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  • 1.
    Aler Tubella, Andrea
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Coelho Mollo, Dimitri
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Dahlgren, Adam
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Devinney, Hannah
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Dignum, Virginia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Ericson, Petter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Jonsson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science. SAP Signavio, Germany.
    Lenaerts, Tom
    Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium; University of California, Berkeley, USA.
    Mendez, Julian Alfredo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    ACROCPoLis: a descriptive framework for making sense of fairness2023In: FAccT '23: Proceedings of the 2023 ACM conference on fairness, accountability, and transparency, ACM Digital Library, 2023, p. 1014-1025Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fairness is central to the ethical and responsible development and use of AI systems, with a large number of frameworks and formal notions of algorithmic fairness being available. However, many of the fairness solutions proposed revolve around technical considerations and not the needs of and consequences for the most impacted communities. We therefore want to take the focus away from definitions and allow for the inclusion of societal and relational aspects to represent how the effects of AI systems impact and are experienced by individuals and social groups. In this paper, we do this by means of proposing the ACROCPoLis framework to represent allocation processes with a modeling emphasis on fairness aspects. The framework provides a shared vocabulary in which the factors relevant to fairness assessments for different situations and procedures are made explicit, as well as their interrelationships. This enables us to compare analogous situations, to highlight the differences in dissimilar situations, and to capture differing interpretations of the same situation by different stakeholders.

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  • 2.
    Amaral, Cleber Jorge
    et al.
    Federal Institute of Santa Catarina.
    Babireski Furio, Vitor Luis
    Federal University of Santa Catarina.
    Zagre Junior, Robson
    Federal University of Santa Catarina.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    de Brito, Maiquel
    Federal University of Santa Catarina.
    Zatelli, Maicon R.
    Federal University of Santa Catarina.
    Schmitz, Tiago L.
    Santa Catarina State University.
    Hübner, Jomi F.
    Federal University of Santa Catarina.
    Ferrandin, Mauri
    Federal University of Santa Catarina.
    JaCaMo Builders: Team Description for the Multi-agent Programming Contest 2020/212021In: The Multi-Agent Programming Contest 2021: One-and-a-Half Decades of Exploring Multi-Agent Systems / [ed] Tobias Ahlbrecht; Jürgen Dix; Niklas Fiekas; Tabajara Krausburg, Cham: Springer Nature, 2021, p. 134-157Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the JaCaMo Builders team and its participation in the Multi-Agent Programming Contest 2020/21 based on the Agents Assemble II scenario. The paper presents the analysis of the scenario and design of the solution; the software architecture, including the tools used during the development of the team; the main strategies; and the results achieved by the team, with challenges and directions for future editions of the contest.

  • 3.
    Amaral, Cleber Jorge
    et al.
    Federal Institute of Santa Catarina.
    Hübner, Jomi F.
    Federal University of Santa Catarina.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Towards Jacamo-rest: A Resource-Oriented Abstraction for Managing Multi-Agent Systems2020In: Proceedings of the 14th Workshop-School on Agents, Environments, and Applications (WESAAC 2020) / [ed] Vaz Alves, Gleifer and Guiménez Lug, Gustavo and Pinz Borgeso, André and Pantoja, Carlos Eduardo, Ponta Grossa: Universidade Tecknologica Federal do parana (UTFPR) , 2020, p. 140-151Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Multi-Agent Oriented Programming (MAOP) paradigm provides abstractions to model and implements entities of agents, as well as of their organisations and environments.In recent years, researchers have started to explore the integration of MAOP and the resource-oriented web architecture (REST).This paper further advances this line of research by presenting an ongoing work on jacamo-rest, a resource-oriented web-based abstraction for the multi-agent programming platform JaCaMo.Jacamo-rest takes Multi-Agent System (MAS) interoperability to a new level, enabling MAS to not only interact with services or applications of the World Wide Web but also to be managed and updated in their specifications by other applications.To add a developer interface to JaCaMo that is suitable for the Web, we provide a novel conceptual perspective on the management of MAOP specification entities as web resources.We tested jacamo-rest using it as a middleware of a programming interface application that provides modern software engineering facilities such as continuous deployments and iterative software development for MAS.

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  • 4.
    Amaral, Cleber Jorge
    et al.
    Federal Institute of Santa Catarina, São José, Brazil.
    Hübner, Jomi Fred
    Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, Brazil.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science. SAP Signavio, Umeå, Sweden.
    TDD for AOP: test-driven development for agent-oriented programming2023In: AAMAS '23: Proceedings of the 2023 international conference on autonomous agents and multiagent systems, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2023, p. 3038-3040Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This demonstration paper introduces native test-driven development capabilities that have been implemented in an agent-oriented programming language, in particular as extensions of AgentSpeak. We showcase how these capabilities can facilitate the testing and continuous integration of agents in JaCaMo multi-agent systems.

  • 5.
    Amaral, Cleber Jorge
    et al.
    Federal Institute of Santa Catarina, São José, SC, Brazil.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Cranefield, Stephen
    University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    A Framework for Collaborative and Interactive Agent-oriented Developer Operations2020In: AAMAS Proceedings 2020: Demonstration Track, ACM Digital Library, 2020, p. 2092-2094Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Considering the increasing prevalence of autonomous systems in today's society, one could expect that agent-oriented programming (AOP) is gaining traction among mainstream software engineering practitioners. However, the tools and frameworks that are used and developed in the academic multi-agent systems engineering community struggle to keep up with recent developments in the software industry in regards to how complex information systems are developed and maintained. An important aspect of recent changes in software engineering practices is the application of technologies that support the increasingly fast iteration of a programming-testing-deployment cycle. Such approaches require intense collaboration that crosses boundaries between traditionally separated roles like software development, quality assurance, and operations; these approaches are often referred to as DevOps.

  • 6.
    Anjomshoae, Sule
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Främling, Kary
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Py-CIU: A Python Library for Explaining Machine Learning Predictions Using Contextual Importance and Utility2020In: Proceedings, 2020Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present the Py-CIU library, a generic Python tool for applying the Contextual Importance and Utility (CIU) explainable machine learning method. CIU uses concepts from decision theory to explain a machine learning model’s prediction specific to a given data point by investigating the importance and usefulness of individual features (or feature combinations) to a prediction. The explanations aim to be intelligible to machine learning experts as well as non-technical users. The library can be applied to any black-box model that outputs a prediction value for all classes

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  • 7.
    Bergman, Arvid
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science. SAP Signavio, Berlin, Germany.
    Rebmann, Adrian
    SAP Signavio, Berlin, Germany; University of Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science. SAP Signavio, Berlin, Germany.
    BPMN2Constraints: breaking down BPMN diagrams into declarative process query constraints2023In: BPM 2023 best dissertation award, doctoral consortium, and demonstration & resources forum: proceedings of the Best dissertation award, doctoral consortium, and demonstration & resources forum at BPM  2023, co-located with 21st International conference on business process management (BPM 2023) / [ed] Dirk Fahland; Andrés Jiménez Ramírez; Akhil Kumar; Jan Mendling; Brian Pentland; Stefanie Rinderle-Ma; Tijs Slaats; Johan Versendaal; Barbara Weber; Mathias Weske; Karol Winter, Aachen: Aachen University , 2023, p. 137-141Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents BPMN2Constraints, a tool that compiles BPMN diagrams into sets of declarative constraints that can then, for example, be used for conformance checking. Notably, BPMN2Constraints does not rely on Petri net replay for generating the constraints; by generating constraints directly from a control flow graph extracted from the BPMN model, the tool avoids indirection. BPMN2Constraints can generate constraints in several languages: DECLARE, finite-trace linear temporal logic, and SIGNAL, a proprietary process querying language.

