system is a criterion-referenced system, it is important that there is a correspondence between the curriculum, education and the test. The main purpose of the present study was to examine the alignment between the old curriculum for driver education in Sweden and the old theory test, as well as the alignment between new curriculum and the new theory test using Bloom’s revised taxonomy. In addition, the purpose was to examine the interrater reliability when categorizing theory test items into Bloom’s taxonomy. The interrater reliability of judges categorizing the items into Bloom’s taxonomy was moderate to good for the old and new theory test, but somewhat better for the new test. The examination of alignment used four different indicators: content, cognitive complexity, balance and range. Results demonstrated better alignment between the old curriculum and the old test than between the new curriculum and the new test. The conclusion was that the curriculum has changed but that the new theory test still resembles the old test to a great extent. To improve alignment, the new theory test has to be revised in accordance with the curriculum.

  • 22.
    Stenlund, Tova
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Effects of repeated testing on short- and long-term memory performance across different test formats2016In: Educational Psychology, ISSN 0144-3410, E-ISSN 1469-5820, Vol. 36, no 10, p. 1710-1727Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined whether practice testing with short-answer (SA) items benefits learning over time compared to practice testing with multiple-choice (MC) items, and rereading the material. More specifically, the aim was to test the hypotheses of retrieval effort and transfer appropriate processing by comparing retention tests with respect to practice testing format. To adequately compare SA and MC items, the MC items were corrected for random guessing. With a within-group design, 54 students (mean age = 16 years) first read a short text, and took four practice tests containing all three formats (SA, MC and statements to read) with feedback provided after each part. The results showed that both MC and SA formats improved short- and long-term memory compared to rereading. More importantly, practice testing with SA items is more beneficial for learning and long-term retention, providing support for retrieval effort hypothesis. Using corrections for guessing and educational implications are discussed.

  • 23.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Assessing subjective driving skills: an example of development and validation of a self-assessment instrument2011In: Traffic psychology: an international perspective / [ed] D. A. Hennessy, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2011, p. 285-302Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, assessment of subjective driving skills is discussed from a measurement perspective, and illustrated by the development and validation of an instrument for subjective driving skills in Sweden. Usually, people's subjective driving skills have been examined in relation to the average driver. However, by using such a design, it is difficult to examine if novice drivers are overconfident or not with respect to their own skills. Instead, there is a need to compare subjective and observed driving skill. The Self-Efficacy Scale for Driver Competence (SSDC) was developed in order to assess perceived driver competence with respect to aspects of driving skill. The idea was to compare SSDC responses with driving test performance to examine the accuracy of perceived competence. The construct validity of the SSDC was examined in several studies, and although these studies indicated that the instrument was a valid measure of subjective driving skills, the SSDC was further improved by additional revisions. In conclusion, due to the importance of validating instruments before using them and due to the fact that this process requires both time and effort, there are potential benefits of developing and validating an instrument that can be used in several countries.

  • 24.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Beliefs about perceived competence: A literature review2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this review was to describe and compare different constructs that are regarded as indicators of perceived competence concerning their definition and structure, measurement and relationship to performance. Constructs from the motivational tradition were compared to constructs from the cognitive tradition, and these were found to be quite different. The motivational constructs self-concept and ability beliefs were similar in some respects, e.g. domain-specificity, and norm-referenced measurement. Self-efficacy and expectancy beliefs also turned out to be similar constructs due to their criterionreferenced and future-oriented measurement of perceived competence. Moreover, these constructs are more specified than ability beliefs and self-concept, even though self-efficacy is even more specific than expectancy- beliefs. The findings from the review also indicated that the theoretical definitions for some constructs did not match the measurement procedures. This resulted in some constructs being similar at the theoretical level but less similar at the empirical level, or the other way around. Moreover, the purpose was also to relate these constructs to the goals of self-assessment in the Swedish curriculum for driver education, in order to suggest how perceived driver competence can be measured. The findings suggest that the constructs self-efficacy and expectancy beliefs can be useful in the development of an instrument measuring perceived driver competence.

