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  • 1.
    Dennhag, Inga
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Hakelind, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Exploring gender stereotypes about interpersonal behavior and personality factors using digital matched-guise techniques2019In: Social behavior and personality, ISSN 0301-2212, E-ISSN 1179-6391, Vol. 47, no 8, article id e8150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study explores gender stereotypes among Swedish university students (n=101) studying a course in psychology, using a matched-guise experimental design. The gender identity of a speaker in a dialogue, manifested by voice, was digitally manipulated to sound male or female. Responses to the recordings indicated that an actor with a male voice was rated significantly less conscientious, agreeable, extraverted, and open to experience than the same actor with a female voice. On social behavior, there was a tendency for the actor with a male voice to be rated as more hostile than the same actor with a female voice. The study suggests that stereotype effects rather than real behavioral differences may have an impact on perceived gender differences.

  • 2.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Borgström, Eric
    School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Yassin Falk, Daroon
    School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Svensson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    “It ain’t what you say. It’s the way you say it”: adapting the matched guise technique (MGT) to raise awareness of accentedness stereotyping effects among Swedish pre-service teachers2023In: Language Awareness, ISSN 0965-8416, E-ISSN 1747-7565, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 255-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study describes a pedagogic adaptation of the matched guise technique with the aim to raise linguistic self-awareness of L2 accentedness stereotyping effects among Swedish pre-service teachers. In the experiment, 290 students attending teacher training programs were exposed to one of two matched guises, representing either L1 accented Swedish, or L2 accented Swedish. Both guises were based on the same recording, but the L2 accented version had been digitally manipulated using cut-and-paste techniques in order to replicate certain vowel sounds (the [u:]-sound in particular) associated with low-prestige Swedish L2 accentedness. The findings from this experiment were then used as starting point for language awareness raising activities. Our overall results show that the L2 accented manipulated recording was evaluated more favourably than the original L1 accented recording on all investigated variables. One proposed explanation is that respondents were inadvertently influenced by so-called shifting standards effects, i.e. lower standards/expectations are being used as reference points when evaluating the L2 accented recording. This tendency, however, seemed to be less apparent among respondents with bi/multilingual linguistic identities. Following debriefing discussions based on the experiment findings, there were clear indications that respondents did become more aware of inadvertent linguistic stereotyping by participating in the activities.

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  • 3.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Philosophy and Linguistics.
    Lindgren, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Teacher Education, Department of Interactive Media and Learning.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sullivan, Kirk P. H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Peer-based intervention och key-stroke logging som hjälpmedel för att stimulera språkinlärning i översättningsundervisning2005In: Forskning om undervisning i främmande språk: rapport från workshop i Växjö 10-11 juni 2004 / [ed] Eva Larsson Ringqvist och Ingela Valfridsson, Växjö: Växjö University Press , 2005, p. 65-75Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Lindgren, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sullivan, Kirk
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Supporting Learning Reflection in the Language Translation Class2009In: International Journal of Information Communication Technologies and Human Development, ISSN 1935-5661, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 26-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a case study a University class undertook a translation from Swedish to English in a keystroke logging environment and then replayed their translations in pairs while discussing their thought processes when undertaking the translations, and why they made particular choices and changes to their translations.Computer keystroke logging coupled with peer-based intervention assisted the students in discussing how they worked with their translations, and enabled them to see how their ideas relating to the translation developed as they worked with the text. The process showed that Computer Keystroke logging coupled with peer-based intervention has potential to (1) support student reflection and discussion around their translation tasks, and (2) enhance student motivation and enthusiasm for translation.

  • 5. Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Combatting Linguistic Stereotyping and Prejudice by Evoking Stereotypes2020In: Open Linguistics, ISSN 2300-9969, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 651-671Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article offers an account of two projects conducted at Orebro University and Umea University, Sweden, which are aimed at raising awareness of issues related to linguistic stereotyping using matchedguise-inspired methods (Raising Awareness through Virtual Experiencing [RAVE] funded by the Swedish Research Council and a Cross-Cultural Perspective on Raising of Awareness through Virtual Experiencing (CRAVE) funded by the Marcus and Amalia Wallenberg foundation). We provide an overview of the methods used in university courses, with the aim to raise awareness of how stereotyping can affect our perception. We also give a more detailed account of the findings from two case activities conducted in Sweden and the Seychelles. Here the response patterns indicate that the perceived gender of a voice as well as the accent (native vs non-native) do affect respondents' judgements of performance. We were also able to show that discussions and reflections inspired by these response patterns led to raised self-awareness of matters related to language and stereotyping. The article then moves on to a critical query of our methods and also contextualizes our work in a broader discussion on methods and initiatives for how educational institutions actively can contribute to combatting (language) prejudice and discrimination in various ways.