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  • 8.
    Brännström, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Towards Human-Aware Epistemic Planning For Promoting Behavior-Change2020In: Workshop Program, 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces an approach to human-aware epistemicplanning in which a rational intelligent agent plans its actionsfor encouraging a human to proceed in a social virtual real-ity (VR) environment. In order to persuade the human user toexecute specific actions, the agent adapts the virtual environ-ment by adjusting motivators in the environment. The agent’smodel of the human is based on the theory of planned behav-ior (TPB), a cognitive theory to explain and predict humanbehavior. The intelligent agent manipulates the environment,a process where the agent conducts epistemic actions, i.e.,adapting the environment and observing human responses, inorder to understand the human’s behavior and encourage hu-man actions. An action reasoning framework is introducedthat defines transitions between goal-oriented human activi-ties in the virtual scenario. The proposed human-aware plan-ning architecture can also be applied in environments that arenot virtual, by utilizing modern mobile devices which havebuilt-in sensors that measure motion, orientation, and variousenvironmental conditions.

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  • 9.
    Brännström, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Ruiz-Dolz, Ramon
    Valencian Research Institute for Artificial Intelligence (VRAIN), Universitat Politècnica de València, Valencia, Spain.
    Taverner, Joaquin
    Valencian Research Institute for Artificial Intelligence (VRAIN), Universitat Politècnica de València, Valencia, Spain.
    A Formal Framework for Designing Boundedly Rational Agents2022In: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence: Volume 3, SciTePress, 2022, Vol. 3, p. 705-714Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Notions of rationality and bounded rationality play important roles in research on the design and implementation of autonomous agents and multi-agent systems, for example in the context of instilling socially intelligent behavior into computing systems. However, the (formal) connection between artificial intelligence research on the design and implementation of boundedly rational and socially intelligent agents on the one hand and formal economic rationality – i.e., choice with clear and consistent preferences – or instrumental rationality – i.e., the maximization of a performance measure given an agent’s knowledge – on the other hand is weak. In this paper we address this shortcoming by introducing a formal framework for designing boundedly rational agents that systematically relax instrumental rationality, and we propose a system architecture for implementing such agents.

  • 10. Calbimonte, Jean-Paul
    et al.
    Ciortea, Andrei
    Kampik, Timotheus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Mayer, Simon
    Payne, Terry R.
    Tamma, Valentina
    Zimmermann, Antoine
    Autonomy in the age of knowledge graphs: vision and challenges2023In: Transactions on Graph Data and Knowledge, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 13:1-13:22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this position paper, we propose that Knowledge Graphs (KGs) are one of the prime approaches to support the programming of autonomous software systems at the knowledge level. From this viewpoint, we survey how KGs can support different dimensions of autonomy in such systems: For example, the autonomy of systems with respect to their environment, or with respect to organisations; and we discuss related practical and research challenges. We emphasise that KGs need to be able to support systems of autonomous software agents that are themselves highly heterogeneous, which limits how these systems may use KGs. Furthermore, these heterogeneous software agents may populate highly dynamic environments, which implies that they require adaptive KGs. The scale of the envisioned systems - possibly stretching to the size of the Internet - highlights the maintainability of the underlying KGs that need to contain large-scale knowledge, which requires that KGs are maintained jointly by humans and machines. Furthermore, autonomous agents require procedural knowledge, and KGs should hence be explored more towards the provisioning of such knowledge to augment autonomous behaviour. Finally, we highlight the importance of modelling choices, including with respect to the selected abstraction level when modelling and with respect to the provisioning of more expressive constraint languages. 

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  • 11.
    Calvaresi, Davide
    et al.
    University of Applied Sciences and Arts Western Switzerland, Delémont, Switzerland.
    Piguet, Jean-Gabriel
    University of Applied Sciences and Arts Western Switzerland, Delémont, Switzerland.
    Calbimonte, Jean-Paul
    University of Applied Sciences and Arts Western Switzerland, Delémont, Switzerland.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Najjar, Amro
    University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg City, Luxembourg.
    Gadek, Guillaume
    Airbus Defence and Space, Toulouse, France.
    Schumacher, Michael
    University of Applied Sciences and Arts Western Switzerland, Delémont, Switzerland.
    Ethical concerns and opportunities in binding intelligent systems and blockchain technology2020In: Highlights in practical applications of agents, multi-agent systems, and trust-worthiness. The PAAMS Collection: International Workshops of PAAMS 2020, L'Aquila, Italy, October 7–9, 2020, Proceedings / [ed] Fernando De La Prieta; Philippe Mathieu; Jaime Andrés Rincón Arango; Alia El Bolock; Elena Del Val; Jaume Jordán Prunera; João Carneiro; Rubén Fuentes; Fernando Lopes; Vicente Julian, Springer, 2020, p. 5-16Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intelligent systems are becoming increasingly complex and pervade a broad range of application domains, including safety-critical systems such as e-health, finance, and energy management. Traditional approaches are no longer capable of addressing the demand for trust and transparency in these applications. Hence, the current decade is demanding intelligent systems to be autonomous, and in particular explainable, transparent, and trustworthy. To satisfy such requirements, and therefore to comply with the recent EU regulations in the matter (e.g., GDPR), intelligent systems (e.g., Multi-Agent Systems - MAS) and technologies enabling tamper-proof and distributed consensus (e.g., Blockchain Technology - BCT) are conveying into reconciling solutions. Recently, the empowerment of MAS with BCT (and the use of BCT themselves) has gained considerable momentum, raising challenges, and unveiling opportunities. However, several ethical concerns have yet to be faced. This paper elaborates on the entanglement among ethical and technological challenges while proposing and discussing approaches that address these emerging research opportunities.

  • 12.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Consistency Principles for Sequential Abstract Argumentation2021In: Online Handbook of Argumentation for AI: volume 2 / [ed] Federico Castagna, Francesca Mosca, Jack Mumford, Stefan Sarkadi, Andreas Xydis, ArXiv , 2021, p. 22-26Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a principle-based perspective on ensuring consistency in sequential abstract argumentation, in which an abstract argumentation framework is iteratively resolved by determining its extensions and then (normally) expanded by adding new arguments and attacks (without changing attacks between existing arguments). As a starting point, we take reference independence – a key property in microeconomic theory – and derive an abstract argumentation principle from it to (roughly) stipulate that “if no new argument is accepted our conclusion remains the same”. Moreover, we introduce the cautious monotony principle, which can be colloquialized as “if no new argument at- tacks our conclusion we do not reject any part of this conclusion”. Cautious monotony is satisfied by some admissible set-based semantics and is not well-aligned with naive set-based seman- tics, whereas reference independence is satisfied by at least one of the naive set-based semantics (CF2 semantics), but is not well-aligned with the notion of admissibility. 