  • 25.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Combining qualitative and quantitative sources of validity evidence for the self-efficacy scale for driver competenceManuscript (preprint) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 26.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Construct validation and psychometric evaluation of the self-efficacy scale for driver competence2008In: European Journal of Psychological Assessment, ISSN 1015-5759, E-ISSN 2151-2426, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 198-206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to examine the construct validity of the Self-Efficacy Scale for Driver Competence (SSDC). The SSDC was based on a theoretical model for perceived driver competence, based on the self-efficacy construct and five aspects of driver competence. Two samples of driving license examinees (n = 805, n = 721) completed two parallel versions of the SSDC. Participants' mean age was 21.5 years and of them 44% were women. Both versions of the SSDC had sound psychometric properties. The results provided support for substantial and structural aspects of construct validity. Some evidence of external validity of the test scores was obtained, although the relationship between perceived and actual driver competence was weaker than expected. The consequences of the use and interpretation of SSDC are discussed.

  • 27.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Developing and validating self-report instruments: assessing perceived driver competence2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this thesis was to develop and validate a self-report instrument for perceived driver competence. The thesis includes six papers and a summary. All papers focus on perceived driver competence from a measurement perspective; that is, how to develop an instrument for perceived driver competence and how to use and interpret the scores from the instrument in a reliable and valid manner.

    Study I reviews how perceived driver competence has been measured in other studies and discusses these methods from a measurement perspective. Most studies have examined perceived driver competence by asking drivers to compare their own skill to that of the average driver. That method is problematic, since it is not possible to determine if drivers are overconfident or not, when empirical information of their own skills is missing. In order to examine if drivers overestimate their skills or not, perceived driver competence should be compared with actual driving performance.

    Study II reports on the development and psychometric evaluation of a self-report instrument for perceived driver competence - the Self-Efficacy Scale for Driver Competence (SSDC). The findings provides support for construct validity, as the SSDC demonstrated sound psychometric properties and as the internal structure of the SSDC corresponded to the theoretical model used as a basis for instrument development.

    In study III, the psychometric properties of the SSDC were further examined using an item response theory (IRT) model. The findings confirmed the results indicated by the classical analyses in Study II. Additional information was provided by the IRT analyses, as it was indicated that the scale would benefit from fewer scale points or by putting labels on each scale point.

    In study IV, Swedish and Finnish candidates’ self-assessment accuracy was examined by comparing candidates’ scores on the SSDC and a similar instrument for self-assessment of driving skill used in Finland, with driving test performance. Unlike previous studies, in which drivers compared their perceived skills to that of the average driver, a relatively large proportion made a realistic assessment of their own skills. In addition, in contrast to previous studies, no gender differences were found. These results were also confirmed in study V, where the results from the Finnish instrument for self-assessment of driving skill were compared with the results from a similar instrument used in the Netherlands.

    Study VI further examined the construct validity of a revised version of the SSDC, combining qualitative and quantitative sources of evidence. There was a strong relationship between the SSDC and an instrument for self-assessment of driving skills, providing support for convergent validity. No relationship was found between the SSDC and driving test performance. Explanations of the lack of relationship were provided from semi-structured interviews, as they indicated that confidence in performing different tasks in the test are different from being confident of passing the test, and that the candidates are familiar neither with assessing their own skills nor with the requirements for passing the test.

    In conclusion, the results from this thesis indicated that the choice of methods for assessing perceived driver competence as well as the quality of these methods affect the validity. The results provided support for different aspects of construct validity of the SSDC. Moreover, the findings illustrated the benefits of combining different methods in test validation, as each method contributed information about the validity of the SSDC. The studies in this thesis mainly examined internal and external aspects of construct validity. Future studies should examine procedural validity of the SSDC.

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  • 28.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Development and evaluation of the self-efficacy scale for driver competence2007In: The GDE-model as a guide in driver training and testing: Proceedings from the conference, Umeå, May 7-8, 2007, Umeå: Institutionen för beteendevetenskapliga mätningar, Umeå universitet , 2007, p. 23-30Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Self-efficacy Scale for Driver Competence (SSDC) as well as to gather evidence for construct validity.

  • 29.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Integrating qualitative and quantitative sources of evidence for construct validity in the evaluation of the self-efficacy scale for driver competence2009In:  11th European Congress of Psychology ECP09 ABSTRACTS, Oslo, Norway 7 – 10 July 2009: POSTER SESSIONS, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Psychometric evaluation of a self-efficacy scale for driver competence using the rating scale model2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the contribution of item response theory to classicaltest theory when the psychometric properties of a Self-Efficacy Scale forDriver Competence were evaluated. Two samples of driving-license examinees(n = 795; n = 714) were analysed using classical item statisticsand the Rating Scale Model (RSM). Both analyses demonstrated that theSSDC had sound psychometric properties. However, the RSM providedadditional information, as analyses indicated that the number of categoriesshould be reduced and that items tapping higher self-efficacy levelsshould be added to increase measurement precision. In conclusion, thereare benefits of combining classical test theory and item response theorywhen evaluating rating scales.

