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  • 1.
    Böthun, Alicia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Häggman-Henrikson, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology. Department of Orofacial Pain and Jaw Function, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Wiesinger, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology. Department of Research and Development, Umeå University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Wänman, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Hellström, Fredrik
    Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Österlund, Catharina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Jaw–neck motor strategy during jaw‐opening with resistance load2022In: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, E-ISSN 1365-2842, Vol. 49, no 5, p. 514-521Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:  The jaw and neck motor systems have a close functional integration but the effect of resistance load to the mandible during jaw opening on the jaw-neck integration is not known.

    Objectives:  To evaluate the effect of resistance load compared to no load on integrated jaw and neck motor function in individuals free from pain and dysfunction in the jaw and neck regions.

    Methods:  Jaw and head movements during continuous jaw opening were recorded with an optoelectronic system (MacReflex® ) in 26 pain-free individuals (14 women, 12 men, mean age 22 years). Jaw opening was performed with and without resistance load (1600 g) to the mandible. The relationship between jaw movement amplitude, head movement amplitude, head/jaw ratio (quotient of head and jaw movement amplitude) and resistance load were modelled using linear mixed-model analysis. A p-value <.05 was considered statistically significant.

    Results:  The expected head/jaw ratio mean was increased by 0.05 (95% CI: 0.03, 0.08, p < .001) with resistance load as compared to no load. This corresponds to an increase in expected mean by 55.6%. With resistance load, expected mean head movement amplitude increased by 1.4 mm (95% CI: 0.2, 2.5, p = .018), and expected mean jaw movement amplitude decreased by 3.7 mm (95% CI: -7.0, -0.5, p = .025).

    Conclusion:  There is a compensation and adaptation of integrated jaw-neck motor function with an altered jaw-neck motor strategy during jaw opening with resistance load compared to no load. The head/jaw ratio demonstrates increased proportional involvement of the neck during increased load on the jaw system.

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  • 2.
    Böthun, Alicia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Lövgren, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Stålnacke, Britt-Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Rehabilitation Medicine.
    Lampa, Ewa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Österlund, Catharina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Häggman-Henrikson, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology. Department of Orofacial Pain and Jaw Function, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Hellström, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology. Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Whiplash trauma did not predict jaw pain after 2 years: an explorative study2024In: Clinical Oral Investigations, ISSN 1432-6981, E-ISSN 1436-3771, Vol. 28, article id 165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To explore predictive factors for the development and maintenance of jaw pain over a 2-year period.

    Methods: One hundred nineteen cases (73 women) and 104 controls (59 women), mean age 34.9 years (SD 13.9), attended baseline and 2-year follow-up examinations. The whiplash cases visited the emergency department at Umeå University Hospital, Sweden, with neck pain within 72 h following a car accident, and baseline questionnaires were answered within a month after trauma. Controls were recruited via advertising. Inclusion criteria were age 18–70 years, living in Umeå municipality and Swedish speaking. The exclusion criterion was neck fracture for cases and a previous neck trauma for controls. Validated questionnaires recommended in the standardized Research Diagnostic Criteria for temporomandibular disorders were used. Jaw pain was assessed by two validated screening questions answered with “yes” or “no.” A logistic regression analysis was used to predict the outcome variable jaw pain (yes/no) after 2 years.

    Results: Whiplash trauma did not increase the odds of development of jaw pain over a 2-year period (OR 1.97, 95% CI 0.53–7.38). However, non-specific physical symptoms (OR 8.56, 95% CI 1.08–67.67) and female gender (OR 4.89, 95% CI 1.09–22.02) did increase the odds for jaw pain after 2 years.

    Conclusion: The development and maintenance of jaw pain after whiplash trauma are primarily not related to the trauma itself, but more associated with physical symptoms.

    Clinical relevance: The development of jaw pain in connection with a whiplash trauma needs to be seen in a biopsychosocial perspective, and early assessment is recommended.

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  • 3.
    Eklund, Anton
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Wiesinger, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Lampa, Ewa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Österlund, Catharina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Wänman, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Häggman-Henrikson, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology. Department of Orofacial Pain and Jaw Function, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Jaw-neck motor function in the acute stage after whiplash trauma2020In: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, E-ISSN 1365-2842, Vol. 47, no 7, p. 834-842Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Jaw-neck motor function is affected in the chronic stage following whiplash trauma. It is not known whether motor function is affected also in the early stage after neck trauma.