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  • 13.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Economic rationality and abstract argumentation2020In: Online handbook of argumentation for AI: volume 1 / [ed] Federico Castagna, Francesca Mosca, Jack Mumford, Stefan Sarkadi and Andreas Xydis, arXiv , 2020, p. 7-11Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a line of work that builds a bridge between abstract argumentation as a method of non-monotonic reasoning and formal models of economically rational decision-making. As the foundation of this bridge, we introduce the reference independence principle, which is a key property of economic rationality, to abstract argumentation. We relate this principle to principles of non-monotonic reasoning and, from this starting point, outline a set of research directions we are pursuing to better integrate abstract argumentation and models of economic rationality.

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  • 14.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Empathic agents: A hybrid normative/consequentialistic approach2019In: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Autonomous Agents and MultiAgent Systems, ACM Digital Library, 2019, p. 2423-2425Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Complex information systems operate with increasing degrees of autonomy. Consequently, such systems should not only optimize for simple metrics (like clicks and views) that reflect the system provider's preferences but also consider norms or rules, as well as the preferences of other agents that are affected by the systems' actions. As a means to achieve such behavior, we propose the design and development of empathic agents that use a mixed rule/utility-based approach when deciding on how to act, considering both their own and others' utility functions. The agents make use of formal argumentation to reach an agreement on how to act in case of inconsistent beliefs. A promising domain for applying our empathic agents is recommender systems.

  • 15.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Formal models of bounded rationality for autonomous agents2020Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A key challenge when developing intelligent agents is to instill behavior into computing systems that can be considered as intelligent from a social and "common-sense" perspective. Such behavior requires agents to diverge from typical decision-making algorithms that strive to maximize simple, often one-dimensional metrics. A striking parallel to this research problem can be found in the design of formal models of human decision-making in micro-economic theory. Traditionally, mathematical models of human decision-making also reflect the ambition to maximize a utility or preference function, which economists refer to as the rational man paradigm. However, evidence suggest that these models are flawed, not only because human decision-making is subject to systematic fallacies, but also because the models depend on assumptions that do not hold in reality. Consequently, the research domain of formally modeling bounded rationality emerged, which attempts to account for these shortcomings. By drawing from these developments in micro-economic theory, this thesis explores different novel approaches to instill common sense-based, socially intelligent decision-making abilities into autonomous agents. In particular, the works collected in this thesis i) present formal models of boundedly altruistic decision-making and consensus-finding, ii) introduce a library for implementing web-based autonomous agents, iii) explore the effects of explanations on the human intelligibility of machine concessions in economic games, and iv) analyze economic rationality as a non-monotonic reasoning property in the context of abstract argumentation.

  • 16.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Kettle logic in abstract argumentation2024In: Journal of logic and computation (Print), ISSN 0955-792X, E-ISSN 1465-363X, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 528-556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Kettle logic is a colloquial term that describes an agent’s advancement of inconsistent arguments in order to defeat a particular claim. Intuitively, a consistent subset of the advanced arguments should exist that is at least as successful at refuting the claim as the advancement of the set of inconsistent arguments. In this paper, we formalize this intuition and provide a formal analysis of kettle logic in abstract argumentation, a fundamental approach to computational argumentation, showing that all of the analysed abstract argumentation semantics (inference functions)—with the exception of naive semantics, which is considered a mere simplistic helper for the construction of other semantics—suffer from kettle logic. We also provide an approach to mitigating kettle logic under some circumstances. The key findings presented in this paper highlight that agents that apply the inference functions of abstract argumentation, are—similarly to humans—receptive to persuasion by agents who deliberately advance inconsistent and intuitively ‘illogical’ claims. As abstract argumentation can be considered one of the most basic models of computational argumentation, this raises the question to what extent and under what circumstances kettle logic-free argumentation can and should be enforced by computational means.

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  • 17.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Principle-based non-monotonic reasoning - from humans to machines2022Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A key challenge when developing intelligent agents is to instill behavior into computing systems that can be considered as intelligent from a common-sense perspective. Such behavior requires agents to diverge from typical decision-making algorithms that strive to maximize simple and often one-dimensional metrics. A striking parallel to this research problemcan be found in the design of formal models of human decision-making in microeconomic theory. Traditionally, mathematical models of human decision-making also reflect the ambition to maximize expected utility or a preference function, which economists refer to as the rational man paradigm. However, evidence suggests that these models are flawed, not only because human decision-making is subject to systematic fallacies, but also because the models depend on assumptions that do not hold in reality. Consequently, the research domain of formally modeling bounded rationality emerged, which attempts to account for these shortcomings by systematically relaxing the mathematical constraints of the formal model of economic rationality. Similarly, in the field of symbolic reasoning, approaches have emerged to systematically relax the notion of monotony of entailment, which stipulates (colloquially speaking) that when inferring a set of statements from a knowledge base, the addition of new knowledge to the knowledge base must not lead to the rejection of any of the previously inferred statements.

    By drawing from these developments in microeconomic theory and symbolic reasoning, this thesis explores different principle-based approaches to decision-making and non-monotonic reasoning. Thereby, abstract argumentation is used as a fundamental method for reasoning in face of conflicting knowledge (or: beliefs) that reduces non-monotonic reasoning to the problem of drawing conclusions (extensions) from a directed graph, and hence provides a neat abstraction for theoretical exploration. In particular, the works collected in this thesis i) introduce the consistent preferences property of microeconomic theory, as well as some relaxed forms of monotony of entailment as mathematical principles to abstract argumentation-based inference; ii) show how to enforce some of these principles in dynamic environments; iii) devise a formal approach to maximize monotony of entailment, given the constraints imposed by an inference function; iv) extend and apply the aforementioned approaches to the domains of machine reasoning explainability and legal reasoning.

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  • 18.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Amaral, Cleber Jorge
    Federal Institute of Santa Catarina, Brazil.
    Hübner, Jomi Fred
    Federal University of Santa Catarina, Brazil.
    Developer operations and engineering multi-agent systems2022In: Engineering multi-Agent systems: 9th international workshop, EMAS 2021, virtual event, May 3–4, 2021, revised selected papers / [ed] Natasha Alechina; Matteo Baldoni; Brian Logan, Cham: Springer Nature, 2022, p. 175-186Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we propose the integration of approaches to Engineering Multi-Agent Systems (EMAS) with the Developer Operations (DevOps) industry best practice. Whilst DevOps facilitates the organizational autonomy of software teams, as well as the technological automation of testing, deployment, and operations pipelines, EMAS and the agent-oriented programming paradigm help instill autonomy into software artifacts. We discuss the benefits of integrating DevOps and EMAS, for example by highlighting the need for agent-oriented abstractions for quality assurance and test automation approaches. More generally, we introduce an agent-oriented perspective on the DevOps life-cycle and list a range of research challenges that are relevant for the integration of the DevOps and EMAS perspectives.