  • 31.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Self-assessment of driving skill: A review from a measurement perspective2008In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Subjective driving skill is commonly assessed with self-reports and many studies have found that drivers have overly positive beliefs in their own skill. The purpose of this review was to examine how subjective driving skill has been measured in different studies. Secondly, the aim was to discuss the methods used from a measurement perspective, i.e., to discuss the reliability and the validity of the measures and methods used. The findings from the review indicated that studies about subjective driving skills can be divided into three different domains with respect to the methodology used. In two of the domains, subjective driving skill is measured by comparing the individual’s own skill to internal criteria: the skill of the average driver and specific aspects of driving skill. In the third domain, the subjective skill is compared with an external criterion, i.e., the actual skill in order to determine if drivers have an accurate perception of their own skill. The conclusion of the review was that there are several methodological problems with the reference to the average driver that can result in biased assessments. Moreover, this methodology cannot be used to conclude whether drivers’ are overconfident or not. In order to obtain indicators of reliability and validity, the measurement of subjective driving skill should incorporate judgments of specific aspects of driving skills. By the use of this methodology, subjective driving skill can be validated through comparison with actual driving skill.

  • 32.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Self-assessment of knowledge and abilities: A literature study2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Driver education in some countries has recently come to include drivers’ risk awareness and evaluation of their own knowledge and abilities instead of focusing only on drivers’ knowledge and abilities, measured by tests or expert judgements. Drivers’ selfassessment has also been in focus in a new curriculum for driver education in Sweden. When this new curriculum is introduced, the driving-license test will have to be altered according to the new goals of the curriculum and new strategies for measuring drivers’ self-assessment have to be employed. There is limited knowledge of how self-assessment of driver competence should be measured. Therefore, the overall purpose of this literature study was to examine how self-assessment in general is measured in different fields. In addition, the purpose was to investigate how self-assessments of driver competence have been measured and also whether the methods used for self-assessment in general and for self-assessment of driver competence could be applied to the driver education system in order to measure the goals of the curriculum.

    Studies about self-assessment of abilities and knowledge were reviewed. Since selfassessments might be slightly unreliable because of the respondents’ willingness to answer in a socially desirable way, the self-assessments could be compared to external measures. The conclusion was that the studies reviewed showed a homogenous picture. In general, the studies showed that there is a relationship between self-assessments and external measures, but the strength of the relationship varies between different studies. In addition, the relationship between self-assessment and external measures is affected by various factors. One such factor is the competence of the test-taker. Competent test-takers are more likely to make a realistic self-assessment than less competent test-takers. Other factors that affect the relationship are the specificity of the domains assessed, the difficulty of the domain assessed and if a relative or absolute judgement is made. Studies have also shown that the accuracy of self-assessment could be improved by different interventions such as education and observation of one’s own performance.

    When examining studies of self-assessed driver competence and comparing them to studies of self-assessment in general, the conclusion was that self-assessments of driver competence have rarely been related to an external measure. In order to check the validity of drivers’ self-assessments, further studies are needed in order to relate self-assessments to an external measure. There is also a need for further studies in order to investigate if the factors affecting the accuracy of self-assessment also affect drivers’ self-assessment and moreover, if drivers’ self-assessment can be improved. In the case of the Swedish driver education system, it might be possible to relate the self-assessments of knowledge and abilities to the theory test and the practical driving-license test. However, this needs to be further explored. Regarding the drivers’ self-assessment of motives for driving and personal goals, it seems more difficult to relate the self-assessment to an external measure. Therefore, one might need other strategies to judge if these goals are fulfilled.

  • 33.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Självvärdering som metod för att mäta måluppfyllelse via prov2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Lately, the driver education in Sweden has changed from focusing on drivers’ knowledge and abilities to taking into account the drivers’ risk awareness and evaluation of their own knowledge and abilities. These areas have been in focus in a new curriculum for driver education. Before the new curriculum is introduced, the driving-license test needs to be altered according to the new goals of the curriculum. The purpose of this study was to explore how to assess the goals in the curriculum that regard drivers’ self-evaluation of knowledge, skills and goals.

