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  • 1.
    Hofverberg, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Kemielevers lärandemål i Sverige och Tyskland2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Om elever ska trivas och lyckas i skolan behöver många saker falla på plats, bl.a. måste de känna sig motiverade. Dock tycks elevers motivation försämras ju längre de går i skolan, en negativ trend som är särskilt tydlig i naturvetenskapliga ämnen. Följande studie är en del av DoLiS-projektet (Development of Learning in Science), ett samarbetsprojekt mellan Umeå Universitet och IPN (Leibniz-Institut für die Pädagogik der Naturwissenschaften und Mathematik) i Kiel, Tyskland. Inom projektet studeras elevers intresse, motivation, kunskapssyn, kemiförståelse m.m., samt hur sambanden mellan dessa utvecklas över tid. Jag har inom detta breda material fokuserat på motivation, och mer specifikt elevernas anledningar att engagera sig i lärandesituationer, kallat lärandemål (achievement goals).

    Lärandemålen delas vanligtvis upp utifrån hur eleverna definierar och utvärderar kompetens: relativt sig själv (bemästrandemål/mastery goals) eller relativt andra (prestationsmål/performance goals). Det finns även mer detaljerade uppdelningar av lärandemålen och i denna studie undersöktes deras uppdelning och strukturer hos svenska och tyska elever.

    Enkätdata samlades in och för att undersöka lärandemålens strukturer användes en statistisk metod kallad Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA).

    Den centrala forskningsfrågan löd: Vilka uppdelningar och strukturer beskriver bäst lärandemålen hos tyska respektive svenska elever?

    Resultaten tyder på att lärandemålens struktur skiljer sig mellan svenska och tyska elever. Där vi i tyska elevers svar kan utskilja två olika typer av prestationsmål kan vi endast utskilja ett hos svenska elever. En möjlig anledning till skillnaden mellan länderna är den mindre prestationsinriktade svenska kulturen där det är mer tillåtet att göra misstag. Vår ambition är att undersöka hur de nationella kulturerna eventuellt speglas i klassrumsstrukturer, samt hur klassrumsstrukturerna i sin tur påverkar elevernas individuella lärandemål. Förhoppningen är att projektet i slutändan kommer kunna bidra med kunskap om hur lärare på bästa sätt kan stödja elevernas bemästrandemål, som i tidigare studier visat sig vara mer positiva än prestationsmålen.

     

  • 2.
    Hofverberg, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Motivation, students, and the classroom environment: exploring the role of Swedish students’ achievement goals in chemistry2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overarching aim of this thesis is to deepen the knowledge about students’ achievement goals in chemistry and how they relate to students’ epistemic beliefs (beliefs about knowledge) and to their perceptions of classroom goal structures (instructional practices that emphasize certain achievement goals). Achievement goals are defined as the purpose behind students’ engagement in achievement behavior. They are important components in students’ moti­vation and in­fluence students’ success and well-being in school. This thesis primarily focuses on two types of achievement goals: mastery and performance goals. Students with mastery goals define success in relation to prior performances and the task at hand and they strive to develop their competence. Students with performance goals define success in relation to others and they strive to demonstrate their relative competence. To study students’ achievement goals, questionnaire data and responses on a chemistry test were collected from Swedish and German students in Grades 5-11 and analyzed through statistical methods.

    The results show that it was possible to statistically differentiate between two dif­fer­ent performance goals (striving to outperform others and avoid being outperformed by others) in the German data, but not in the Swedish. This challenges the universality of achievement goal models. Regarding the relationship between achievement goals and epistemic beliefs, the results indicated that sophisticated epistemic beliefs correlated with mastery goals and naïve beliefs correlated with performance goals. These relationships varied over time, especially in the transition from lower to upper secondary school, which therefore is an interesting time point to study further. The interaction between achievement goals and classroom goal structures was studied by using them as joint predictors of students’ autonomous motivation and performance on the chemistry test. The most important predictor for high autonomous motivation and high test scores was strong mastery goals. This effect was enhanced when students also perceived strong mastery structures in the classroom. Conversely, mastery goals were less beneficial if students pursued performance goals simultaneously. There were also differences in the interactions between achievement goals and goal structures over school years. Together, the results imply that teachers should support students’ mastery goals through striving to create classroom environments with strong mastery structures.