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  • 19.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Boissier, Olivier
    Ecole des Mines – St. Etienne.
    Kirrane, Sabrina
    Wirtschaftsuniversität Wien.
    Mansour, Adnane
    Ecole des Mines – St. Etienne.
    Padget, Julian
    University of Bath.
    Payne, Terry
    University of Liverpool.
    Singh, Munindar
    North Carolina State University.
    Tamma, Valentina
    University of Liverpool.
    Zimmermann, Antoine
    Ecole des Mines – St. Etienne.
    Norms and Policies for Agents on the Web2021In: Autonomous Agents on the Web Dagstuhl (Dagstuhl Seminar 21072) / [ed] Olivier Boissier, Andrei Ciortea, Andreas Harth, and Alessandro Ricci, Germany: Schloss Dagstuhl – Leibniz-Zentrum für Informatik, Dagstuhl Publishing , 2021, , p. 11p. 88-98Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of policies and norms has a long tradition in the Semantic Web & Linked Data and Multi-Agent Systems communities, with applications ranging from business processes, and legal reasoning, to information systems governance. Although representing and reasoning about norms is crucial in ensuring that autonomous agents act in a manner to satisfy stake- holder requirements, normative concepts have yet to be considered as first-class abstractions in Web-based software systems. The chapter motivates the practical need to apply research on policies and norms to autonomous agents on the Web, and highlights research challenges and opportunities at the intersection of the Semantic Web & Linked Data, Multi-Agent Systems, and Web Architecture & Web of Things communities. 

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  • 20.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Gabbay, Dov
    University of Luxembourg, Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg; King’s College London, London, UK; Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel.
    Explainable Reasoning in Face of Contradictions: From Humans to Machines2021In: Explainable and Transparent AI and Multi-Agent Systems: Third International Workshop, EXTRAAMAS 2021, Virtual Event, May 3–7, 2021, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Davide Calvaresi, Amro Najjar, Michael Winikoff, Kary Främling, Cham: Springer, 2021, p. 280-295Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A well-studied trait of human reasoning and decision-making is the ability to not only make decisions in the presence of contradictions, but also to explain why a decision was made, in particular if a decision deviates from what is expected by an inquirer who requests the explanation. In this paper, we examine this phenomenon, which has been extensively explored by behavioral economics research, from the perspective of symbolic artificial intelligence. In particular, we introduce four levels of intelligent reasoning in face of contradictions, which we motivate from a microeconomics and behavioral economics perspective. We relate these principles to symbolic reasoning approaches, using abstract argumentation as an exemplary method. This allows us to ground the four levels in a body of related previous and ongoing research, which we use as a point of departure for outlining future research directions.

  • 21.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Gabbay, Dov
    University of Luxembourg, Luxembourg; King’s College London, London, UK; Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel.
    The Degrees of Monotony-Dilemma in Abstract Argumentation2021In: Symbolic and Quantitative Approaches to Reasoning with Uncertainty: 16th European Conference, ECSQARU 2021, Prague, Czech Republic, September 21–24, 2021, Proceedings / [ed] Jiřina Vejnarová, Nic Wilson, Cham: Springer, 2021, p. 89-102Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we introduce the notion of the degree of monotony to abstract argumentation, a well-established method for drawing inferences in face of conflicts in non-monotonic reasoning. Roughly speaking, the degree of monotony allows us, given an abstract argumentation semantics and an abstract argumentation framework to be as monotonic as possible, when iteratively drawing inferences and expanding the argumentation framework. However, we also show that when expanding an argumentation framework several times using so-called normal expansions, an agent may, at any given step, select a conclusion that has the highest degree of monotony w.r.t. the previous conclusion (considering the constraints of the semantics), but end up with a conclusion that has a suboptimal degree of monotony w.r.t. one or several conclusions that precede the previous conclusion. We formalize this observation as the degrees of monotony-dilemma.

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  • 22.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Gabbay, Dov
    University of Luxembourg.
    Towards DiArg: An Argumentation-based Dialogue Reasoning Engine2020In: SAFA 2020: Systems and Algorithms for Formal Argumentation 2020: Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Systems and Algorithms for Formal Argumentation / [ed] Sarah A. Gaggl, Matthias Thimm, Mauro Vallati, Technical University of Aachen , 2020, p. 14-21Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents ongoing work on the implementation of the DiArg argumentation-based reasoning engine that focuses on automating sequential argumentation for inquiry and deliberation dialogues. The engine uses abstract argumentation in its core and implements a meta-layer to support argument context and enforce the consistency of inferences in compliance with the cautious monotony and reference independence principles. In addition, DiArg can enforce expansion properties of an argumentation framework w.r.t. its predecessors in an argumentation framework sequence.

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  • 23.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Gabbay, Dov
    Department of Informatics, King’s College London, London WC2R 2, UK; Department of Computer Science, University of Luxembourg, Esch-sur-Alzette 4364, Luxembourg.
    Sartor, Giovanni
    Department of Law, European University Institute, Florence 50139, Italy; Department of Legal Studies, Università di Bologna, Bologna 40126, Italy.
    A comprehensive account of the burden of persuasion in abstract argumentation2023In: Journal of logic and computation (Print), ISSN 0955-792X, E-ISSN 1465-363X, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 257-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we provide a formal framework for modeling the burden of persuasion in legal reasoning. The framework is based on abstract argumentation, a frequently studied method of non-monotonic reasoning, and can be applied to different argumentation semantics; it supports burdens of persuasion with arbitrary many levels, and allows for the placement of a burden of persuasion on any subset of an argumentation framework’s arguments. Our framework can be considered an extension of related works that raise questions on how burdens of persuasion should be handled in some conflict scenarios that can be modeled with abstract argumentation. An open source software implementation of the introduced formal notions is available as an extension of an argumentation reasoning library. A theoretical analysis shows that our approach can be generalized to a novel method for the preference-based selection of extensions from argumentation frameworks.

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  • 24.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Gabbay, Dov
    King’s College London, London, UK; University of Luxembourg, Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg; Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan, Israel.
    Sartor, Giovanni
    European University Institute, Florence, Italy; Università di Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    The Burden of Persuasion in Abstract Argumentation2021In: Logic and Argumentation: 4th International Conference, CLAR 2021, Hangzhou, China, October 20–22, 2021, Proceedings / [ed] Pietro Baroni, Christoph Benzmüller and Yὶ N. Wang, Springer, 2021, p. 224-243Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we provide a formal framework for modeling the burden of persuasion in legal reasoning. The framework is based on abstract argumentation, a frequently studied method of non-monotonic reasoning, and can be applied to different argumentation semantics; it supports burdens of persuasion with arbitrary many levels, and allows for the placement of a burden of persuasion on any subset of an argumentation framework's arguments. Our framework can be considered an extension of related works that raise questions on how burdens of persuasion should be handled in some conflict scenarios that can be modeled with abstract argumentation. An open source software implementation of the introduced formal notions is available as an extension of an argumentation reasoning library.

