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  • 1.
    Ahmad, Irfan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Institute of Biomedical and Allied Health Sciences, University of Health Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.
    Karah, Nabil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Nadeem, Aftab
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Wai, Sun Nyunt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Uhlin, Bernt Eric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Analysis of colony phase variation switch in Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates2019In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 1, article id e0210082Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reversible switching between opaque and translucent colony formation is a novel feature of Acinetobacter baumannii that has been associated with variations in the cell morphology, surface motility, biofilm formation, antibiotic resistance and virulence. Here, we assessed a number of phenotypic alterations related to colony switching in A. baumannii clinical isolates belonging to different multi-locus sequence types. Our findings demonstrated that these phenotypic alterations were mostly strain-specific. In general, the translucent subpopulations of A. baumannii produced more dense biofilms, were more piliated, and released larger amounts of outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). In addition, the translucent subpopulations caused reduced fertility of Caenorhabditis elegans. When assessed for effects on the immune response in RAW 264.7 macrophages, the OMVs isolated from opaque subpopulations of A. baumannii appeared to be more immunogenic than the OMVs from the translucent form. However, also the OMVs from the translucent subpopulations had the potential to evoke an immune response. Therefore, we suggest that OMVs may be considered for development of new immunotherapeutic treatments against A. baumannii infections.

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  • 2.
    Ahmad, Irfan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Institute of Biomedical and Allied Health Sciences, University of Health Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.
    Nadeem, Aftab
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Mushtaq, Fizza
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Institute of Biomedical and Allied Health Sciences, University of Health Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.
    Zlatkov, Nikola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Shahzad, Muhammad
    Department of Pharmacology, University of Health Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.
    Zavialov, Anton V.
    Department of Biochemistry, University of Turku, Tykistökatu 6A, Turku, Finland.
    Wai, Sun Nyunt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Uhlin, Bernt Eric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Csu pili dependent biofilm formation and virulence of Acinetobacter baumannii2023In: npj Biofilms and Microbiomes, E-ISSN 2055-5008, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as one of the most common extensive drug-resistant nosocomial bacterial pathogens. Not only can the bacteria survive in hospital settings for long periods, but they are also able to resist adverse conditions. However, underlying regulatory mechanisms that allow A. baumannii to cope with these conditions and mediate its virulence are poorly understood. Here, we show that bi-stable expression of the Csu pili, along with the production of poly-N-acetyl glucosamine, regulates the formation of Mountain-like biofilm-patches on glass surfaces to protect bacteria from the bactericidal effect of colistin. Csu pilus assembly is found to be an essential component of mature biofilms formed on glass surfaces and of pellicles. By using several microscopic techniques, we show that clinical isolates of A. baumannii carrying abundant Csu pili mediate adherence to epithelial cells. In addition, Csu pili suppressed surface-associated motility but enhanced colonization of bacteria into the lungs, spleen, and liver in a mouse model of systemic infection. The screening of c-di-GMP metabolizing protein mutants of A. baumannii 17978 for the capability to adhere to epithelial cells led us to identify GGDEF/EAL protein AIS_2337, here denoted PdeB, as a major regulator of Csu pili-mediated virulence and biofilm formation. Moreover, PdeB was found to be involved in the type IV pili-regulated robustness of surface-associated motility. Our findings suggest that the Csu pilus is not only a functional component of mature A. baumannii biofilms but also a major virulence factor promoting the initiation of disease progression by mediating bacterial adherence to epithelial cells.

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  • 3.
    Corkery, Dale
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Nadeem, Aftab
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Aung, Kyaw Min
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Hassan, Ahmed
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Liu, Tao
    Cervantes-Rivera, Ramón
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Lystad, Alf Håkon
    Wang, Hui
    Persson, Karina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Puhar, Andrea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Simonsen, Anne
    Uhlin, Bernt Eric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Wai, Sun Nyunt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Wu, Yao-Wen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Vibrio cholerae cytotoxin MakA induces noncanonical autophagy resulting in the spatial inhibition of canonical autophagy2021In: Journal of Cell Science, ISSN 0021-9533, E-ISSN 1477-9137, Vol. 134, no 5, article id jcs252015Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autophagy plays an essential role in the defense against manymicrobial pathogens as a regulator of both innate and adaptive immunity. Some pathogens have evolved sophisticated mechanisms that promote their ability to evade or subvert host autophagy. Here, we describe a novel mechanism of autophagy modulation mediated by the recently discovered Vibrio cholerae cytotoxin, motility-associatedkilling factor A (MakA). pH-dependent endocytosis of MakA by host cells resulted in the formation of a cholesterol-rich endolysosomal membrane aggregate in the perinuclear region. Aggregate formation induced the noncanonical autophagy pathway driving unconventional LC3 (herein referring to MAP1LC3B) lipidation on endolysosomal membranes. Subsequent sequestration of the ATG12-ATG5-ATG16L1 E3-like enzyme complex, required for LC3 lipidation at the membranous aggregate, resulted in an inhibition of both canonical autophagy and autophagy-related processes, including the unconventional secretion of interleukin-1β (IL-1β). These findings identify a novel mechanismof host autophagy modulation and immune modulation employed by V. cholerae during bacterial infection.