    Objectives: To determine how jaw and head movement amplitudes and movement cycle times correlate with jaw and neck pain, and neck disability in the acute stage after whiplash trauma. Methods Jaw and head movements during jaw opening-closing were recorded with an optoelectronic system in 23 cases (4 men, 19 women, 18-66 years) within 1 month after whiplash trauma and compared with 27 controls without neck trauma (15 men, 12 women, 20-66 years). Jaw and head movement amplitudes, head/jaw ratio (quotient of head and jaw movement amplitude) and movement cycle times were evaluated in relation to jaw and neck pain (Numeric Rating Scale) and neck disability (Neck Disability Index). Analyses were performed with Mann-Whitney U test and Spearman's correlation.

    Results: Compared with controls, cases showed smaller jaw movement amplitudes (P = .006) but no difference in head movement amplitudes, head/jaw ratios or movement cycle times. There were no significant correlations between movement amplitudes or cycle times and jaw and neck pain, and neck disability. Cases with high neck pain intensity had smaller jaw movement amplitudes compared to cases with low neck pain intensity (P = .024).

    Conclusion: The results suggest that jaw-neck motor function may be affected in the acute stage after whiplash trauma and more so in cases with higher neck pain intensity.

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  • 4.
    Lövgren, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Häggman-Henrikson, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology. Department of Orofacial Pain and Jaw Function, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Begic, Arnela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Landgren, Henrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Lundén, Victor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Svensson, P.
    Department of Orofacial Pain and Jaw Function, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden; Section for Orofacial Pain and Jaw Function, Department of Dentistry and Oral Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Österlund, Catharina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    The impact of gender of the examiner on orofacial pain perception and pain reporting among healthy volunteers2022In: Clinical Oral Investigations, ISSN 1432-6981, E-ISSN 1436-3771, Vol. 26, p. 3033-3040Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Pain on palpation of jaw muscles is a commonly used diagnostic criterion when examining patients with orofacial pain. It is not known, however, if pain reports are affected by the gender of the examiner. Our aim was to investigate if pressure pain threshold (PPT), pressure pain tolerance (PTol), and pain intensity assessed over the masseter muscles in healthy individuals are affected by the gender of the examiner.

    Materials and methods: Healthy, pain-free individuals were recruited on a voluntary basis. PPT and PTol were assessed using pressure algometry. At the PTol level, participants also rated pain intensity on a 0–10 numeric rating scale. Assessments of PPT and PTol were conducted with six repeated measurements performed twice, separately by one female and one male examiner, on each participant.

    Results: In total, 84 participants (43 women; median age 24, IQR 6) were included. With a female examiner, women reported higher pain intensity than men (Mann Whitney U, p = 0.005). In the multivariable analysis, significantly higher PTol was predicted by male examiner. Also, a higher ratio between PTol and reported pain intensity was predicted by male examiner.

    Conclusions: The gender of the examiner influences pain reporting and perception in an experimental setting. This effect on pain perception related to gender of the examiner is probably related to normative gender behaviors rather than to biological alterations within the examined individual.

    Clinical relevance: In clinical and experimental settings, gender of the examiner may affect not only pain perception but also pain reporting, with potential implications for diagnostics in patients with pain.