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  • 25.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Gomez, Andres
    University of St. Gallen, St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    Ciortea, Andrei
    University of St. Gallen, St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    Mayer, Simon
    University of St. Gallen, St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    Autonomous agents on the Edge of things2021In: Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, AAMAS / [ed] U. Endriss, A. Nowé, F. Dignum, A. Lomuscio, International Foundation for Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (IFAAMAS) , 2021, p. 1767-1769Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a demonstration setup that integrates cognitive agents with the latest W3C standardization efforts for the Web of Things (WoT). The conceptual foundations of the implemented system are the integration of cognitive agent abstractions with W3C Web Things, which are generic abstractions of devices and virtual services that provide agents with various interaction affordances (e.g., actions, events). Together with the W3C WoT Scripting API, which is an ECMAScript-compatible API for W3C WoT environments, these standards allowJavaScript-based agents to be deployed and to operate in heterogeneous WoT environments. The agents can then be effectively distributed across the physical-virtual space in a write once, run anywhere manner: we deploy agents across a heterogeneous information system landscape that includes Web servers, browser-based front-ends, and constrained devices (microcontrollers). The deployment only requires minor platform-specific adjustments to consider resource and performance limitations on constrained devices. As a running example, we demonstrate a semiautonomous assembly scenario with human-in-the-loop support.

  • 26.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science. Signavio GmbH, Berlin, Germany.
    Malhi, Avleen
    Department of Computer Science, Aalto University, Helsinki, Finland.
    Främling, Kary
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Agent-based Business Process Orchestration for IoT2019In: WI '19 IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence / [ed] Payam Barnaghi, Georg Gottlob, Yannis Manolopoulos, Theodoros Tzouramanis, Athena Vakali, New York: ACM Press, 2019, p. 393-397Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The so-called Internet of Things is of increasing importance for facilitating productivity across industries, i.e., by connecting sensors with manufacturing lines and IT system landscapes with an increasing degree of autonomy. In this context, a common challenge is enabling reasonable trade-offs between structure and control on the one hand and flexibility and human-like intelligent behavior on the other hand. To address this challenge, we establish the need for and requirements of a hybrid IoT-/agent-based business process orchestration architecture that utilizes open standards. We propose a four-layered architecture, which integrates autonomous agents and business process orchestration for IoT/agents, and provide a running example for a supply chain management (purchasing) use case.

  • 27.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science. Umeå University, Sweden.
    Mansour, Adnane
    Mines Saint-Étienne, France.
    Boissier, Olivier
    Mines Saint-Étienne, France.
    Kirrane, Sabrina
    Wirtschaftsuniversität Wien, Austria.
    Padget, Julian
    University of Bath, UK.
    Payne, Terry R.
    University of Liverpool, UK.
    Singh, Munindar P.
    North Carolina State University, USA.
    Tamma, Valentina
    University of Liverpool, UK.
    Zimmermann, Antoine
    Mines Saint-Étienne, France.
    Governance of autonomous agents on the web: challenges and opportunities2022In: ACM Transactions on Internet Technology, ISSN 1533-5399, E-ISSN 1557-6051, Vol. 22, no 4, article id 104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of autonomous agents has a long tradition in the Multiagent Systems and the Semantic Web communities, with applications ranging from automating business processes to personal assistants. More recently, the Web of Things (WoT), which is an extension of the Internet of Things (IoT) with metadata expressed in Web standards, and its community provide further motivation for pushing the autonomous agents research agenda forward. Although representing and reasoning about norms, policies and preferences is crucial to ensuring that autonomous agents act in a manner that satisfies stakeholder requirements, normative concepts, policies and preferences have yet to be considered as first-class abstractions in Web-based multiagent systems. Towards this end, this paper motivates the need for alignment and joint research across the Multiagent Systems, Semantic Web, and WoT communities, introduces a conceptual framework for governance of autonomous agents on the Web, and identifies several research challenges and opportunities.

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  • 28.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    et al.
    SAP Signavio, Berlin, Germany.
    Mathias, Weske
    Hasso Plattner Institute, University of Potsdam, Germany.
    Event log generation: an industry perspective2022In: Enterprise, business-process and information systems modeling: 23rd international conference, BPMDS 2022 and 27th international conference, EMMSAD 2022, held at Caise 2022, Leuven, Belgium, June 6–7, 2022, proceedings / [ed] Adriano Augusto, Asif Gill, Dominik Bork, Selmin Nurcan, Iris Reinhartz-Berger, Rainer Schmidt, Cham: Springer, 2022, p. 123-136Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of an industry expert survey about event log generation in process mining. It takes academic assumptions as a starting point and elicits practitioner’s assessments of statements about process execution, process scoping, process discovery, and process analysis. The results of the survey shed some light on challenges and perspectives around event log generation, as well as on the relationship between process models and process execution, and derive challenges for event log generation from it. The responses indicate that particularly relevant challenges exist around data integration and quality, and that process mining can benefit from a systematic integration with more traditional and wide-spread business intelligence approaches.

  • 29.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science. Signavio GmbH, Berlin, Germany.
    Najjar, Amro
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science. AI-Robolab/ICR, Computer Science and Communications, University of Luxembourg, Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg.
    Integrating Multi-agent Simulations into Enterprise Application Landscapes2019In: Highlights of Practical Applications of Survivable Agents and Multi-Agent Systems: The PAAMS Collection. PAAMS 2019 / [ed] De La Prieta F. et al., 2019, p. 100-111Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To cope with increasingly complex business, political, and economic environments, agent-based simulations (ABS) have been proposed for modeling complex systems such as human societies, transport systems, and markets. ABS enable experts to assess the influence of exogenous parameters (e.g., climate changes or stock market prices), as well as the impact of policies and their long-term consequences. Despite some successes, the use of ABS is hindered by a set of interrelated factors. First, ABS are mainly created and used by researchers and experts in academia and specialized consulting firms. Second, the results of ABS are typically not automatically integrated into the corresponding business process. Instead, the integration is undertaken by human users who are responsible for adjusting the implemented policy to take into account the results of the ABS. These limitations are exacerbated when the results of the ABS affect multi-party agreements (e.g., contracts) since this requires all involved actors to agree on the validity of the simulation, on how and when to take its results into account, and on how to split the losses/gains caused by these changes. To address these challenges, this paper explores the integration of ABS into enterprise application landscapes. In particular, we present an architecture that integrates ABS into cross-organizational enterprise resource planning (ERP) processes. As part of this, we propose a multi-agent systems simulator for the Hyperledger blockchain and describe an example supply chain management scenario type to illustrate the approach.

  • 30.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science. Signavio GmbH, Berlin.
    Najjar, Amro
    Simulating, Off-Chain and On-Chain: Agent-Based Simulations in Cross-Organizational Business Processes2020In: Information, E-ISSN 2078-2489, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information systems execute increasingly complex business processes, often across organizations. Blockchain technology has emerged as a potential facilitator of (semi)-autonomous cross-organizational business process execution; in particular, so-called consortium blockchains can be considered as promising enablers in this context, as they do not require the use of cryptocurrency-based blockchain technology, as long as the trusted (authenticated) members of the network are willing to provide computing resources for consensus-finding. However, increased autonomy in the execution of business processes also requires the delegation of business decisions to machines. To support complex decision-making processes by assessing potential future outcomes, agent-based simulations can be considered a useful tool for the autonomous enterprise. In this paper, we explore the intersection of multi-agent simulations and consortium blockchain technology in the context of enterprise applications by devising architectures and technology stacks for both off-chain and on-chain agent-based simulation in the context of blockchain-based business process execution.