  • 4.
    Farag, Salah
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Francis, Monika K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Gurung, Jyoti M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Wai, Sun Nyunt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Stenlund, Hans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Swedish Metabolomics Centre (SMC), Umeå, Sweden.
    Francis, Matthew S
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Nadeem, Aftab
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Macrophage innate immune responses delineate between defective translocon assemblies produced by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis YopD mutants2023In: Virulence, ISSN 2150-5594, E-ISSN 2150-5608, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 2249790Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Translocon pores formed in the eukaryotic cell membrane by a type III secretion system facilitate the translocation of immune-modulatory effector proteins into the host cell interior. The YopB and YopD proteins produced and secreted by pathogenic Yersinia spp. harboring a virulence plasmid-encoded type III secretion system perform this pore-forming translocator function. We had previously characterized in vitro T3SS function and in vivo pathogenicity of a number of strains encoding sited-directed point mutations in yopD. This resulted in the classification of mutants into three different classes based upon the severity of the phenotypic defects. To investigate the molecular and functional basis for these defects, we explored the effectiveness of RAW 264.7 cell line to respond to infection by representative YopD mutants of all three classes. Signature cytokine profiles could separate the different YopD mutants into distinct categories. The activation and suppression of certain cytokines that function as central innate immune response modulators correlated well with the ability of mutant bacteria to alter anti-phagocytosis and programmed cell death pathways. These analyses demonstrated that sub-optimal translocon pores impact the extent and magnitude of host cell responsiveness, and this limits the capacity of pathogenic Yersinia spp. to fortify against attack by both early and late arms of the host innate immune response.

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  • 5.
    Farag, Salah
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Francis, Monika K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Nadeem, Aftab
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Wai, Sun Nyunt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Francis, Matthew S
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Impact of Defective Translocon Assemblies on Hierarchal Yop Effector Translocation by Yersinia pseudotuberculosisManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Hansen, Finja C.
    et al.
    Division of Dermatology and Venereology, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Nadeem, Aftab
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Glycobiology (MIG), Institute of Laboratory Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Browning, Kathryn L.
    LEO Foundation Center for Cutaneous Drug Delivery, Department of Pharmacy, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Campana, Mario
    ISIS Neutron and Muon Source, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell, United Kingdom.
    Schmidtchen, Artur
    Division of Dermatology and Venereology, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Dermatology, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden; Copenhagen Wound Healing Center, Bispebjerg Hospital, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Van Der Plas, Mariena J.A.
    Division of Dermatology and Venereology, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; LEO Foundation Center for Cutaneous Drug Delivery, Department of Pharmacy, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Differential Internalization of Thrombin-Derived Host Defense Peptides into Monocytes and Macrophages2022In: Journal of Innate Immunity, ISSN 1662-811X, E-ISSN 1662-8128, Vol. 14, p. 418-432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proteolytic cleavage of thrombin generates C-terminal host defense peptides exerting multiple immunomodulatory effects in response to bacterial stimuli. Previously, we reported that thrombin-derived C-terminal peptides (TCPs) are internalized in monocytes and macrophages in a time- and temperature-dependent manner. In this study, we investigated which endocytosis pathways are responsible for the internalization of TCPs. Using confocal microscopy and flow cytometry, we show that both clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent pathways are involved in the internalization of the prototypic TCP GKY25 in RAW264.7 and human monocyte-derived M1 macrophages, whereas the uptake of GKY25 in monocytic THP-1 cells is mainly dynamin-dependent. Internalized GKY25 was transported to endosomes and finally lysosomes, where it remained detectable for up to 10 h. Comparison of GKY25 uptake with that of the natural occurring TCPs HVF18 and FYT21 indicates that the pathway of TCP endocytosis is not only cell type-dependent but also depends on the length and composition of the peptide as well as the presence of LPS and bacteria. Finally, using neutron reflectometry, we show that the observed differences between HVF18 and the other 2 TCPs may be explained partially by differences in membrane insertion. Taken together, we show that TCPs are differentially internalized into monocytes and macrophages.