    A literature review was conducted in order to investigate how selfevaluation is measured in other fields. One way to assess self-evaluation of knowledge and abilities is through self-ratings. But, since self-ratings might be slightly unreliable because of the respondents’ willingness to answer in a socially desirable way, the self-ratings could be compared to external measures. Studies show that there is a moderate relationship between self-evaluations and external measures, but the strength of the relationship is affected by many factors. One such factor is the competence of the test-taker. Skilled test-takers are more likely to make a realistic self-evaluation than less skilled test-takers. However, if the test-takers raise their competence by education, the self-evaluation could be improved. In addition, studies have also shown that self-evaluation could be improved by observing the own performance afterwards. In conclusion, the goals of the curriculum that refers to self-evaluation of the knowledge and abilities of the test-takers might be possible to relate to an external measure; i.e. a knowledge test and an expert judgement respectively. However, it seems more difficult to relate the self-evaluation of personal goals to an objective measure. Therefore, one may need other strategies to judge if these goals are fulfilled.

  • 34.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    The validity of self-reported driver competence: relations between measures of perceived driver competence and actual driving skill2011In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 155-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perceived driver competence is commonly assessed by asking drivers to compare their own competence to that of the average driver. This method has been criticised however, and it has been suggested that perceived driver competence should be assessed with respect to specific aspects of competence. This study examines the validity of two such self-report instruments. 136 driving test candidates completed self-report instruments for Perceived Practical Driver Competence (PPDC), and Self-Assessment of Driving Skills (SADS), as well as items about confidence in passing the driving test and took the Swedish driving test. The strong positive correlation between PPDC and SADS scores indicated that the instruments measure the construct of perceived driver competence, which provided evidence of convergent validity. Moreover, the moderate relationship between confidence in passing the test and perceived driver competence provided support for discriminant validity as these measures can be assumed to tap outcome expectations and self-efficacy beliefs, respectively. In addition, the results were in line with previous findings, indicating that when perceived driver competence is related to driving performance rather than the skill of the average driver, a relatively large proportion of driving test candidates can accurately assess their own driver competence and there are no differences in overconfidence between males and females or drivers of different age.

  • 35.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Using the rating scale model to examine the psychometric properties of the self-efficacy scale for driver competence2011In: European Journal of Psychological Assessment, ISSN 1015-5759, E-ISSN 2151-2426, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 164-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluated the psychometric properties of a self-report scale for assessing perceived driver competence, labeled the Self-Efficacy Scale for Driver Competence (SSDC), using item response theory analyses. Two samples of Swedish driving-license examinees (n = 795; n = 714) completed two versions of the SSDC that were parallel in content. Prior work, using classical test theory analyses, has provided support for the validity and reliability of scores from the SSDC. This study investigated the measurement precision, item hierarchy, and differential functioning for males and females of the items in the SSDC as well as how the rating scale functions. The results confirmed the previous findings; that the SSDC demonstrates sound psychometric properties. In addition, the findings showed that measurement precision could be increased by adding items that tap higher self-efficacy levels. Moreover, the rating scale can be improved by reducing the number of categories or by providing each category with a label.

  • 36.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Utveckling av instrument för att mäta begreppet upplevd förarkompetens2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The purpose of the study was to develop an instrument measuring perceived driver competence in the context of the Swedish driver education system. Moreover, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric characteristics of the instrument. The development of the instrument was based on a theoretical model which consisted of two dimensions. The first dimension consisted of two constructs about perceived competence: self-efficacy and expectancy beliefs. The second dimension consisted of five aspects of driver competence that are represented in the curriculum for driver education in Sweden. Based on this model two different instruments were developed for measuring perceived driver competence. These instruments were administered at a driving test centre in Sweden for five weeks. The two different instruments were compared and the results showed that both instruments demonstrated relatively good psychometric characteristics, although the self-efficacy instrument was slightly better. Moreover, the relationship between perceived competence and performance on the theory test was much stronger for the self-efficacy instrument than for the expectancy beliefs instrument, indicating that self-efficacy is a better predictor of actual competence. Thus, the conclusion was that the selfefficacy instrument should be used in a large-scale pretest in order to administer the instrument to a larger sample that is representative for the population of test-takers.