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  • 31.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Najjar, Amro
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science. AI-Robolab/ICR Computer Science and Communications University of Luxembourg Esch-sur-Alzette, Luxembourg.
    Technology-facilitated Societal Consensus2019In: UMAP'19 Adjunct: Adjunct Publication of the 27th Conference on User Modeling, Adaptation and Personalization, Larnaca, Cyprus: ACM Digital Library, 2019, p. 3-7Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The spread of radical opinions, facilitated by homophilic Internet communities (echo chambers), has become a threat to the stability of societies around the globe. The concept of choice architecture-the design of choice information for consumers with the goal of facilitating societally beneficial decisions-provides a promising (although not uncontroversial) general concept to address this problem. The choice architecture approach is reflected in recent proposals advocating for recommender systems that consider the societal impact of their recommendations and not only strive to optimize revenue streams. However, the precise nature of the goal state such systems should work towards remains an open question. In this paper, we suggest that this goal state can be defined by considering target opinion spread in a society on different topics of interest as a multivariate normal distribution; i.e., while there is a diversity of opinions, most people have similar opinions on most topics. We explain why this approach is promising, and list a set of cross-disciplinary research challenges that need to be solved to advance the idea.

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  • 32.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Najjar, Amro
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Calvaresi, Davide
    University of Applied Science Western Switzerland.
    MAS-Aided Approval for Bypassing Decentralized Processes: an Architecture2018In: 2018 IEEE/WIC/ACM International Conference on Web Intelligence (WI), IEEE Computer Society, 2018, p. 713-718Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Executing business processes in a decentralized manner can improve inter-organizational efficacy. For example, blockchain-based process execution allows, at least conceptually, for cross-organizational compatibility, data integration, and integrity assurance without the need for a centralized trusted operator. However, most business processes run in agile and rapidly changing business environments. Updating a decentralized process requires continuous and extensive consensus-building efforts. Reflecting all organizations' business requirements is hardly practicable. Hence, in many real-life scenarios, to support cases with initially unforeseen properties, organizations can allow to bypass the decentralized process and fall-back to local variants. Yet, the decision to bypass or update a given process can have significant social implications since it may encourage a social dynamic that encourages collective avoidance of the decentralized process. This paper proposes a multi-agent simulation system to assess the social consequences of approving a bypass under given conditions. The proposed simulation is intended to inform the decision-maker (human or machine) on whether to allow to bypass a process or not. Moreover, we present an architecture for the integration of multi-agent simulation system, local process engine, and decentralized process execution environment, and describe a possible implementation with a particular tool chain.

  • 33.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Abstract argumentation and the rational man2021In: Journal of logic and computation (Print), ISSN 0955-792X, E-ISSN 1465-363X, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 654-699Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract argumentation has emerged as a method for non-monotonic reasoning that has gained popularity in the symbolic artificial intelligence community. In the literature, the different approaches to abstract argumentation that were refined over the years are typically evaluated from a formal logics perspective; an analysis that is based on models of economically rational decision-making does not exist. In this paper, we work towards addressing this issue by analysing abstract argumentation from the perspective of the rational man paradigm in microeconomic theory. To assess under which conditions abstract argumentation-based decision-making can be considered economically rational, we derive reference independence as a non-monotonic inference property from a formal model of economic rationality and create a new argumentation principle that ensures compliance with this property. We then compare the reference independence principle with other reasoning principles, in particular with cautious monotony and rational monotony. We show that the argumentation semantics as proposed in Dung’s seminal paper, as well as other semantics we evaluate, with the exception of naive semantics and the SCC-recursive CF2 semantics, violate the reference independence principle. Consequently, we investigate how structural properties of argumentation frameworks impact the reference independence principle and identify cyclic expansions (both even and odd cycles) as the root of the problem. Finally, we put reference independence into the context of preference-based argumentation and show that for this argumentation variant, which explicitly models preferences, reference independence cannot be ensured in a straight-forward manner.

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  • 34.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University.
    JS-son - A Minimal JavaScript BDI Agent Library2019In: EMAS 2019: Accepted Papers, Centre for Autonomous systems technology, University of Liverpool , 2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a multitude of agent-oriented software engineering frame-works available, most of them produced by the academic multi-agent systemscommunity. However, these frameworks often impose programming paradigmson their users that are hard to learn for engineers who are used to modern high-level programming languages such as JavaScript and Python. To show how theadoption of agent-oriented programming by the software engineering mainstreamcan be facilitated, we provide an early, simplistic JavaScript library prototype forimplementing belief-desire-intention (BDI) agents. The library focuses on thecore BDI concepts and refrains from imposing further restrictions on the pro-gramming approach. To illustrate its usefulness, we demonstrate how the librarycan be used for multi-agent systems simulations on the web, as well as embeddedin Python-based data science tools.

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  • 35.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    JS-son: A Lean, Extensible JavaScript Agent Programming Library2020In: Engineering Multi-Agent Systems / [ed] Dennis, Louise A. and Bordini, Rafael H. and Lespérance, Yves, Cham: Springer, 2020, p. 215-234Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A multitude of agent-oriented software engineering frameworks exist, most of which are developed by the academic multi-agent systems community. However, these frameworks often impose programming paradigms on their users that are challenging to learn for engineers who are used to modern high-level programming languages such as JavaScript and Python. To show how the adoption of agent-oriented programming by the software engineering mainstream can be facilitated, we provide a lean JavaScript library prototype for implementing reasoning-loop agents. The library focuses on core agent programming concepts and refrains from imposing further restrictions on the programming approach. To illustrate its usefulness, we show how the library can be applied to multi-agent systems simulations on the web, deployed to cloud-hosted function-as-a-service environments, and embedded in Python-based data science tools.

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  • 36.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Toward consistent agreement approximation in abstract argumentation and beyond2021In: Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, AAMAS / [ed] U. Endriss, A. Nowé, F. Dignum, A. Lomuscio, International Foundation for Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (IFAAMAS) , 2021, p. 1551-1553Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In cooperative human decision-making, agreements are often not total; a partial degree of agreement is sufficient to commit to a decision and move on, as long as one is somewhat confident that the involved parties are likely to stand by their commitment in the future, given no drastic unexpected changes. In this work, we introduce models that allow autonomous agents to reach such agreements, using abstract argumentation as the underlying model.

  • 37.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Gabbay, Dov
    Ensuring reference independence and cautious monotony in abstract argumentation2022In: International Journal of Approximate Reasoning, ISSN 0888-613X, E-ISSN 1873-4731, Vol. 140, p. 173-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the symbolic artificial intelligence community, abstract argumentation with its semantics, i.e. approaches for defining sets of valid conclusions (extensions) that can be derived from argumentation graphs, is considered a promising method for non-monotonic reasoning. However, from a sequential perspective, abstract argumentation-based decision-making processes typically do not guarantee an alignment with common formal notions to assess consistency; in particular, abstract argumentation can, in itself, not enforce the satisfaction of relational principles such as reference independence (based on a key principle of microeconomic theory) and cautious monotony. In this paper, we address this issue by introducing different approaches to ensuring reference independence and cautious monotony in sequential argumentation: a reductionist, an expansionist, and an extension-selecting approach. The first two approaches are generically applicable, but may require comprehensive changes to the corresponding argumentation framework. In contrast, the latter approach guarantees that an extension of the corresponding argumentation framework can be selected to satisfy the relational principle by requiring that the used argumentation semantics is weakly reference independent or weakly cautiously monotonous, respectively, and also satisfies some additional straightforward principles. To highlight the relevance of the approach, we illustrate how the extension-selecting approach to reference independent argumentation can be applied to model (boundedly) rational economic decision-making.