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  • 6.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences, Örebro University.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Gender stereotypes and the apology in a small state: Uncovering Creole male stereotypes in the Seychelles using digital matched-guise methodology2020In: Small States & Territories Journal, E-ISSN 2616-8006, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 99-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research in the Seychelles speaks of a "growing crisis of masculinity", manifested in statistics such as a ten-year life expectancy difference in favour of women, alarmingly high levels of substance abuse amongst younger men, and underachievement of boys in schools. According to the authors, males are generally disempowered by stereotypical views of males as "irresponsible", "unreliable" and "secondary to women". Similar gender patterns have been observed in other ex-slavery Creole cultures such as the small states in the Caribbean, and some scholars argue that these structures have historical origins dating back to slavery. In this study, we seek to explore aspects of Seychellois stereotypes of masculinity through so-called matched-guise experiments. Through digital manipulations of voice quality, we produce identity-warped male and female versions of the same monologue recording – a short apology. We then asked respondents to listen to the recordings and respond to the same in a short online questionnaire, where we ask questions relating to their impressions of the apology and the speaker. Dimensions here include honesty-dishonesty; politenessimpoliteness; weakness-strength; and reliability-unreliability. Differences in results of responses to male and female versions of the apology give strong indications that Seychellois stereotypically view males as dishonest, unreliable, lazy and careless. We discuss potential origins and consequences of such constructions, and propose awareness-raising measures for how these destructive historically produced scripts of gender can be rewritten. 

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  • 7.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Identifying Identity: Using Second Life in the Teaching of Sociolinguistics for the Raising of Gender Awareness2012In: The EUROCALL Review, E-ISSN 1695-2618, Vol. 20, p. 49-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents further innovative use of virtual worlds under the pilot stages of ASSIS (A Second Step in Second Life), a project funded by Umeå University. One of the aims of the project is to make use of the affordances offered by Second Life in order to raise sociolinguistic language awareness among teacher trainees and other students studying courses in sociolinguistics. Several experiments were conducted where creative use of the avatar in combination with so-called “voice morphing” (a tool which allows the voice of the speaker to be distorted so that a male speaker can sound more feminine and vice versa) allowed students to enter the virtual world incognito in order to “experience” a different linguistic identity. Activities were conducted in cross-cultural settings involving students from Sweden and Chile. The paper presents the initial stages of development of a model for how language awareness issues can be internalised through first-hand experience in virtual worlds.

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    Identifying Identity
  • 8. Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Language, Prejudice, Awareness, and Resistance2020In: Open Linguistics, ISSN 2300-9969, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 708-712Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As an introduction to the themed special volume on Language and Prejudice, this short editorial highlights aspects related to prejudice within, through, and towards language as well as how prejudice and stereotyping can affect our perception of language. We provide short summaries of the articles included in the volume and contextualise these within the general thematic framework. The article also discusses the roles and responsibilities of language studies in raising awareness of issues related to language and prejudice, and how this forms part of a more general resistance against xenophobia and sexism.

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  • 9.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    'To my surprise, i don’t particularly like my own opinions': exploring adaptations of the 'open-guise' technique to raise sociolinguistic language awareness2023In: Nordic Journal of English Studies, ISSN 1502-7694, E-ISSN 1654-6970, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 113-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The following study describes a data-driven learning scenario aimed at raising sociolinguistic awareness of matters related to gender, language and stereotyping. The design is inspired by the matched-guise technique (MGT), a quantitative data driven experimental method that has been used extensively to investigate language attitudes. In the scenario, differences in respondents’ response patterns to two gender-manipulated versions (male-female vs. female-male dyads) of the same recorded dialogue were used as a starting point for awareness-raising activities aimed at highlighting how gender stereotypes may affect perceptions of a dialogue. The main focus of the article is a comparison of the learning outcomes of two variants of the setup: a traditional undisclosed MGT-inspired setup, where the design and purpose of the experiment was kept secret until after the response phase, and a so-called open-guise design, where respondents were informed of the design and purpose of the experiment prior to the response phase. Preliminary results suggest that respondents adjust their assessments of a speaker depending on the guise, even when they know it is the same speaker they are listening to. Moreover, the open-guise design seemed to lead to greater pedagogic impact than the scenario based on the undisclosed design. However, further studies are needed to confirm these findings.