    In conclusion, this thesis highlights the complexity of achievement goals and their relations to other aspects of the educational context. This shows the need for future research to take, for example, the universality of achievement goal models and the importance of interaction effects into consideration.

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  • 3.
    Hofverberg, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Eklöf, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Lindfors, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Who Makes an Effort? A Person-Centered Examination of Motivation and Beliefs as Predictors of Students’ Effort and Performance on the PISA 2015 Science Assessment2022In: Frontiers in Education, E-ISSN 2504-284X, Vol. 6, article id 791599Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Each time new PISA results are presented, they gain a lot of attention. However, there are many factors that lie behind the results, and they get less attention. In this study, we take a person-centered approach and focus on students’ motivation and beliefs, and how these predict students’ effort and performance on the PISA 2015 assessment of scientific literacy. Moreover, we use both subjective (self-report) and objective (time-based) measures of effort, which allows us to compare these different types of measures. Latent profile analysis was used to group students in profiles based on their instrumental motivation, enjoyment, interest, self-efficacy, and epistemic beliefs (all with regard to science). A solution with four profiles proved to be best. When comparing the effort and performance of these four profiles, we saw several significant differences, but many of these differences disappeared when we added gender and the PISA index of economic, social, and cultural status (ESCS) as control variables. The main difference between the profiles, after adding control variables, was that the students in the profile with most positive motivation and sophisticated epistemic beliefs performed best and put in the most effort. Students in the profile with unsophisticated epistemic beliefs and low intrinsic values (enjoyment and interest) were most likely to be classified as low-effort responders. We conclude that strong motivation and sophisticated epistemic beliefs are important for both the effort students put into the PISA assessment and their performance, but also that ESCS had an unexpectedly large impact on the results.

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  • 4.
    Hofverberg, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Winberg, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Interplay between achievement goals and goal structures: Effects on achievement and motivation2019In: Book of Abstracts EARLI 2019, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown direct and indirect effects of students’ achievement goals and classroom goal structures on school performance and motivation. However, whether, and how, the effects of students’ achievement goals depend on classroom goal structures has not received much attention. Moreover, extant studies have not accounted for nonlinear effects, which may mask matching effects between goals and structures. Our study aims at providing a nuanced picture of the direct, interaction, and nonlinear effects of achievement goals and goal structures on student’s test performance and motivation in chemistry. Multiple linear regression in combination with response surface plots were used in the analysis of questionnaire data from 909 students involved in a cross-sectional survey in Grades 6-10. Results indicate that interactions between goals are more influential on student achievement and motivation than interactions between goals and structures. No evidence for a general matching effect between goals and goal structures was found. Mastery goals were universally beneficial, but in particular when students were low in performance goals and the perceived performance structure was weak. Overall, it seems that the influence of classroom goal structures on the effect of achievement goals may be smaller than previously assumed.

  • 5.
    Hofverberg, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Winberg, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Relationships between achievement goals and epistemic beliefs: developmental trends over Grades 5–112017In: Education in the Crossroads of Economy and Politics: Role of Research in the Advancement of Public Good. Book of abstracts, 2017, p. 385-385Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of the study are to describe how students’ epistemic beliefs and achievement goals develop over grades 5–11, to describe the correlations between epistemic beliefs and achievement goals, and how these correlations develop over grades 5–11. Furthermore, we will explore the data for indications of causal relationships between students’ goals and epistemic beliefs, and the directionality of these relationships. The analyses builds on data from a cross-sectional survey distributed to all students in grades 5–11 in two municipalities in Sweden in 2014. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of students’ responses revealed four valid constructs concerning students’ epistemic beliefs: Development, Justification, Certainty, and Source. Regarding students’ achievement goals, two constructs were identified: Mastery approach goals and Performance goals (including both approach and avoidance goals). Students’ factor scores on the constructs were used for calculating zero order Spearman correlations between constructs. Overall, students’ epistemic beliefs were stable over the grades, while performance goals increased at the transition between primary and secondary school. Mastery goals showed a mainly decreasing trend over the grades. Development and Justification of knowledge showed positive significant correlations with Mastery goals over grades 5–11, while naïve beliefs about Certainty and Source of knowledge were moderately and positively correlated with Performance goals in grades 5–7, weakly correlated in grade 8–9, and insignificant in grades 10 and 11. For the conference, results will be complemented with longitudinal data, focusing on causal relations between epistemic beliefs and achievement goals.