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  • 38.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Lindgren, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Coercion and deception in persuasive technologies2018In: Proceedings of the 20th International Trust Workshop / [ed] Robin Cohen, Murat Sensoy, Timothy J. Norman, CEUR-WS , 2018, p. 38-49Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technologies that shape human behavior are of high societal relevance, both when considering their current impact and their future potential. In information systems research and in behavioral psychology, such technologies are typically referred to as persuasive technologies. Traditional definitions like the ones created by Fogg, and Harjumaa and Oinas-Kukkonen, respectively, limit the scope of persuasive technology to non-coercive, non-deceptive technologies that are explicitly designed for persuasion. In this paper we analyze existing technologies that blur the line between persuasion, deception,and coercion. Based on the insights of the analysis, we lay down an updated definition of persuasive technologies that includes coercive and deceptive forms of persuasion. Our definition also accounts for persuasive functionality that was not designed by the technology developers. We argue that this definition will help highlight ethical and societal challenges related to technologies that shape human behavior and encourage research that solves problems with technology-driven persuasion. Finally, we suggest multidisciplinary research that can help address the challenges our definition implies. The suggestions we provide range from empirical studies to multi-agent system theory.

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  • 39.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Lindgren, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Empathic autonomous agents2019In: Engineering multi-agent systems: 6th international workshop, EMAS 2018, Stockholm, Sweden, July 14-15, 2018, revised selected papers / [ed] Danny Weyns, Viviana Mascardi and Alessandro Ricci, Cham: Springer, 2019, 6, p. 181-201Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying and resolving conflicts of interests is a key challenge when designing autonomous agents. For example, such conflicts often occur when complex information systems interact persuasively with humans and are in the future likely to arise in non-human agent-to-agent interaction. We introduce a theoretical framework for an empathic autonomous agent that proactively identifies potential conflicts of interests in interactions with other agents (and humans) by considering their utility functions and comparing them with its own preferences using a system of shared values to find a solution all agents consider acceptable. To illustrate how empathic autonomous agents work, we provide running examples and a simple prototype implementation in a general-purpose programing language. To give a high-level overview of our work, we propose a reasoning-loop architecture for our empathic agent.

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  • 40.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Lindgren, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Explaining Sympathetic Actions of Rational Agents2019In: Explainable, Transparent Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems: First International Workshop, EXTRAAMAS 2019, Montreal, QC, Canada, May 13–14, 2019, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Calvaresi, Davide, Najjar, Amro, Schumacher, Michael och Främling, Kary, Cham: Springer, 2019, p. 59-76Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Typically, humans do not act purely rationally in the sense of classic economic theory. Different patterns of human actions have been identified that are not aligned with the traditional view of human actors as rational agents that act to maximize their own utility function. For instance, humans often act sympathetically -- i.e., they choose actions that serve others in disregard of their egoistic preferences. Even if there is no immediate benefit resulting from a sympathetic action, it can be beneficial for the executing individual in the long run. This paper builds upon the premise that it can be beneficial to design autonomous agents that employ sympathetic actions in a similar manner as humans do. We create a taxonomy of sympathetic actions, that reflects different goal types an agent can have to act sympathetically. To ensure that the sympathetic actions are recognized as such, we propose different explanation approaches autonomous agents may use. In this context, we focus on human-agent interaction scenarios. As a first step towards an empirical evaluation, we conduct a preliminary human-robot interaction study that investigates the effect of explanations of (somewhat) sympathetic robot actions on the human participants of human-robot ultimatum games. While the study does not provide statistically significant findings (but notable differences), it can inform future in-depth empirical evaluations.

  • 41.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Lindgren, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Implementing Argumentation-enabled Empathic Agents2018In: Multi-Agent Systems: 16th European Conference, EUMAS 2018, Bergen, Norway, December 6–7, 2018, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Slavkovik, Marija, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2018, p. 140-155Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a previous publication, we introduced the core concepts of empathic agents as agents that use a combination of utility-based and rule-based approaches to resolve conflicts when interacting with other agents in their environment. In this work, we implement proof-of-concept prototypes of empathic agents with the multi-agent systems development framework Jason and apply argumentation theory to extend the previously introduced concepts to account for inconsistencies between the beliefs of different agents. We then analyze the feasibility of different admissible set-based argumentation semantics to resolve these inconsistencies. As a result of the analysis we identify the maximal ideal extension as the most feasible argumentation semantics for the problem in focus.

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  • 42.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Lindgren, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Towards empathic autonomous agents2018In: / [ed] Viviana Mascardi, Alessandro Ricci, Danny Weyns, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying and resolving conflicts of interests is a key challenge when designing autonomous agents. For example, such conflicts often occur when complex information systems interact persuasively with humans and are in the future likely to arise in non-human agent-to-agent interaction. We work towards a theoretical framework for an empathic autonomous agent that proactively identifies potential conflicts of interests in interactions with other agents (and humans) byl earning their utility functions and comparing them with its own preferences using a system of shared values to find a solution all agents consider acceptable.To provide a high-level overview of our work, we propose a reasoning-loop architecture to address the problem in focus. To realize specific components of the architecture, we suggest applying existing concepts in argumentation and utility theory. Reinforcement learning methods can be used by the agent to learn from and interact with its environment.

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  • 43.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science. SAP Signavio, Berlin, Germany.
    Čyras, Kristijonas
    Ericsson Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Explaining change in quantitative bipolar argumentation2022In: Computational models of argument / [ed] Francesca Toni; Sylwia Polberg; Richard Booth; Martin Caminada; Hiroyuki Kido, IOS Press, 2022, Vol. 353, p. 188-199Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a formal approach to explaining change of inference in Quantitative Bipolar Argumentation Frameworks (QBAFs). When drawing conclusions from a QBAF and updating the QBAF to then again draw conclusions (and so on), our approach traces changes – which we call strength inconsistencies – in the partial order that a semantics establishes on the arguments in the QBAFs. We trace the strength inconsistencies to specific arguments, which then serve as explanations. We identify both sufficient and counterfactual explanations for strength inconsistencies and show that our approach guarantees that explanation arguments exist if and only if an update leads to strength inconsistency.

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  • 44.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Čyras, Kristijonas
    Ericsson Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Explanations of Non-monotonic Inference in Admissibility-Based Abstract Argumentation2021In: Logic and Argumentation: 4th International Conference, CLAR 2021, Hangzhou, China, October 20–22, 2021, Proceedings / [ed] Pietro Baroni, Christoph Benzmüller and Yὶ N. Wang, Cham: Springer, 2021, p. 209-223Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we introduce a formal framework for explaining change of inference in abstract argumentation, in particular in the context of iteratively drawing inferences from a sequence of normal expansions, with a focus on admissible set-based semantics. We then conduct a formal analysis, showing that given an initial argumentation framework and an extension that has been inferred from it, we can guarantee the existence of explanation arguments for the violation of monotony when inferring an extension from a normal expansion of the initial argumentation framework.

