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  • 1.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för ekonomisk historia.
    Liselotte, Eriksson
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    Lilljegren, Josef
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för ekonomisk historia.
    Adverse selection in mutual benefit societies: an longitudinal approach2021Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Mutual benefit societies evolved as the major provider for illness, accident and burialinsurance in the late 19 th and early 20 th century in the Western world. One of themajor problems facing the insurers was the risk for adverse selection; that unhealthyindividuals had more incentive then healthy to insure when priced for the averagerisk. By empirically examine if the longevity among insured in mutual benefit societieswas different from uninsured, we seek to identify the presence of adverse section. Wefind no compelling evidence that unhealthy individuals was more likely to insure, orreasons to believe that adverse selection was behind the decline of mutual benefitsocieties in the twentieth century.

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  • 2.
    Lilljegren, Josef
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för ekonomisk historia.
    Networks that organised competition: corporate resource sharing between Swedish property underwriters 1875-19502019Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the corporate networks of Swedish property underwriters 1875-1950. During this period, networks of increasing intensity was an essential part in the organisation of the Swedish property insurance market. Corporate resource sharing allowed underwriters to accommodate the ever-changing industrialised demand for property insurance. Interlocking directorates, ownership ties and membership in collaborative organisations were the vessels of this corporate resource sharing.

    This study proposes a network perspective on the organisation of competition and collaboration. It finds that networks lowered firms’ cost-threshold for underwriting diversification, causing wellconnected firms to expand into new markets more easily. An essential resource to underwriters was information, and information exchange motivated several interfirm rapprochements. The driving forces for the organisational shift towards increased networking were, however, complex, and included both socioeconomic and strategic factors.

    Through networks of mutual resource sharing, the consolidation that appears in the industry after 1950 was preceded by a long historical process in which firms who would later merge developed measurably clustered network structures as early as in the 1910s. In the 1920s the networks already contributed to a high market concentration. Networks thereby conditioned the underwriting operation of individual firms as well as the structural evolution of the Swedish insurance market as a whole.

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  • 3.
    Lilljegren, Josef
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Variation in organizational form across lines of property insurance: Sweden, 1913-19392014Ingår i: Financial History Review, ISSN 0968-5650, E-ISSN 1474-0052, Vol. 21, nr 1, s. 77-101Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the impact of organizational structure on risk taking across different lines of property insurance (fire, marine, vehicle and specialized property insurance) in Sweden from 1913 to 1939. Based on the theoretical arguments whereby the mutual organizational form has a competitive advantage in underwriting homogeneous but unknown risk distribution, while the stock organizational form is more likely to underwrite more volatile and heterogeneous risk categories, we conclude that organizational form has a significant impact on risk taking. Our empirical analysis shows that the risk taking, measured as incurred claims to anticipated losses, was on average lower among mutual insurers. When comparing across lines of insurance, the analysis shows that the mutual form was more successful in keeping down risks in fire and marine, while less so in vehicle and specialized property insurance. Stock companies mitigated the higher risk by ceding more premiums to reinsurers and by diversifying more across different lines of insurance.

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  • 4. Sandqvist, Ulf
    et al.
    Lilljegren, Josef
    Global Gaming and a Global Game Industry: International and Methodological Perspectives on Digital Distribution in PC-Gaming2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The game industry has gone through a change in structures over the past few years. Many new technological innovations and business models have been introduced an affected the game market (Baumane-Vitolina and Apsite 2013, White and Searle 2013, Hotho 2013). Digital distribution seems to be particular important. International service that sells and distribute games digitally did not exist only 8-10 years ago. New genres of games have emerged and game developers don’t need to go via a publishing company to enter the market. 

    The development seems to have created somewhat of a new genesis for PC-gaming. New services like Steam, Battle.net and Origin have made computer gaming much more accessible. Consumers gain easy access to a wide range of computer games, and developers gain an infrastructures on which to market and push updates of their software to consumers. This infrastructure has propelled the success of PC specific game genres and games like DOTA 2, LOL, World of tanks, CS:GO and Hearthstone. Distribution platforms seem to have transformed the PC-market from a niche to a mainstream game market. This development can also in turn be connected to the development of new supporting industries e.g. e-sports and streaming. The result is a new wave of globalisation of gaming culture. 

    In this paper we will study the PC-game market and digital distribution from a quantitative international perspective. Rather little is known about these platforms from an economic and user perspective. Game research has been characterized by the lack of solid data regarding the users, sales and importance of different markets (White and Searle 2013). Game companies are often very secretive about their data. Game researchers have been forced to use case studies and the available quantitative data have come from sources that are hard to verify: consultant reports or industry associations. As a result it is fairly uncommon to make international studies or apply a comparative approach. 

    We have collected data systematically from the distribution platform Steam since late 2015. The data contains daily per-country traffic and data-transfer speeds from the platform. Using this as a proxy of the platform’s usage, we are able to make concrete statements on both the use of gaming-services in different localities, and on the methodological problems and opportunities related to the analysis of this kind of data. Preliminary results reveal cyclic trends, international differences, and correlation with some key macro-economic indicators, such as GDP per capita. We hope to make a contribution to comparative game research and add some insight to the methodological difficulties that this type of data contains. It is also our intention to continue the data collection over several years in order to generate a larger longitudinal database that can be made publicly available to other researchers. 

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