  • 6.
    Hofverberg, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Winberg, Mikael T.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Achievement goal factor structure among chemistry students in Grade 5 – 11: A comparison between Sweden and Germany2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the factor structure of German and Swedish students’ achievement goals in chemistry were investigated. The national culture of Germany and Sweden are very different in the masculinity versus femininity dimension, expressing the level of competitiveness and the way performance is evaluated in the society. Therefore, the structure of students’ achievement goals, in part based on their evaluation of performance, may very well differ between the countries. The results showed that a three-factor CFA model, separating mastery-approach, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals, fitted the German data best. In Sweden, the three-factor model and a two-factor model combining the two performance goals fitted the data equally well. However, the correlation between the performance approach and avoidance goals in the Swedish three-factor model was not significantly different from 1 and the separation thus lacked practical significance. Further, the same pattern was repeated for grade 5 – 11 individually within each country. Measurement invariance between grades within the countries support an invariant factor structure, and thus age-independent factor structures. We argue that differences in factor structures between the two countries are related to the differences in national culture.

  • 7.
    Hofverberg, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Winberg, Mikael T.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Achievement goals and classroom goal structures: Do they need to match?2020In: The Journal of educational research (Washington, D.C.), ISSN 0022-0671, E-ISSN 1940-0675, Vol. 113, no 2, p. 145-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is often assumed that students’ personal achievement goals are most beneficial when they match the goal structures of the classroom, but interaction between achievement goals and goal structures is not well researched. In this study, we aim at providing a nuanced picture of the direct, interaction, and nonlinear effects of achievement goals and goal structures on test performance and autonomous motivation. We used multiple linear regressions, including interaction and quadratic terms, in combination with response surface methodology to analyze questionnaire data from students in Grades 6-10. We found no evidence for a general match effect, and only weak indications of interactions between achievement goals and goal structures. Thus, the match between classroom goal structures and students’ personal goals may be less important for students’ motivation and achievement than previously assumed. Still, based on our results we recommend a focus on mastery structures in the classroom.

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  • 8.
    Hofverberg, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Winberg, Mikael T.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Are mastery structures beneficial for everyone?: The interaction between mastery structures and achievement goals in grades 6-10Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Hofverberg, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Winberg, Mikael T.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Challenging the Universality of Achievement Goal Models: a Comparison of Two Culturally Distinct Countries2020In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 64, no 3, p. 333-354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Achievement goal theory is one of the most widespread motivation models within education research. Strong empirical support exists for the trichotomous model, comprising mastery-approach, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals. However, research also indicate problems with model transferability between contexts. In this study, based on questionnaire data from 4201 students, we use confirmatory factor analysis to compare the factor structures of students’ achievement goals in two culturally distinct countries. Factor structures for Grades 5–11 within the two countries were also compared. Results show that the separation between performance-approach and performance-avoidance goals differs between the two countries, and that this difference is consistent over the grades. Hence, results indicate that the model is not freely transferable between countries. The results are discussed in relation to differences in national culture and other proposed explanations such as age, perceived competence, and questionnaire characteristics.