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  • 5.
    Lövgren, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, School of Dentistry.
    Österlund, Catharina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Ilgunas, Aurelija
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Lampa, Ewa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Hellström, Fredrik
    A high prevalence of TMD is related to somatic awareness and pain intensity among healthy dental students2018In: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 76, no 6, p. 387-393Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Dental students have been identified as a group with high risks of developing both temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and psychosocial conditions. Our primary aim was to evaluate the cross-sectional prevalence of TMD diagnoses, as defined in the Diagnostic Criteria (DC)/TMD, among dental students. The secondary aim was to evaluate the prevalence and association of behavioural and psychosocial factors in relation to DC/TMD diagnoses.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted among undergraduate dental students during the second semester of their third year at the Department of Odontology, Medical Faculty, Umeå University, Sweden. Three consecutive cohorts were recruited during August in 2013, 2014, 2015. In total, 54 students were included and examined according the DC/TMD procedure.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of any DC/TMD diagnosis was 30%. The most prevalent TMD diagnosis was myalgia. Individuals with a TMD-pain diagnosis (i.e. myalgia or arthralgia) reported significantly higher pain intensity levels according to the Graded Chronic Pain Scale (GCPS) as compared to individuals without TMD-pain (Fisher's exact test p < .001, two-sided). In addition, individuals with any TMD scored significantly higher jaw functional limitations according to the Jaw Functional Limitation Scale 20 (JFLS-20, p < .001) and oral parafunctions according to the Oral Behavior Checklist (OBC, p = .005) as compared to individuals without TMD. The psychosocial factors evaluated did not differ between individual with or without a TMD diagnosis. The majority of the dental students reported symptoms that are already identified as risk factors for developing TMD and pain conditions. However, longitudinal data are needed to evaluate how this evolves over time.

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  • 6.
    Nilsson, Evelina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Häggman-Henrikson, Birgitta
    Department of Orofacial Pain and Jaw Function, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Domellöf, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hellström, Fredrik
    Department of Occupational Health Science and Psychology, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Häger, Charlotte K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Österlund, Catharina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Development of integrated jaw–neck motor function in children at 6, 10 and 13 years of age compared to adults: A kinematic longitudinal study2023In: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, E-ISSN 1365-2842, Vol. 50, no 10, p. 1002-1011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The functional integration of the jaw and neck motor systems, of great importance to everyday oral activities, is established in early childhood. Detailed characterisation of this developmental progress is largely unknown.

    Objective: To establish developmental changes in jaw–neck motor function in children over the ages 6–13 years compared to adults.

    Methods: Jaw and head movement kinematics during jaw opening–closing and chewing were longitudinally recorded in 20 Swedish children (8 girls) at 6 (6.3 ± 0.4), 10 (10.3 ± 0.3) and 13 (13.5 ± 0.7) years of age and 20 adults (9 women, 28.2 ± 6.7). Movement amplitudes, jaw movement cycle time (CT), coefficient of variation (CV) and head/jaw ratio for amplitudes were analysed. Linear mixed effect analysis and Welch's t-test were used.

    Results: Children showed pronounced movement variability and longer CT at 6 and 10 years old during opening and chewing (p <.001). Compared to adults, 6-year-olds showed higher head/jaw ratios (p <.02) and longer CT (p <.001) during opening and chewing, and higher CV-head (p <.001) during chewing. Whereas 10-year-olds showed larger jaw and head amplitudes (p <.02) and longer CT (p <.001) during opening, and longer CT (p <.001) and higher CV-head (p <.001) during chewing. For 13-year-olds, longer CT (p <.001) during chewing was found.

    Conclusion: Children showed pronounced movement variability and longer movement cycle time at 6–10 years and developmental progress in jaw–neck integration from 6 to 13 years, with 13-year-olds displaying adult-like movements. These results add new detailed understanding to the typical development of integrated jaw–neck motor function.

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  • 7.
    Thornell, Lars-Eric
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Carlsson, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Eriksson, Per-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Liu, Jing-Xia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Österlund, Catharina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Stål, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Pedrosa-Domellöf, Fatima
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Ophthalmology.
    Fibre typing of intrafusal fibres2015In: Journal of Anatomy, ISSN 0021-8782, E-ISSN 1469-7580, Vol. 227, no 2, p. 136-156Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first descriptions of muscle spindles with intrafusal fibres containing striated myofibrils and nervous elements were given approximately 150years ago. It took, however, another 100years to establish the presence of two types of intrafusal muscle fibres: nuclear bag and nuclear chain fibres. The present paper highlights primarily the contribution of Robert Banks in fibre typing of intrafusal fibres: the confirmation of the principle of two types of nuclear bag fibres in mammalian spindles and the variation in occurrence of a dense M-band along the fibres. Furthermore, this paper summarizes how studies from the Umea University group (Laboratory of Muscle Biology in the Department of Integrative Medical Biology) on fibre typing and the structure and composition of M-bands have contributed to the current understanding of muscle spindle complexity in adult humans as well as to muscle spindle development and effects of ageing. The variable molecular composition of the intrafusal sarcomeres with respect to myosin heavy chains and M-band proteins gives new perspectives on the role of the intrafusal myofibrils as stretch-activated sensors influencing tension/stiffness and signalling to nuclei.