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  • 10.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Lagerström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Gender-Bending in Virtual Space: Using Voice-Morphing in Second Life to Raise Sociolinguistic Gender Awareness2011In: Learning a Language in Virtual Worlds: A Review of Innovation and ICT in Language Teaching Methodology, International Conference, Warsaw, 17th November 2011 / [ed] Sławomir Czepielewski, Warsaw: Warsaw Academy of Computer Science, Management and Administration , 2011, p. 54-61Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents further innovative use of virtual worlds under the pilot stages of ASSIS (A Second Step in Second Life), a project funded by Umeå University. One aim of the project is to make use of the affordances offered by Second Life in order to raise sociolinguistic language awareness among teacher trainees and other students studying sociolinguistics. Several experiments have been conducted where creative use of the avatar in combination with so-called “voice-morphing” allowed students to be exposed to, or experience different linguistic identities. In the following paper, we describe four such experiments.In the First one, we recreated a classic sociolinguistic experimental design, the so-called matched-guise test, in order to test whether our female students were evaluated differently on various personal characteristics when they appeared as male avatars. Contrary to previous match-guise studies, our results showed that all the females were more positively evaluated than all the ‘males’. However, this overall pattern was very likely a result of the poor quality of the female-to-male voice-morph. In the second experiment, students were offered the possibility of experiencing the opposite gender in a cross-cultural course setting in SL, in order to reflect over how this “gender change” affected the way they were treated in conversations. Only one student took this opportunity leaving few conclusions, except awareness of the ethically problematic aspects of such arrangements. In the third experiment, we used voice-morphing in SL to raise students’ awareness of how gender stereotypes can influence their perception of teachers. In addition to the real (male) teacher, we created two voice-morphed teacher assistant avatars in SL, one male and one female. Student evaluations showed that they were partly influenced by stereotypes and partly not. The design of the experiment was criticized by the students, however, as they felt that they had had too little time with the teacher assistants to evaluate them properly and therefore gave average ratings. In the fourth study we used similar characters as in the previous study, but in an online lecture during which the real teacher spoke as himself and also gave talks, one as his female and one as his male 55PhD student. The students listening to the lecture evaluated the female PhD student as more likeable and the male PhD student as more intelligent. After, the design was revealed and the students reflected extensively on the result and how unconscious gender stereotypes influence how we judge people. The models and studies presented here point to the potential of virtual worlds as tools for awareness-raising activities regarding gender as a social construct

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  • 11.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Lagerström, Anna
    Raising language awareness using digital media: methods for revealing linguistic stereotyping2016In: Research methods for creating and curating data in the digital humanities / [ed] Matt Hayler and Gabrielle Griffin, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2016, p. 158-180Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whether we are aware of it or not, language is at the heart of the mechanisms leading to stereotyping and inequality. It is one of the major factors that we evaluate when we meet others, and it has long been demonstrated that individuals are judged in terms of intellect and other character traits on the basis of their language output (e.g. Cavallaro & Chin 2009). We also adapt our own language to fit underlying norms and preconceived social stereotypes when we communicate with others. In this way, we help to shape individuals through the way we treat them linguistically, and social identity expressed through language is consequently something that is renegotiated during every meeting between humans (Crawford 1995). An awareness of such mechanisms is especially important for teachers.

    In most language courses aimed at student teachers of various levels, students are given a theoretical overview of research on aspects related to identity (gender, ethnicity, social class etc.) and language. But however well intended, there is a real danger that research focussed on identifying differences also strengthens stereotypes. Further, there is a risk that such theoretical knowledge remains just that; creating the link between so-called factual knowledge – for example, theoretical frameworks and previous studies – and internalized knowledge, applicable in our everyday lives, is especially challenging. This is particularly true in the domain of language, where metalinguistic knowledge ideally should be translated into professional language practice, a key skill for anyone working with human interaction.