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  • 10.
    Hofverberg, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. UmSER.
    Winberg, Mikael T.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. UmSER.
    Challenging the Universality of Achievement Goals: A Comparison of Two Culturally Distinct Countries2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the factor structure of achievement goals among students in Sweden and Germany, two countries differing substantially in competitiveness according to Hofstede’s dimensions of national culture. As the competitiveness dimension resembles performance goal classroom structures, shown to affect students’ achievement goals, we propose that the structure of students’ achievement goals may differ between the countries. Through confirmatory factor analyses, we found that a three-factor model, separating mastery-approach, performance-approach,and performance-avoidance goals, fitted the German students’ data best. In Sweden, the three-factor model and a two factormodel combining the two performance goals fitted the data equally well. However, the correlation between the performance approach and avoidance goals in the Swedish three-factor model was not significantly different from 1 and we thus considered the separation to lack practical significance. We discuss national culture, and other variables, as explanations for the differences in achievement goal factor structures.

  • 11.
    Hofverberg, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Winberg, Mikael T.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Palmberg, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Andersson, Catarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Palm, Torulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Relationships Between Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction, Regulations, and Behavioral Engagement in Mathematics2022In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 13, article id 829958Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Behavioral engagement is a key determinant of students’ learning. Hence, knowledge about mechanisms affecting engagement is crucial for educators and stakeholders. Self-determination theory (SDT) offers a framework to understand one of these mechanisms. However, extant studies mostly consider only parts of SDT’s theoretical paths from basic psychological need satisfaction via regulations to student engagement. Studies that investigate the full model are rare, especially in mathematics, and results are inconclusive. Moreover, constructs are often merged in ways that may preclude detailed understanding. In this study, we used structural equation modeling to test several hypothesized paths between the individual variables that make up higher-order constructs of need satisfaction, regulations, and behavioral engagement. Satisfaction of the need for competence had a dominating effect on engagement, both directly and via identified regulation. Similarly, satisfaction of the need for relatedness predicted identified regulation, that in turn predicted engagement. Satisfaction of the need for autonomy predicted intrinsic regulation as expected but, in contrast to theory, was also positively associated with controlled motivation (external and introjected regulation). Neither intrinsic nor controlled regulation predicted engagement. Theoretical and method-related reasons for this unexpected pattern are discussed, as well as implications for research and teaching.

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  • 12.
    Winberg, Mikael T.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Hofverberg, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Lindfors, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Relationships between epistemic beliefs and achievement goals: developmental trends over grades 5–112019In: European Journal of Psychology of Education, ISSN 0256-2928, E-ISSN 1878-5174, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 295-315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Examining how students' epistemic beliefs (EB) influence their cognition is central to EB research. Recently, the relation between students' EB and their motivation has gained attention. In the present study, we investigate the development of the relationship between students' EB and their achievement goals (AG) over grades 5–11. Previous studies on this topic are limited, in both number and range, and have produced inconsistent results. We performed a cross-sectional study, ranging over grades 5–11, and a 3-year longitudinal study (n = 1230 and 323, respectively). Data on students' EB and AG were collected via questionnaires. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) supported a two-factor goal model (Mastery and Performance goals) and a structure of students' EB comprising Certainty, Source, Development, and Justification. For each grade, students' CFA scores on the respective goals were regressed on their scores on the EB dimensions by orthogonal projection to latent structures analysis. Although results indicated a weak relation between students' EB and AG, trends in the cross-sectional data were largely replicated in the longitudinal study. Though naïve EB were in general associated with performance goals and sophisticated EB with mastery goals, the transition to upper secondary school was associated with changes in the relationship between students' EB and AG. We discuss how the commonly used formulations of EB items may affect their ability to measure the naïve-sophisticated continuum, in turn affecting the predictive roles of EB dimensions.

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  • 13.
    Winberg, Mikael T.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. UmSER.
    Hofverberg, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Lindfors, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Parchmann, Ilka
    Bernholt, Andrea
    Bernholt, Sascha
    Höft, Lars
    Blankenburg, Janet
    Kampa, Nele
    Kognition, kunskapssyn, intresse och motivation i kemi: en jämförelse av elevers utveckling över skolåren 5–10 i Sverige och Tyskland2019In: Resultatdialog 2019, Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet , 2019, p. 112-116Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
1 - 13 of 13
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