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  • 8.
    Österlund, Catharina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Extra- and intrafusal muscle fibre type compositions of the human masseter at young age.: In perspective of growth and functional maturation of the jaw-face motor system.2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Muscles control body posture and movement by extrafusal and intrafusal (muscle spindle) fibres. The purpose of this thesis was to provide insight into the muscular basis for human jaw function at young age. Extrafusal and intrafusal fibres in the young masseter, and for comparison young biceps, were examined for composition of fibre types and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms by means of morphological, enzyme-histochemical, biochemical and immuno-histochemical techniques. For evaluation of plasticity during life span the data for young muscles were compared with previous reported data for adult and elderly muscles.

    The results showed significant differences in extrafusal fibre types and MyHC expression between young masseter and young biceps and between young masseter and masseter in adults and elderly. Compared with young biceps, young masseter was more intricate in composition of extrafusal MyHC expression. Muscle spindles were larger and more frequent in the masseter than in the biceps. Masseter and biceps muscle spindles showed fundamental similarities but also marked differences in MyHC expression.

    The results suggest that the young masseter is specialized in fibre types already at young age and shows a unique fibre type growth pattern. Whereas masseter extrafusal fibres display marked plasticity in fibre types and MyHC isoforms during life span muscle spindles/intrafusal fibres are morphologically mature already at young age and precede extrafusal fibres in growth and maturation. Results showed similarities in intrafusal MyHC expression between young masseter and biceps, but also differences implying muscle specific proprioceptive control. Differences in fibre types and MyHC expression between young masseter and young biceps extrafusal fibres are proposed to reflect diverse evolutionary and developmental origins and accord with the masseter and biceps being separate allotypes of muscle.

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    RAM CÖ 2011-08-31
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    Spikblad 2011-08-31
  • 9.
    Österlund, Catharina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Berglund, H.
    Åkerman, M.
    Nilsson, E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Petersson, H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Lam, J.
    Alstergren, P.
    Diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders: Diagnostic accuracy for general dentistry procedure without mandatory commands regarding myalgia, arthralgia and headache attributed to temporomandibular disorder2018In: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, E-ISSN 1365-2842, Vol. 45, no 7, p. 497-503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The clinical examination in diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders (DC/TMD) is a strict procedure and comprises mandatory commands. However, learning and using these mandatory commands in general practice have proven to be difficult and their use of DC/TMD is minimal. To investigate whether reliability on a diagnostic level for DC/TMD diagnoses differs between examiners using the mandatory commands or not. Six examiners were divided into two groups: one using the mandatory commands in DC/TMD for the clinical examination and one who did not use the mandatory commands. A reliability assessment was performed twice, one occasion for each group of examiners. The assessment was performed according to the guidelines from the International Network for Orofacial Pain and Related Disorders Methodology. Each group of examiners thereby examined 16 subjects (11 TMD patients and 5 healthy individuals) each, and the diagnostic agreement (reliability) as compared to diagnoses derived by a reference standard examiner was calculated with Cohen' s kappa coefficient. The DC/TMD diagnoses myalgia, arthralgia and headache attributed to TMD were included in the reliability assessment. There was no significant difference regarding diagnostic agreement reliability between the examiners using or not using the mandatory DC/TMD commands. This study indicates that not using the mandatory commands in DC/TMD in general practice does not impair the diagnostic reliability regarding the diagnoses myalgia, arthralgia and headache attributed to TMD compared to including the commands.