  • 37.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Utvärdering av instrument för upplevd teoretisk och praktisk kompetens: Ett försök med en ny förarprovsmodell2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Self-assessment of driver competence is a new part of the curriculum for driver education in Sweden. In order to assess the goals about self-assessment, an instrument for perceived driver competence was developed. Together with a new driving license test, this instrument was used in a project conducted by the Swedish Road Administration. The purpose of this study was threefold. First, the purpose was to analyze the psychometric properties of the instrument for perceived driver competence. Second, the purpose was to examine the relationship between test-takers self-assessment and their performance on the theory and practical driving license test. Third, the purpose was to examine if there were any differences in self-assessment between different groups of test-takers. There were 2254 test-takers at three driving test centers in Sweden that completed the self-assessment.

    The results indicated that the instrument had good psychometric properties. However, the labels on the scale were revised in order to provide a scale that harmonizes better with scales used in other studies. The results from the revised scale indicated that the psychometric properties remained good. Moreover, the results indicated that there was a weak relationship between test-takers’ selfassessment and their performance on the theory and practical test. Furthermore, the results indicated that a larger proportion of driving school students had realistic self-assessment compared to privately trained students and that a larger proportion of those who passed the test had a realistic self-assessment, compared to those who failed. The weak relationship between self-assessment and test performance was remarkable, as a strong relationship were found in the pilot study. Interviews with four test-takers that participated in the project indicated that the purpose and the use of the self-assessment were ambiguous for the test-takers and that this might have affected their ratings. Thus, the results indicated that the instructions about the instrument required improvement and that more detailed instructions might result in a better agreement between selfassessment and test performance.

  • 38.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Övningskörning privat och på trafikskola: En enkätstudie om körkortsutbildningens betydelse för provresultatet2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Previous studies have shown that type of driver education seems to affect the performance on the theoretical and practical driving-license test in Sweden (Wolming, 2000; Sundström, 2003). However, the categorisation of the test-takers driver education is

    unreliable, since the test-takers are categorised as private learners or students from traffic school on basis of their notification to the test. The first aim of this study was to create an unambiguous categorisation of the test-takers driver education and to use this categorisation to investigate differences in test performance between the categories. The second aim was to examine the arrangement of the theoretical and practical driver education

    for the different categories. The third aim was to study the test-takers opinions of the theoretical and practical test. In order to categorise the test-takers and investigate the content and arrangement of the education a questionnaire was designed. The questionnaire was administered to 245 persons that took the practical driving-license test in April 2003. The administration of the questionnaire resulted in answers from 142 respondents.

    The result indicated that the previous categorisation did not fit the reality since only 20 percent was categorised in the same way in the new model as in the old model. The result also showed that there is a need for professional support in the private driver training, since private learners tended to practice some exercises earlier than students from traffic school. The results also suggested that private training is important for practising basic manoeuvres like “manoeuvring” and “shifting gear” since these exercises were ranked high by the private learners. In addition, private training is important to practise more advanced driving since “roundabouts” also was ranked high by the respondents. The respondents’ opinions of the tests were also examined. Students from traffic school were more satisfied with the content of the theoretical and practical test than the private learners. Unlike the private learners, the majority of the students from traffic school thought that the content of the education corresponded well to the content of the tests. One explanation to these results might be that the content of the professional education makes the students better prepared for the tests, than private training alone.

    Finally, the categories were compared regarding their test performance and the result showed that traffic school students and the students who had combined lessons at traffic school with private training had somewhat higher pass-rates on the practical tests than students with private training only. Due to the sample size and response-rates, the number of respondents in each category was few, which made it difficult to make a more detailed comparison of the categories test performance. In order to compare the categories performance on the theoretical and practical test the questionnaire could be revised to include only information necessary for the categorisation of the test takers. With a less extensive questionnaire the sample size could be increased and the responserates would probably get better, which would facilitate a comparison of the categories.

  • 39.
    Sundström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Albertsson, Pontus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Self- and peer-assessments of ambulance drivers' driving performance2012In: IATSS Research, ISSN 0386-1112, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 40-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to develop and examine the quality of the Ambulance Driver Self-assessment Questionnaire (ADSQ) and the Ambulance Driver Peer-assessment Questionnaire (ADPQ) measuring aspects of, driving performance, driving style and driving competence. In addition the ADSQ measures self-reflection and safety-attitudes. The aim of the study was also to examine ambulance drivers' self- and peer-assessments as well as to examine the accuracy of self-assessments by comparing self-assessed and peer-assessed driving performance, driving style and competence. 76 ambulance drivers employed at two ambulance stations in northern Sweden completed ADSQ and ADPQ. Item analyses were conducted to examine the psychometric properties of the items, and based on the results some revisions were made to improve the questionnaires. The revised questionnaires were functioning rather well, although some subscale demonstrated low internal consistency. Subscale inter-correlations provided support for construct validity. Self- and peer-assessments indicated safe driving performance and good driver competence, which is positive from a traffic safety perspective. A comparison of mean self- and peer-assessment ratings, controlling for age, gender and driving experience showed no significant differences, except for the subscale overtaking. This indicates that ambulance drivers' self-assessments are realistic in most areas.