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  • 45.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science. SAP Signavio, Germany.
    Čyras, Kristijonas
    Ericsson, USA.
    Alarcón, José Ruiz
    Umeå University.
    Change in quantitative bipolar argumentation: sufficient, necessary, and counterfactual explanations2024In: International Journal of Approximate Reasoning, ISSN 0888-613X, E-ISSN 1873-4731, Vol. 164, article id 109066Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a formal approach to explaining change of inference in Quantitative Bipolar Argumentation Frameworks (QBAFs). When drawing conclusions from a QBAF and updating the QBAF to then again draw conclusions (and so on), our approach traces changes – which we call strength inconsistencies – in the partial order over argument strengths that a semantics establishes on some arguments of interest, called topic arguments. We trace the causes of strength inconsistencies to specific arguments, which then serve as explanations. We identify sufficient, necessary, and counterfactual explanations for strength inconsistencies and show that strength inconsistency explanations exist if and only if an update leads to strength inconsistency. We define a heuristic-based approach to facilitate the search for strength inconsistency explanations, for which we also provide an implementation.

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  • 46.
    Kilic, Kaan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Weck, Saskia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Lindgren, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Argument-based human–AI collaboration for supporting behavior change to improve health2023In: Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence, E-ISSN 2624-8212, Vol. 6, article id 1069455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents an empirical requirement elicitation study for an argumentation-based digital companion for supporting behavior change, whose ultimate goal is the promotion and facilitation of healthy behavior. The study was conducted with non-expert users as well as with health experts and was in part supported by the development of prototypes. It focuses on human-centric aspects, in particular user motivations, as well as on expectations and perceptions regarding the role and interaction behavior of a digital companion. Based on the results of the study, a framework for person tailoring the agent's roles and behaviors, and argumentation schemes are proposed. The results indicate that the extent to which a digital companion argumentatively challenges or supports a user's attitudes and chosen behavior and how assertive and provocative the companion is may have a substantial and individualized effect on user acceptance, as well as on the effects of interacting with the digital companion. More broadly, the results shed some initial light on the perception of users and domain experts of “soft,” meta-level aspects of argumentative dialogue, indicating potential for future research.

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  • 47.
    Klievtsova, Nataliia
    et al.
    Austrian Center for Digital Production, Vienna, Austria.
    Benzin, Janik-Vasily
    TUM School of Computation, Information and Technology, Technical University of Munich, Garching, Germany.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    SAP Signavio, Berlin, Germany.
    Mangler, Juergen
    TUM School of Computation, Information and Technology, Technical University of Munich, Garching, Germany.
    Rinderle-Ma, Stefanie
    TUM School of Computation, Information and Technology, Technical University of Munich, Garching, Germany.
    Conversational process modelling: state of the art, applications, and implications in practice2023In: Business Process Management Forum: BPM 2023 Forum, Utrecht, The Netherlands, September 11–15, 2023, Proceedings / [ed] Chiara Di Francescomarino; Andrea Burattin; Christian Janiesch; Shazia Sadiq, Springer Nature, 2023, p. 319-336Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chatbots such as ChatGPT have caused tremendous hype lately. For BPM applications, it is often not clear how to apply chatbots to generate business value. Hence, this work aims at the systematic analysis of existing chatbots for their support of conversational process modelling as a process-oriented capability. Application scenarios are identified along the process life cycle. Then a systematic literature review on conversational process modelling is performed. The resulting taxonomy serves as input for the identification of application scenarios for conversational process modelling, including paraphrasing and improvement of process descriptions. The application scenarios are evaluated for existing chatbots based on a real-world test set from the higher education domain. It contains process descriptions as well as corresponding process models, together with an assessment of the model quality. Based on the literature and application scenario analyses, recommendations for the usage (practical implications) and further development (research directions) of conversational process modelling are derived.

  • 48.
    Kurz, Aaron Friedrich
    et al.
    Technische Universit¨at Berlin, Berlin, Germany; Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    SAP Signavio, Berlin, Germany.
    Pufahl, Luise
    Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany.
    Weber, Ingo
    Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany; Fraunhofer Gesellschaft, Munich, Germany.
    Reinforcement learning-supported ab testing of business process improvements: an industry perspective2023In: Enterprise, business-process and information systems modeling: 24th International Conference, BPMDS 2023, and 28th International Conference, EMMSAD 2023, Zaragoza, Spain, June 12–13, 2023, Proceedings / [ed] Han van der Aa; Dominik Bork; Henderik A. Proper; Rainer Schmidt, Cham: Springer Nature, 2023, p. 12-26Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to better facilitate the need for continuous business process improvement, the application of DevOps principles has been proposed. In particular, the AB-BPM methodology applies AB testing and reinforcement learning to increase the speed and quality of improvement efforts. In this paper, we provide an industry perspective on this approach, assessing requirements, risks, opportunities, and more aspects of the AB-BPM methodology and supporting tools. Our qualitative analysis combines grounded theory with a Delphi study, including semi-structured interviews and multiple follow-up surveys with a panel of ten business process management experts. The main findings indicate a need for human control during reinforcement learning-driven experiments, the importance of aligning the methodology culturally and organizationally with the respective setting, and the necessity of an integrated process execution platform.

  • 49.
    Lindgren, Helena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Guerrero, Esteban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Blusi, Madeleine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Argumentation-based Health Information Systems: A Design Methodology2021In: IEEE Intelligent Systems, ISSN 1541-1672, E-ISSN 1941-1294, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 72-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we present a design methodology for argumentation-based health information systems. With a focus on the application of formal argumentation, the methodology aims at eliciting requirements in regard to argumentation reasoning behavior, knowledge and user models, and business logic on levels below and above the argumentation layer. We highlight specific considerations that need to be made dependent on the system type, i.e., for clinical decision-support systems, patient-facing systems, and administration systems. In addition, we outline challenges in regards to the design of argumentation-based intelligent systems for healthcare, considering the state of the art of argumentation research, health information systems, and software design methods. For each challenge, we outline a mitigation strategy. 

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  • 50. Malhi, Avleen
    et al.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Pannu, Husanbir
    Madhikermi, Manik
    Främling, Kary
    Explaining Machine Learning-based Classifications of in-vivo Gastral Images2019In: 2019 Digital Image Computing: Techniques and Applications (DICTA), Perth, Australia 2 December - 4 December 2019, IEEE, 2019, p. 530-536Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes an explainable machine learning tool that can potentially be used for decision support in medical image analysis scenarios. For a decision-support system it is important to be able to reverse-engineer the impact of features on the final decision outcome. In the medical domain, such functionality is typically required to allow applying machine learning to clinical decision making. In this paper, we present initial experiments that have been performed on in-vivo gastral images obtained from capsule endoscopy. Quantitative analysis has been performed to evaluate the utility of the proposed method. Convolutional neural networks have been used for training the validating of the image data set to provide the bleeding classifications. The visual explanations have been provided in the images to help health professionals trust the black box predictions. While the paper focuses on the in-vivo gastral image use case, most findings are generalizable.

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