  • 10.
    Österlund, Catharina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Lindström, Mona
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Thornell, Lars-Eric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Eriksson, Per-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Remarkable heterogeneity in myosin heavy-chain composition of the human young masseter compared with young biceps brachii2012In: Histochemistry and Cell Biology, ISSN 0948-6143, E-ISSN 1432-119X, Vol. 138, no 4, p. 669-682Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adult human jaw muscles differ from limb and trunk muscles in enzyme-histochemical fibre type composition. Recently, we showed that the human masseter and biceps differ in fibre type pattern already at childhood. The present study explored the myosin heavy-chain (MyHC) expression in the young masseter and biceps muscles by means of gel electrophoresis (GE) and immuno-histochemical (IHC) techniques. Plasticity in MyHC expression during life was evaluated by comparing the results with the previously reported data for adult muscles. In young masseter, GE identified MyHC-I, MyHC-IIa MyHC-IIx and small proportions of MyHC-fetal and MyHC-alpha cardiac. Western blots confirmed the presence of MyHC-I, MyHC-IIa and MyHC-IIx. IHC revealed in the masseter six isomyosins, MyHC-I, MyHC-IIa, MyHC-IIx, MyHC-fetal, MyHC alpha-cardiac and a previously not reported isoform, termed MyHC-IIx'. The majority of the masseter fibres co-expressed two to four isoforms. In the young biceps, both GE and IHC identified MyHC-I, MyHC-IIa and MyHC-IIx. MyHC-I predominated in both muscles. Young masseter showed more slow and less-fast and fetal MyHC than the adult and elderly masseter. These results provide evidence that the young masseter muscle is unique in MyHC composition, expressing MyHC-alpha cardiac and MyHC-fetal isoforms as well as hitherto unrecognized potential spliced isoforms of MyHC-fetal and MyHC-IIx. Differences in masseter MyHC expression between young adult and elderly suggest a shift from childhood to adulthood towards more fast contractile properties. Differences between masseter and biceps are proposed to reflect diverse evolutionary and developmental origins and confirm that the masseter and biceps present separate allotypes of muscle.

  • 11.
    Österlund, Catharina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Liu, Jing-Xia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Thornell, Lars-Eric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Eriksson, Per-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Intrafusal myosin heavy chain expression of human masseter and biceps muscles at young age shows fundamental similarities but also marked differences2013In: Histochemistry and Cell Biology, ISSN 0948-6143, E-ISSN 1432-119X, Vol. 139, no 6, p. 895-907Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Muscle spindles are skeletal muscle mechanoreceptors that provide proprioceptive information to the central nervous system. The human adult masseter muscle has greater number, larger and more complex muscle spindles than the adult biceps. For a better knowledge of muscle diversity and physiological properties, this study examined the myosin heavy chain (MyHC) expression of muscle spindle intrafusal fibres in the human young masseter and young biceps muscles by using a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against different MyHC isoforms. Eight MyHC isoforms were detected in both muscles-slow-tonic, I, IIa, IIx, foetal, embryonic, α-cardiac and an isoform not previously reported in intrafusal fibres, termed IIx'. Individual fibres co-expressed 2-6 isoforms. MyHC-slow tonic separated bag(1), AS-bag(1) and bag(2) fibres from chain fibres. Typically, bag fibres also expressed MyHC-I and α-cardiac, whereas chain fibres expressed IIa and foetal. In the young masseter 98 % of bag(1) showed MyHC-α cardiac versus 30 % in the young biceps, 35 % of bag(2) showed MyHC-IIx' versus none in biceps, 17 % of the chain fibres showed MyHC-I versus 61 % in the biceps. In conclusion, the result showed fundamental similarities in intrafusal MyHC expression between young masseter and biceps, but also marked differences implying muscle-specific proprioceptive control, probably related to diverse evolutionary and developmental origins. Finding of similarities in MyHC expression between young and adult masseter and biceps muscle spindles, respectively, in accordance with previously reported similarities in mATPase fibre type composition suggest early maturation of muscle spindles, preceding extrafusal fibres in growth and maturation.

  • 12.
    Österlund, Catharina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Liu, Jing-Xia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Thornell, Lars-Eric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Eriksson, Per-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Muscle spindle composition and distribution in human young masseter and biceps brachii muscles reveal early growth and maturation2011In: Anatomical Record, ISSN 0003-276X, E-ISSN 1097-0185, Vol. 294, no 4, p. 683-693Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Significant changes in extrafusal fiber type composition take place in the human masseter muscle from young age, 3-7 years, to adulthood, in parallel with jaw-face skeleton growth, changes of dentitions and improvement of jaw functions. As motor and sensory control systems of muscles are interlinked, also the intrafusal fiber population, that is, muscle spindles, should undergo age-related changes in fiber type appearance. To test this hypothesis, we examined muscle spindles in the young masseter muscle and compared the result with previous data on adult masseter spindles. Also muscle spindles in the young biceps brachii muscle were examined. The result showed that muscle spindle composition and distribution were alike in young and adult masseter. As for the adult masseter, young masseter contained exceptionally large muscle spindles, and with the highest spindle density and most complex spindles found in the deep masseter portion. Hence, contrary to our hypothesis, masseter spindles do not undergo major morphological changes between young age and adulthood. Also in the biceps, young spindles were alike adult spindles. Taken together, the results showed that human masseter and biceps muscle spindles are morphologically mature already at young age. We conclude that muscle spindles in the human young masseter and biceps precede the extrafusal fiber population in growth and maturation. This in turn suggests early reflex control and proprioceptive demands in learning and maturation of jaw motor skills. Similarly, well-developed muscle spindles in young biceps reflect early need of reflex control in learning and performing arm motor behavior.