  • 40.
    Sundström, Anna E.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hakelind, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Examining clinical skills and abilities in psychology – implementation and evaluation of an objective structured clinical examination in psychology2023In: Journal of Mental Health Training, Education and Practice, ISSN 1755-6228, E-ISSN 2042-8707, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 97-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Assessment of complex clinical skills and abilities is a challenge in mental health education. In the present study, an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) was adapted to psychology and implemented in a Master in Psychology program. The purpose of the present study was to examine aspects of validity of this OSCE.

    Design/methodology/approach: A total of 55 students enrolled in the Master in the Psychology program at Umeå University, Sweden, participated in two OSCE occasions. In addition to OSCE data, questionnaires were administered immediately after the OSCE to students (n = 18) and examiners (n = 13) to examine their perceptions of the OSCE.

    Findings: The results provided support for different aspects of validity. The level of internal consistency was close to acceptable, and there was a good correspondence between global ratings and checklist scores for many stations. However, adding an additional category to the global rating scale and reviewing some of the station checklists might improve the assessment further. The present cut-score of the OSCE was comparable to a cut-score set by the borderline regression model. In general, students and examiners perceived the OSCE as a high-quality examination, although examiners raised some issues that could improve the OSCE further.

    Originality/value: In conclusion, OSCE is a promising assessment in psychology, both from a psychometric perspective and from a test-taker and examiner perspective. The present study is an important contribution to the field as there are only a few examples where OSCE has been used in clinical psychology, and to the best of the authors’ knowledge, this paper is the first to evaluate the validity of such an assessment.

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  • 41.
    Sundström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Henriksson, Widar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Wiberg, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Alger, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    "Ett givet inslag i förarutbildningen": Umeå universitet försvarar självvärderingen2008In: Mitt i trafiken, no 1, p. 33-33Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Sammanfattningsvis framstår det som en självklarhet att självvärdering ska vara ett inslag i såväl förarutbildning som förar­prov eftersom det utgör en väsentlig del i den nya kursplanen. Det står också klart att många vinster, både för lärandet och tra­fiksäkerheten, kan göras genom att införa självvärdering i utbildningen. Nästa steg är att diskutera hur detta ska genomföras i praktiken genom att finna sätt för hur självvärdering ska användas både i utbild­ning och i förarprov.

  • 42.
    Sundström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lyrén, Per-Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Alger, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Att mäta allmänhetens kunskaper om trafiksäkerhet: Utveckling och utprövning av instrument2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Nollvisionen är grunden för trafiksäkerhetsarbetet i Sverige och målet är att ingen ska dödas eller skadas allvarligt i trafiken. För att vägtransportsystemet ska användas på ett säkert sätt krävs både kunskaper om trafiksäkerhet och trafiksäkra attityder. Attityder är ett relativt väl utforskat område, medan studier om allmänhetens kunskaper om trafiksäkerhet saknas. Därmed är det önskvärt att kartlägga allmänhetens kunskaper om olika aspekter av trafiksäkerhet och följa utvecklingen av dessa över tid.

    Syftet med studien var att utveckla ett instrument för att mäta allmänhetens kunskaper om trafiksäkerhet och att utvärdera kvaliteten i detta instrument. Två parallella enkäter med kunskapsfrågor utvecklades med utgångspunkt i de indikatorer på trafiksäkerhet som Trafikverket följer i trafiksäkerhetsarbetet. Enkäterna innehöll också bakgrundsfrågor, frågor om attityder och självrapporterat beteende. Enkäterna administrerades till 1000 slumpmässigt utvalda personer i åldrarna 15 till 85 år. Enkäterna kunde besvaras dels via Internet och dels i form av en pappersenkät. Ungefär 50 procent av urvalet besvarade enkäterna och en bortfallsanalys visade att de svarande var representativa för populationen med avseende på kön, ålder och födelseland.