    The Chapter explores  preliminary experiments conducted in 2011 where we were able to use digital media in order manipulate identity variables such as gender, and describes the aim of the current project - to further develop and explore experiential pedagogic approaches aimed at raising sociolinguistic language awareness about conceived identity-related phenomena in language, and to systematically test the effects of these methods. The project thereby combines the fields of sociolinguistics, social psychology and digital humanities in an innovative way with the objective to produce tested methods for exposing and combatting linguistic stereotyping. 

  • 12.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences (HumES), Örebro University, 701 82, Fakultetsgatan 1, Forumhuset, Våning 2 och 3, Örebro, Sweden.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Lindvall-Östling, Mattias
    School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences (HumES), Örebro University, 701 82, Fakultetsgatan 1, Forumhuset, Våning 2 och 3, Örebro, Sweden.
    Raising awareness about gender and language among teacher-training students: A cross-cultural approach2021In: Open Linguistics, E-ISSN 2300-9969, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 666-684Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In accordance with the Education 2030 agenda for sustainable development goals, the aim of this study is to contribute to gender-sensitive teacher training and learning environments using matched guise-inspired methods. The article offers an account of activities aimed at raising awareness of issues related to linguistic gender stereotyping among teacher trainees in Sweden and the Seychelles. The cross-cultural comparative approach also provided an opportunity to raise students' awareness of how gender stereotyping is culture-related, and therefore may differ depending on cultural context. Results show that there seems to be significant differences in how Swedish and Seychellois teacher trainees stereotype men and women. While both groups seem to associate typically feminine linguistic behaviour with features accommodated under Cuddy et al.'s (2008, "Warmth and competence as universal dimensions of social perception: The stereotype content model and the BIAS map."Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 40, 61-149) "warmth dimension"(signalling interest, for example), behaviours typically associated with agentic behaviour and the competence dimension, such as taking space in a conversation and forcefully arguing one's case, seem to be regarded as relatively masculine in Sweden, but not in the Seychelles, arguably a result of a generally negative construction of masculinity in the Seychelles. Based on the responses from a post-survey, it is evident that a majority of those who participated in the exercise gained new insights into the mechanisms of gender stereotyping, knowledge that they also could relate to themselves and their own behaviour.

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  • 13.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    et al.
    School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences, Örebro University.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Wang, Airong
    Xi'an Jiaotong-Liverpool University, China.
    Participating on more equal terms?: power, gender, and participation in a virtual world learning scenario2019In: Emerging technologies in virtual learning environments / [ed] Kim Becnel, IGI Global, 2019, p. 67-94Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter investigates the potential effects of unequal power relations on participation in a group of student teachers and invited professionals in two collaborative workshops in Second Life. The basic research enquiry addresses whether the relative anonymity afforded by virtual world environments has an effect on established power structures, thereby empowering relatively powerless language learners to more active participation than would be the case in more traditional learning set-ups. The data includes recordings, group reflections, and individual questionnaires. Participation was examined from the aspects of floor space, turn length, and utterance functions, and complemented with student reflections. The results show that the differences of floor space and turn length between the invited professionals and the students were small. The invited professionals did more conversational management than the students, while the students performed more supportive speech acts. No major gender differences in participation were found. There was, however, considerable individual variation.

  • 14.
    Hakelind, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Dennhag, Inga
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    School of humanities, education and Social Sciences, Örebro University.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Confronting students with their own stereotypes: Awareness-raising activities about gender stereotypes with match-guise techniques2017In: Universitetspedagogiska konferensen 2017: undervisning i praktiken – föreläsning, flexibelt eller mitt emellan?, Umeå: Universitetspedagogik och lärandestöd (UPL), Umeå universitet , 2017, p. 29-32Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Hakelind, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    The Power of Aha! On Stimulating and Guiding Students towards Self-Awareness and Critical Reflection while Teaching about Personality Psychology and Gender Stereotypes2022In: Psychology Learning & Teaching, ISSN 1475-7257, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 57-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This qualitative study introduces a pedagogic design which addresses the challenging task of teaching and learning self-awareness and critical reflection in the teaching of psychology. The context of the study was a course in personality psychology for first year students, and the topic of interest was how the perception of personality is affected by gender stereotypes. The pedagogic design included the recording of a mixed-sex dialogue, which was then digitally altered for pitch and timbre producing two gender-switched versions of one single recording. Students were divided into two groups who listened to one of the two different voice alterations, and were given the task to rate the personality traits of male or female sounding versions of the same character. In the subsequent debriefing seminar, students were presented with the data from their ratings. These results were then used as a reference point for inter-group discussion, and later students were also asked to reflect over the activity individually in writing. A thematic analysis of their written answers indicates that this pedagogic setup, in combination with guided reflection, can be helpful to challenge students' own assumptions, aiding self-awareness and critical reflection related to stereotyping.

