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  • 1.
    Hansson, Alva
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Rankin, Gregory
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Uski, O.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Sehlstedt, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Pourazar, Jamshid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Lindgren, Robert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    García-López, Naxto
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Boman, Christoffer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Sandström, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Behndig, Annelie F.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Muala, Ala
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Reduced bronchoalveolar macrophage phagocytosis and cytotoxic effects after controlled short-term exposure to wood smoke in healthy humans2023In: Particle and Fibre Toxicology, E-ISSN 1743-8977, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Exposure to wood smoke has been shown to contribute to adverse respiratory health effects including airway infections, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. A preceding study failed to confirm any acute inflammation or cell influx in bronchial wash (BW) or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) 24 h after wood smoke exposure but showed unexpected reductions in leukocyte numbers. The present study was performed to investigate responses at an earlier phase, regarding potential development of acute inflammation, as well as indications of cytotoxicity.

    Methods: In a double-blind, randomised crossover study, 14 healthy participants were exposed for 2 h to filtered air and diluted wood smoke from incomplete wood log combustion in a common wood stove with a mean particulate matter concentration of 409 µg/m3. Bronchoscopy with BW and BAL was performed 6 h after exposure. Differential cell counts, assessment of DNA-damage and ex vivo analysis of phagocytic function of phagocytosing BAL cells were performed. Wood smoke particles were also collected for in vitro toxicological analyses using bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) and alveolar type II-like cells (A549).

    Results: Exposure to wood smoke increased BAL lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (p = 0.04) and reduced the ex vivo alveolar macrophage phagocytic capacity (p = 0.03) and viability (p = 0.02) vs. filtered air. BAL eosinophil numbers were increased after wood smoke (p = 0.02), while other cell types were unaffected in BW and BAL. In vitro exposure to wood smoke particles confirmed increased DNA-damage, decreased metabolic activity and cell cycle disturbances.

    Conclusions: Exposure to wood smoke from incomplete combustion did not induce any acute airway inflammatory cell influx at 6 h, apart from eosinophils. However, there were indications of a cytotoxic reaction with increased LDH, reduced cell viability and impaired alveolar macrophage phagocytic capacity. These findings are in accordance with earlier bronchoscopy findings at 24 h and may provide evidence for the increased susceptibility to infections by biomass smoke exposure, reported in population-based studies.

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  • 2.
    Rankin, Gregory D.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Pulmonary Medicine.
    Wingfors, Håkan
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, CBRN Defence and Security, Umeå, Sweden..
    Uski, Oskari
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Pulmonary Medicine.
    Hedman, Linnéa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine. Department of Health Sciences, Division of Nursing, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden..
    Ekstrand-Hammarström, Barbro
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, CBRN Defence and Security, Umeå, Sweden..
    Bosson, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Pulmonary Medicine.
    Lundbäck, Magnus
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Sciences, Division of Cardiology, Danderyd University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden..
    The toxic potential of a fourth-generation E-cigarette on human lung cell lines and tissue explants2019In: Journal of Applied Toxicology, ISSN 0260-437X, E-ISSN 1099-1263, Vol. 39, no 8, p. 1143-1154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of electronic cigarettes (E‐cigs) is rapidly increasing. The latest generation of E‐cigs is highly customizable, allowing for high heating coil temperatures. The aim of this study was to assess the toxic potential of a fourth‐generation E‐cig. Aerosols generated from E‐liquid with (24 mg/mL) and without nicotine, using a fourth‐generation E‐cig, were chemically analysed and compared with cigarette smoke (K3R4F). Human lung epithelial cell lines and distal lung tissue explants were exposed to E‐cig vapour extract (EVE) and cigarette smoke extract for 24 hours and assessed for viability, inflammation, oxidative stress and genotoxicity. E‐cig aerosols contained measurable levels of volatile organic compounds, aldehydes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, in general, to a much lesser extent than cigarette smoke. Higher levels of certain carbonyls, e.g. formaldehyde, were detected in the E‐cig aerosols. EVEs decreased cell viability of BEAS‐2B cells, whereas little effect was seen in A549 cells and distal lung tissue. The nicotine‐containing EVE caused a greater decrease in cell viability and significant increase in DNA damage than the nicotine‐free EVE. Increased cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species production and genotoxicity were seen with cells and tissue exposed to cigarette smoke extract compared with EVEs. Although E‐cig aerosols were less toxic than cigarette smoke, it was not benign. Moreover, the EVE containing nicotine was more toxic than the nicotine‐free EVE. More research is needed on the short‐ and long‐term health effects of vaping and the usage of newly emerging E‐cig devices to evaluate better the potential negative effects of E‐cigs on human health.

  • 3.
    Uski, O.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Rankin, Gregory D.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. CBRN Defence and Security, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Umeå, Sweden.
    Wingfors, Håkan
    CBRN Defence and Security, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Umeå, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Roger
    CBRN Defence and Security, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Umeå, Sweden.
    Boman, Christoffer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Muala, Ala
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Blomberg, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Bosson, Jenny A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Sandström, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    In vitro toxicity evaluation in A549 cells of diesel particulate matter from two different particle sampling systems and several resuspension media2024In: Journal of Applied Toxicology, ISSN 0260-437X, E-ISSN 1099-1263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In urban areas, inhalation of fine particles from combustion sources such as diesel engines causes adverse health effects. For toxicity testing, a substantial amount of particulate matter (PM) is needed. Conventional sampling involves collection of PM onto substrates by filtration or inertial impaction. A major drawback to those methodologies is that the extraction process can modify the collected particles and alter their chemical composition. Moreover, prior to toxicity testing, PM samples need to be resuspended, which can alter the PM sample even further. Lastly, the choice of the resuspension medium may also impact the detected toxicological responses. In this study, we compared the toxicity profile of PM obtained from two alternative sampling systems, using in vitro toxicity assays. One system makes use of condensational growth before collection in water in an impinger – BioSampler (CG-BioSampler), and the other, a Dekati® Gravimetric Impactor (DGI), is based on inertial impaction. In addition, various methods for resuspension of DGI collected PM were compared. Tested endpoints included cytotoxicity, formation of cellular reactive oxygen species, and genotoxicity. The alternative collection and suspension methods affected different toxicological endpoints. The water/dimethyl sulfoxide mixture and cell culture medium resuspended particles, along with the CG-BioSampler sample, produced the strongest responses. The water resuspended sample from the DGI appeared least toxic. CG-BioSampler collected PM caused a clear increased response in apoptotic cell death. We conclude that the CG-BioSampler PM sampler is a promising alternative to inertial impaction sampling.

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  • 4.
    Uski, O.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Rankin, Gregory
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Lindgren, R.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Lopez, N.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Blomberg, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Muala, Ala
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Bosson, Jenny A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Sandström, T.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    In vitro toxicity of particulate matter derived from biomass cook stoves used in developing countries2018In: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, ISSN 1073-449X, E-ISSN 1535-4970, Vol. 197Article in journal (Other academic)
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