    Resultaten visade att kunskaper om trafiksäkerhet är ett mångdimensionellt begrepp. Detta indikerades bland annat av sambanden mellan de åtta olika innehållsområdena i instrumentet, vilka var svaga. Resultatet visade också att frågorna generellt sett är ganska lätta. Vidare visade resultaten att ett större antal frågor inom varje område behövs för att öka mätsäkerheten. Vissa kunskapsfrågor hade positiva samband med attitydfrågor, vilket indikerar att kunskaper är relaterade till mer positiva attityder till trafiksäkerhet. Resultaten från studien kan ligga till grund för vidare utveckling av ett instrument för att göra en skarp mätning av allmänhetens kunskaper om trafiksäkerhet. Baserat på att begreppet kunskaper om trafiksäkerhet visat sig vara mångdimensionellt bör man som nästa steg göra en bedömning av vilka, specifika aspekter av kunskap om trafiksäkerhet som är relevanta att mäta och baserat på detta, samt resultaten från denna utprövning, välja ut frågor som kan ingå i ett instrument. Ett sådant instrument skulle kunna användas för att kartlägga kunskapsläget i befolkningen samt för att följa kunskapsläget över tid.

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    BVM nr 46
  • 43.
    Sundström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Löfgren, Erland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordqvist, Jarl
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Affective and cognitive symptoms associated with burnout in a general population: are there sex-related differences?2024In: Cogent Psychology, E-ISSN 2331-1908, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 2352959Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Burnout is an increasing public health problem. Although research indicate that cognitive and affective factors are related to burnout, there is a lack of knowledge about the extent to which specific cognitive and affective symptoms are related to burnout, and whether there are sex-related differences. An aim of this study was to identify specific self-reported cognitive and affective symptoms that are particularly associated with burnout, both in the population in general and in men and women separately. Another aim was to examine the risk of burnout for specific symptoms and total number of symptoms in the general population and in men and women separately. Cross-sectional data were used from a large population-based questionnaire study consisting of 3406 participants (18–79 years) randomly selected from a general population in northern Sweden. Eleven cognitive and affective symptoms were assessed with a subsection of the Environmental Hypersensitivity Symptom Inventory, and the 22-item Shirom-Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ) was used to assess burnout. The findings suggest that burnout is associated with a rather large number of cognitive and affective symptoms, in particular feeling tired/lethargic, having concentration difficulties, sleep disturbance, feeling depressed and being absent minded. Women with burnout (SMBQ score ≥ 4) reported higher prevalence of feeling tired/lethargic and sleep disturbance. The results add to the understanding of affective and cognitive symptomatology in burnout, which might have implications for early identification and prevention of burnout and exhaustion disorder.

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  • 44.
    Sundström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Söderholm, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Construct validation and normative data for different versions of the Shirom-Melamed burnout questionnaire/measure in a Swedish population sample2023In: Stress and Health, ISSN 1532-3005, E-ISSN 1532-2998, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 499-515Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of the present study was to examine the construct validity of different versions of the Shirom-Melamed Burnout Questionnaire/Measure (SMBQ/M) suggested in previous work, as well as to provide normative data for a large population-based sample in Sweden with a broad range in age. Cross-sectional data from the Västerbotten Environmental Health Study in Sweden were used. The 3406 participants (56% women) in this study, aged 18–79 years, constituted a random sample stratified for age and sex. Participants responded to a questionnaire including the 4-factor 22-item version of the SMBM as well as background questions and a number of validated questionnaire instruments assessing for example, sleep disturbance, depression, anxiety, perceived stress, and somatic symptoms. The dimensionality of different versions of the SMBM were examined with confirmatory factor analysis. A modified 4-factor 19-item model of the SMBM provided good model-fit, and two 2-factor models (11-item and 6-item) provided excellent model fit. The relationships to relevant psychological constructs provided support for convergent validity for the suggested versions of the SMBM. Finally, normative data were obtained for a broad age group for the different versions. In conclusion, we suggest that for assessing the core of the burnout construct in terms of emotional and physical exhaustion and cognitive weariness, the SMBM-11 or SMBM-6 for repeated measures, are to be used. For a broader assessment of burnout incorporating both symptoms and information about the process of exhaustion via the subscales of listlessness and tension, we recommend the use of the modified 4-factor SMBM-19.

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  • 45.
    Sundström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Wiberg, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Den svenska förarprövningens resultat: sambandet mellan kunskapsprovet och körprovet för underkända och godkända provtagare2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The Swedish driving-license test consists of a theory test and a practical test. The purpose of these tests is to investigate if the learner driver has the knowledge and abilities stated in the curriculum. The purpose of this study was threefold. Firstly, the purpose was to examine the relationship between the theory test and the practical test in a sample where testtakers that both passed and failed the theory test is included. Secondly, the purpose was to study the structure of the test score and the performance of the test-takers with regard to age, gender and driver education. Thirdly, the purpose was to investigate the relationship between self-assessed performance and test performance.