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  • 16.
    Lindgren, Eva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sullivan, Kirk
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Zhao, Huahui
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Developing Peer-to-Peer Supported Reflection as a Life-Long Learning Skill: an Example from the Translation Classroom2011In: Human Development and Global Advancements through Information Communication Technologies: New Initiatives / [ed] Susheel Chhabra & Hakikur Rahman, Hershey USA: IGI publishing , 2011, 1, p. 188-210Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life-long learning skills have moved from being a side-affect of a formal education to skills that are explicitly trained during a university degree. In a case study a University class undertook a translation from Swedish to English in a keystroke logging environment and then replayed their translations in pairs while discussing their thought processes when undertaking the translations, and why they made particular choices and changes to their translations. Computer keystroke logging coupled with Peerbased intervention assisted the students in discussing how they worked with their translations, enabled them to see how their ideas relating to the translation developed as they worked with the text, develop reflection skills and learn from their peers. The process showed that Computer Keystroke logging coupled with Peer-based intervention has to potential to (1) support student reflection and discussion around their translation tasks, (2) enhance student motivation and enthusiasm for translation and (3) develop peer-to-peer supported reflection as a life-long learning skill.

  • 17. Lindvall-Östling, Mattias
    et al.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    An Exploratory Study on Linguistic Gender Stereotypes and their Effects on Perception2020In: Open Linguistics, ISSN 2300-9969, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 567-583Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores how stereotypical preconceptions about gender and conversational behaviour may affect observers' perceptions of a speaker's performance. Using updated matched-guise techniques, we digitally manipulated the same recording of a conversation to alter the voice quality of "Speaker A" to sound "male" or "female." Respondents' perceptions of the conversational behaviour of Speaker A in the two guises were then measured with particular focus on floor apportionment, interruptions and signalling interest. We also measured respondents' explicit stereotypical gender preconceptions of these aspects. Results showed that respondents perceived the male guise as having more floor apportionment and interrupting more than the female guise. Results also indicated that the respondents had explicit stereotypes that matched these patterns, i.e. that interrupting and taking space were deemed to be stereotypically male behaviour, while signalling interest was deemed to be a female feature. The study suggests that stereotypical preconceptions about gender and conversational behaviour may skew perceptions of similar linguistic behaviour.

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  • 18.
    Lindvall-Östling, Mattias
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    Örebro University, School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    “Oh It Was a Woman! Had I Known I Would Have Reacted Otherwise!”: Developing Digital Methods to Switch Identity-Related Properties in Order to Reveal Linguistic Stereotyping2019In: Virtual Sites as Learning Spaces: Critical Issues on Languaging Research in Changing Eduscapes / [ed] Sangeeta Bagga-Gupta, Giulia Messina Dahlberg, Ylva Lindberg, Palgrave Macmillan, 2019, p. 207-239Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter describes the methodological processes involved in the project Raising Awareness using Virtual Experiencing (RAVE), funded by the Swedish Research council. The aim of the project is to develop experiential pedagogic approaches aimed at raising sociolinguistic language awareness about stereotyping and language. A key feature of the method consists of updated matched-guise techniques, whereby the same recording is digitally manipulated to alter the voice quality of a speaker to sound “male” or “female”, for example. These versions of the recording are then used as input stimuli for a response phase aimed at illustrating how we as listeners react differently to a person, and what is being said, depending on the perceived identity of the speaker. This chapter then illustrates how results are used as a starting point for discussions with respondents (student groups) on issues related to stereotyping and language, with the aim to raise awareness and self-reflection.