  • 13.
    Österlund, Catharina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Nilsson, Evelina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Hellström, Fredrik
    Häger, Charlotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Häggman-Henrikson, Birgitta
    Jaw-neck movement integration in 6-year-old children differs from that of adults2020In: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, E-ISSN 1365-2842, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 27-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: A functional integration between the jaw and neck regions during purposive jaw movements is well described in adults, but there is a lack of knowledge of such integration during jaw function in children.

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the movement integration between the jaw and neck during jaw motor tasks in 6-year-olds, whether there is a difference between children and adults.

    METHODS: Jaw and neck movements were recorded with an optoelectronic 3D system in 25 healthy 6-year-olds (12 girls, 13 boys) and 24 healthy adults (12 women, 12 men) during paced jaw opening-closing and self-paced gum chewing. Jaw and neck movement amplitudes, intra-individual variation in movement amplitude, ratio between neck-jaw movement amplitudes and movement cycle time were analysed. Differences between children and adults were evaluated with Mann-Whitney U test for independent samples.

    RESULTS: Compared to adults, 6-year-old children showed larger neck movement amplitudes (P = .008) during chewing, higher intra-individual variability in amplitudes of jaw (P = .008) and neck (P = .001) movements, higher ratio between neck-jaw movement amplitudes for jaw opening-closing (P = .026) and chewing (P = .003), and longer jaw movement cycle time (P ≤ .0001) during the jaw opening-closing task.

    CONCLUSION: Despite integrated jaw-neck movements in 6-year-old children, the movement pattern differs from that of adults and may be interpreted as an immature programming of jaw-neck motor behaviour. The well-integrated movements observed in adults most likely develop over years, perhaps into adolescence, and needs further research including well-controlled longitudinal studies to map this development in order to provide appropriate age-related clinical treatment for functional disorders.

  • 14.
    Österlund, Catharina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, Clinical Oral Physiology.
    Thornell, Lars-Eric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Eriksson, Per-Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Differences in fibre type composition between human masseter and biceps muscles in young and adults reveal unique masseter fibre type growth pattern2011In: Anatomical Record, ISSN 0003-276X, E-ISSN 1097-0185, Vol. 294, no 7, p. 1158-1169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The human jaw system is different from those of other primates, carnivores, ruminants, and rodents in temporomandibular joint and muscle anatomy. In adults, jaw muscles also differ markedly from limb and trunk muscles in composition and distribution of fibre types. It can be assumed that age-related changes between young age to adulthood in terms of craniofacial growth, teeth eruption, and improvement of jaw functions are paralleled by alterations also in composition and distribution of jaw muscle fibre types. To address this question, we have examined the fibre type composition of the human masseter, a jaw closing muscle, at young age. For comparison, the young biceps brachii was examined. The results were compared with previous data for adult masseter and biceps muscles. Young masseter and biceps were similar in that type I fibres outnumbered other fibre types and were of the same diameter. However, they differed in composition of other fibre types. Young masseter contained fibre types I, IM, IIC, IIAB, IIB, and scarce IIA, with regional differences, whereas young biceps showed types I, IIA, IIAB, and few IIB. Young masseter differed from young biceps also by smaller type II fibre diameter and by containing fetal MyHC. In addition, the masseter and biceps differed in age-related changes of composition and distribution of fibre types between young age and adulthood. We conclude that the human masseter is specialized in fibre types already at young age and shows a unique fibre type growth pattern, in concordance with being a separate allotype of muscle.

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