    The results on the theory test were similar compared to previous studies which indicated that the sample used was representative for the population of test-takers. However, many test-takers repeat the test several times and the percentage of test-takers taking the test for the first time has decreased. The results on the practical test in this study showed that pass rates have decreased compared to previous studies. One possible explanation for this is that the pass-rates are affected by the fact that test-takers who failed the theory test are included in the sample, and thus the test-takers limited theoretical knowledge is reflected in the decrease in pass-rates. When the relationship between the tests was examined the results indicated that the correlation was stronger than in previous studies. Moreover, the results showed that students from traffic school performed better on the theory test compared to private learners. The results on the practical test showed that students from traffic school, and those who combined professional education with private driver training, performed better than private learners. With regard to self-assessed performance, results indicated a relationship between performance on the theory test and self-evaluation. Testtakers performing high on the test rated their performance high and vice versa.

    The main conclusions of the study was that there is a relationship between theory and practice, in that sense that those performing well on the theory test perform better on the practical test compared to those performing less well on the theory test. Moreover, students from traffic school perform better on both the theory test and the practical test compared to private learners.

  • 46.
    Sundström, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wolming, Simon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Swedish student police officers' job values and relationships with gender and educational background2014In: Police Practice & Research, ISSN 1561-4263, E-ISSN 1477-271X, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 35-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined student police officers’ job values and differences in job values with respect to gender and educational background. Three hundred fifty-two Swedish first-year police students responded to a job value questionnaire. Psychometric analyses indicated that there are three dimensions of job values: intrinsic, altruistic, and extrinsic. In general, students rated altruistic values as more important than intrinsic/ leisure and extrinsic values. Females valued intrinsic and altruistic aspects of a job as more important than males did. In conclusion, the three dimensions of job values, as well as the differences found between males and females are supported by previous research on job values. Future studies should be directed on examining whether police students’ job values change during education and in the transition to work.

  • 47.
    Wiberg, Marie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement.
    Implications of range restriction: a comparison of two approaches for correcting correlation in range restriction.2009In: Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation, E-ISSN 1531-7714, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 1-9-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A common problem in predictive validity studies in the educational and psychological fields, e.g. in educational and employment selection, is restriction in range of the predictor variables. There are several methods for correcting correlations for restriction of range. The aim of this paper was to examine the usefulness of two approaches to correcting for range restriction; Thorndike’s case 2 correction and ML estimates obtained from the EM algorithm, by comparing the corrected correlations with the correlation from an unrestricted sample. The unrestricted sample consisted of examinees who took the practical Swedish driving-license test regardless of their result on the theory test. Examinees that passed the theory test and took the practical test were regarded as a restricted sample. The result provided empirical support for the appropriateness of Thorndike’s case 2 correction method. Although using the EM algorithm yielded a good estimate of the correlation in the unrestricted sample, further studies are needed on this topic.

  • 48.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lyrén, Per-Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Examining the psychometric properties of the Swedish version of Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation–Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) in a clinical sample using classical test theory and item response theory2023In: Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, ISSN 1063-3995, E-ISSN 1099-0879, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 398-409Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Swedish version of the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation–Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) using classical test theory and item response theory (IRT). The CORE-OM is a commonly used 34-item self-report instrument measuring psychological problems/distress covering four domains: subjective well-being, problems/symptoms, functioning and risk. Despite its broad application, only a few studies have used IRT to examine the psychometric properties, and the properties of the Swedish version have only been examined in one initial study. The present study included 1,011 clients with mild to moderate symptoms of distress, applying for psychotherapy at an outpatient training clinic in Sweden. Clients' responses were subjected to classical item analyses as well as IRT (Rasch) analysis using the partial credit model. The classical analyses demonstrated high levels of internal consistency and acceptable levels of item discrimination for the majority of the items, although lower for some items, particularly in the Risk domain. IRT analyses showed that there was a rather good match between item and respondent locations and the measurement precision was high. Disordered step and average measures for some of the items in the Risk domain indicate that these items were problematic from a psychometric point of view and only applicable for a minority of the participants. Differential item functioning for gender in some of the items suggests that they might need to be revised to minimise potential gender bias.

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