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  • 19.
    Lindvall-Östling, Mattias
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.(Soris).
    Deutschmann, Mats
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.(Soris).
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Strömberg, Satish
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    "That’s not Proper English!": Using Cross-cultural Matched-guise Experiments to Raise Teacher/Teacher-trainees' Awareness of Attitudes Surrounding Inner and Outer Circle English Accents2020In: Educare, ISSN 1653-1868, E-ISSN 2004-5190, Vol. 3, p. 109-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From a structural perspective, some English accents (be they native or foreign) carry higher status than others, which in turn may decide whether you get a job or not, for example. So how do language teachers approach this enigma, and how does this approach differ depending on the cultural context you are operating in? These are some of the questions addressed in this article. The study is based on a matched-guise experiment conducted in Sweden and the Seychelles, a small island nation outside the east coast of Africa, where respondents (active teachers and teacher trainees) were asked to evaluate the same oral presentations on various criteria such as grammar, pronunciation, structure etc. Half of the respondents listened to a version that was presented in Received Pronunciation (RP), while the other half evaluated the same monologue presented by the same person, but in an Indian English (IE) accent. Note, that careful attention was paid to aspects such as pacing, pauses etc. using ‘Karaoke technique”. Our results indicate that the responses from the two respondent groups differ significantly, with the Seychelles group being far more negative towards IE than the Swedish group. We try to explain these results in the light of subsequent debriefing discussions with the respondent groups, and we also reflect over the benefits and drawbacks of this type of exercise for raising sociolinguistic awareness among teacher trainees and active teachers. The study is part of a larger project (funded by the Wallenberg foundation) that approaches the challenge of increasing sociolinguistic awareness regarding language and stereotyping, and highlighting cross-cultural aspects of this phenomenon.

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  • 20.
    Roos, Bertil
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Jonsson, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Steinvall, Anders
    High peaks and low valleys: Confronting the examinations inheritance of a Swedish university2003In: 2003 - EERA Congress – Hamburg, Germany, 2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Sehlström, Pär
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Waldmann, Christian
    Department of Swedish, Linnaeus University.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Levlin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Swedish (L1) and English (L2) argumentative writing of upper secondary students with reading difficulties2022In: L1-Educational Studies in Language and Literature, ISSN 1567-6617, E-ISSN 1573-1731, Vol. 22, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Writing has been identified as a challenge for students with reading difficulties. This study contributes to previous research by exploring argumentative writing in L1 (Swedish) and L2 (English) in a group of students with reading difficulties in upper secondary school. Participants were 19 students with typical reading, 19 students with poor decoding, and 9 students with poor comprehension. A majority of students attended vocational programmes. Written text quality was assessed by using an adapted version of Jacobs et al.'s (1981) analytic scoring scheme including content, organisation, cohesion, vocabulary, language use, spelling, and punctuation. Students with reading difficulties (regardless of reader subgroup) were found to perform poorly in all categories in both L1 and L2, with spelling being particularly challenging in L1, and cohesion, language use, spelling, and punctuation in L2. Significant differences were found between students with poor comprehension and students with typical reading in cohesion, language use and spelling in L2. Few other significant differences were identified possibly due to an overall poor writing outcome also for students with typical reading. This general poor outcome in writing is discussed in relation to previous studies on writing among students with reading difficulties and writing in vocational programmes.

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  • 22.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Modern Languages.
    Basic Colour Terms and Type Modification: Meaning in relation to function, salience and correlating attributes2006In: Progress in Colour Studies: Volume I. Language and Culture / [ed] C.P Biggam and C.J. Kay, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2006, p. 57-71Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In their classic study of Basic Colour Terms (BCTs), Berlin and Kay (1969:6) identified four basic criteria of a BCT: i) it is monomorphemic, ii) its signification is not included in that of any other colour term, iii) its application must not be restricted to a narrow class of objects, iv) it must be psychologically salient to informants. Four subsidiary criteria were also suggested in those cases where the first four produced non-conclusive results. Although frequently debated at first, and slightly modified by Crawford (1982), it seems that the basic criteria have stood the test of time and are still considered helpful in the identification of BCTs.          

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a possible connection between basicness and the function of a colour term modifying a noun. Following Warren (1984) and several others, three functions of adjectives in attributive position in English can be distinguished: characterising, identifying and classifying. Identification and characterisation involve modification of an instance of a noun, thus indicating the colour of the object in the case of colour terms. In contrast to the other two, classification is more abstract as it involves modification of type, rather than instance. Its abstract quality allows colour terms to be used in extended senses (i.e. outside their normal area of designation). Examples of classifying use are phrases such as red onion and blue oak, where the colour terms do not refer to the colour of an individual onion or oak, but modify onion and oak as types, creating subtypes accordingly. Significantly, the colour of the leaves of a blue oak would not be called blue when judged in a colour array – i.e. out of context.

    This type of extension can be accounted for if type modification is analysed as a kind of reference-point phenomenon (Langacker 1999), where it is the combined salience of the colour term and the colour category that is significant. In the process of extension, a salient reference point is used to access another less salient entity. Since the purpose of classifying use is to create a subtype, the emphasis is on distinction and contrast to the most common instances of the general type (in our examples onion and oak). In the case of blue oak, the weak bluish tinge of the leaves marks the distinction and motivates the name despite the green element being stronger. Thus, in naming the subtypes a salient colour term (= Basic Colour Term) is preferred even if the nuance could be considered a very poor example of the colour term.

    This paper presents details of a study of English colour terms (Steinvall 2002), based on the Bank of English text corpus and the Oxford English Dictionary. Examples and figures are used to substantiate the theoretical models. The results show a correlation between the frequency of classifying use and the Berlin and Kay hierarchy, and it is therefore suggested that classifying use may serve as a further criterion for basicness. 

                Finally, the wider implications of the findings are discussed, and the results from previous studies, such as Conklin’s (1964) observations of Hanunóo colour categories, and Forbes’ of the use of brun and marron in French, are reviewed and reanalysed from the  perspective of classifying use. In addition, a connection between classifying and figurative use is briefly explored.

  • 23.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Modern Languages. Engelska.
    Color and emotions in English2007In: Anthropology of color: interdisciplinary multilevel modeling / [ed] Robert E. MacLaury, Galina V. Paramei and Don Dedrick, Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2007, p. 347-362Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a corpus study of collocational patterns of English colour and emotion words. A collection of 50 colour terms and 135 emotion terms served as the starting point for the search of patterns. The obtained patterns are described and analysed with regard to salience from two different points of view: For each emotion category we ask which colour categories are most salient, and for each colour category we ask which emotion categories are most salient. The analysis of the underlying motivation for salient colour-emotion collocations demonstrates that the commonest motivations are based in metaphorical models linked to the body. This indicates the importance of experiential and embodied models for creating associations involving colour terms.

  • 24.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Modern Languages.
    English Colour Terms in Context2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines usage of English colour terms in context, based on an extensive computerised text corpus, the Bank of English. It describes the ways in which English colour terms may be used to refer to nuances outside their normal area of designation and to attributes outside the colour domain. Usage patterns are analysed on three different levels: with regard to the overall frequency of occurrences, nominal domains and individual tokens, respectively.

    Cognitive linguistics supplies the theoretical framework employed in the analyses of the observed patterns. The study identifies three types of usage where colour terms refer to peripheral colour nuances or to concepts outside the colour domain: classifying, figurative and marked usage.

    When a colour term has a classifying function, it can be used outside the normal area of designation. This usage is analysed as a type of reference-point construction where a term referring to a salient point in the colour domain is used to subcategorise an entity whose actual colour may be only a peripheral member of the category named by the colour term. An analysis of the OED and the Bank of English shows that this type of usage is primarily restricted to a few of the most salient basic terms.

    This study points to the close affinities between classifying and figurative usage. Figurative expressions of colour terms frequently have a classifying function. I argue that figurative meanings are derived through two types of metonymy: +SALIENT ATTRIBUTE FOR OBJECT+ and +SALIENT CONCRETE ATTRIBUTE FOR SALIENT ABSTRACT ATTRIBUTE+.

    Marked usage arises when specific colour terms are used in nominal domains where the specificity is not expected. This phenomenon is consequently confined to non-basic colour terms.

    On the basis of the established patterns of usage and the frequency of occurrences, this thesis suggests that the colour category may be analysed as a radial category, with the basic colour terms forming the centre.

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  • 25.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    The Power of Colour Term Precision: The use of non-basic colour terms in nineteenth-century English travelogues about northern Scandinavia2011In: New directions in colour studies / [ed] Biggam, CP; Hough, CA; Kay, CJ; Simmons, DR, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2011, p. 219-231Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper I analyse and discuss the effects of the use of specific colour vocabulary employed by five English-speaking travelogue writers visiting Northern Scandinavia in the nineteenth century. The number of different colour terms (types) and their frequency of occurrence (tokens) as well as the objects they describe are presented and analysed. The results show that the objects described most often with specific colour vocabulary are natural objects in the landscape. I argue that this use of colour precision in the discourse can be viewed as reflecting two aspects: first, a desire to add attributes such as exoticness and exclusiveness to the narrative as they are readily available associations in many terms; second, the writers’ engagement and involvement in the landscape they travel through, as the use of specific terminology can be very clearly linked to the writers’ opinions about what is described. 

  • 26.
    Steinvall, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Street, SarahDepartment of Film and Television, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
    A cultural history of color: Volume 6, In the modern age2021Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A Cultural History of Color in the Modern Age covers the period 1920 to the present, a time of extraordinary developments in colour science, philosophy, art, design and technologies. The expansion of products produced with synthetic dyes was accelerated by mass consumerism as artists, designers, architects, writers, theater and filmmakers made us a 'color conscious' society. This influenced what we wore, how we chose to furnish and decorate our homes, and how we responded to the vibrancy and chromatic eclecticism of contemporary visual cultures.The volume brings together research on how philosophers, scientists, linguists and artists debated color's polyvalence, its meaning to different cultures, and how it could be measured, manufactured, manipulated and enjoyed.

    Color shapes an individual's experience of the world and also how society gives particular spaces, objects, and moments meaning. The 6 volume set of the Cultural History of Color examines how color has been created, traded, used, and interpreted over the last 5000 years. The themes covered in each volume are color philosophy and science; color technology and trade; power and identity; religion and ritual; body and clothing; language and psychology; literature and the performing arts; art; architecture and interiors; and artefacts.

  • 27.
    Steinvall, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Street, Sarah
    Department of Film and Television, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.
    Introduction2021In: A cultural history of color: Volume 6, In the modern age / [ed] Anders Steinvall and Sarah Street, London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2021, p. 1-20Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Vishwanatha, Kalyani
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hakelind, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Svensson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    School of Humanities, Education, and Social Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Interpersonal complementarity and gender: Contextual influences on perception of personality2021In: Social behavior and personality, ISSN 0301-2212, E-ISSN 1179-6391, Vol. 49, no 6, article id e9812Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contextual influences have long been recognized as an important factor explaining individual differences in perception of personality traits. In this study we investigated whether interpersonal complementarity creates a context for the perception of personality traits, and whether gender stereotypes play a role in the process. Participants were 205 students taking a personality psychology course. They evaluated personality traits in the context of observing an interpersonal exchange that reflected complementarity. Among the respondents, 103 made the evaluation based on a gender stereotypical exchange (dominant male-submissive female) and 102 based their evaluation on a gender counterstereotypical exchange (dominant female-submissive male). Results reveal that interpersonal context had a stronger influence on ratings of conscientiousness, openness, and emotional stability traits than it did on extraversion and agreeableness trait ratings. Furthermore, openness and conscientiousness were particularly susceptible to gender-based stereotypes in the context of interpersonal complementarity. These results suggest that both interpersonal complementarity and gender stereotypes influence the perception of personality traits, but that they do so in a way that is unique to each trait.

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  • 29.
    Wang, Airong
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Towards a model for mapping participation: Exploring factors affecting participation in a telecollaborative learning scenario in Second Life2013In: The JALTCALLJournal, ISSN 1832-4215, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 3-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study is to examine factors affecting participation in telecollaborative language courses conducted in virtual world environments. From recordings of a course in sociolinguistics conducted in Second Life (SL), we determine degrees of linguistic participation (voice and chat), and triangulate these data with questionnaire responses and observations in order to elucidate demographic, behavioural, and contextual factors that may have affected the outcomes. Findings suggest that power relations in terms of educational level, the task design (creating engagement), the presence of the teacher (evening out participation), the medium – SL (both negative and positive) and technological issues (negative) are of primary importance.

  • 30.
    Wang, Airong
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Who owns the floor?: Examining participation in a collaborative learning scenario between student teachers and active professionals in second life2014In: International Journal of Virtual and Personal Learning Environments, ISSN 1947-8518, E-ISSN 1947-8526, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 34-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the effects of unequal power relations on participation in a group of student teachers and invited professionals in two collaborative workshops in Second Life. The data includes recordings, group reflections, and individual questionnaires. Participation was examined from the aspects of floor space, turn length, and utterance functions and complemented with student reflections. The results show that at a general level, the differences of floor space and turn length between the invited professionals and the students were small. Moreover, the invited professionals did more conversational management than the students, while the students performed more supportive speech acts. There were, however, individual variations.

1 - 30 of 30
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