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  • 7.
    Joshi, Bishnu
    et al.
    Department of Medical Biology, Research Group for Host-Microbe Interactions, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Singh, Bhupender
    Department of Medical Biology, Research Group for Host-Microbe Interactions, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Nadeem, Aftab
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Askarian, Fatemeh
    Department of Medical Biology, Research Group for Host-Microbe Interactions, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway; Faculty of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food Science, The Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU), Ås, Norway.
    Wai, Sun Nyunt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Johannessen, Mona
    Department of Medical Biology, Research Group for Host-Microbe Interactions, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Hegstad, Kristin
    Department of Medical Biology, Research Group for Host-Microbe Interactions, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway; Norwegian National Advisory Unit on Detection of Antimicrobial Resistance, Department of Microbiology and Infection Control, University Hospital of North-Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Transcriptome Profiling of Staphylococcus aureus Associated Extracellular Vesicles Reveals Presence of Small RNA-Cargo2021In: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences, E-ISSN 2296-889X, Vol. 7, article id 566207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacterial extracellular vesicles (EVs) have a vital role in bacterial pathogenesis. However, to date, the small RNA-cargo of EVs released by the opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus aureus has not been characterized. Here, we shed light on the association of small RNAs with EVs secreted by S. aureus MSSA476 cultured in iron-depleted bacteriologic media supplemented with a subinhibitory dosage of vancomycin to mimic infection condition. Confocal microscopy analysis on intact RNase-treated EVs indicated that RNA is associated with EV particles. Transcriptomic followed by bioinformatics analysis of EV-associated RNA revealed the presence of potential gene regulatory small RNAs and high levels of tRNAs. Among the EV-associated enriched small RNAs were SsrA, RsaC and RNAIII. Our finding invites new insights into the potential role of EV-associated RNA as a modulator of host-pathogen interaction.

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  • 8.
    Liu, Yang
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Orthopedics, The Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Nadeem, Aftab
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Sebastian, Sujeesh
    Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Orthopedics, The Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Olsson, Martin A.
    Department of Theoretical Chemistry, Chemical Centre, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Wai, Sun Nyunt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Styring, Emelie
    Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Orthopedics, The Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Engellau, Jacob
    Medical Radiation Physics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Department of Hematology, Oncology and Radiation Physics, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Hanna
    Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Orthopedics, The Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Tägil, Magnus
    Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Orthopedics, The Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Lidgren, Lars
    Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Orthopedics, The Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Raina, Deepak Bushan
    Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Orthopedics, The Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Bone mineral: A trojan horse for bone cancers. Efficient mitochondria targeted delivery and tumor eradication with nano hydroxyapatite containing doxorubicin2022In: Materials Today Bio, E-ISSN 2590-0064, Vol. 14, article id 100227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient systemic pharmacological treatment of solid tumors is hampered by inadequate tumor concentration of cytostatics necessitating development of smart local drug delivery systems. To overcome this, we demonstrate that doxorubicin (DOX), a cornerstone drug used for osteosarcoma treatment, shows reversible accretion to hydroxyapatite (HA) of both nano (nHA) and micro (mHA) size. nHA particles functionalized with DOX get engulfed in the lysosome of osteosarcoma cells where the acidic microenvironment causes a disruption of the binding between DOX and HA. The released DOX then accumulates in the mitochondria causing cell starvation, reduced migration and apoptosis. The HA+DOX delivery system was also tested in-vivo on osteosarcoma bearing mice. Locally delivered DOX via the HA particles had a stronger tumor eradication effect compared to the controls as seen by PET-CT and immunohistochemical staining of proliferation and apoptosis markers. These results indicate that in addition to systemic chemotherapy, an adjuvant nHA could be used as a carrier for intracellular delivery of DOX for prevention of tumor recurrence after surgical resection in an osteosarcoma. Furthermore, we demonstrate that nHA particles are pivotal in this approach but a combination of nHA with mHA could increase the safety associated with particulate nanomaterials while maintaining similar therapeutic potential.

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  • 9.
    Mushtaq, Fizza
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Institute of Biomedical and Allied Health Sciences, University of Health Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan.
    Nadeem, Aftab
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Yabrag, Abdelbasset
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Bala, Anju
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Karah, Nabil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Zlatkov, Nikola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Wai, Sun Nyunt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Uhlin, Bernt Eric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Ahmad, Irfan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Institute of Biomedical and Allied Health Sciences, University of Health Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan; Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Colony phase variation switch modulates antimicrobial tolerance and biofilm formation in Acinetobacter baumannii2024In: Microbiology Spectrum, E-ISSN 2165-0497, Vol. 12, no 2, article id e02956-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii causes one of the most difficult-to-treat nosocomial infections. Polycationic drugs like polymyxin B or colistin and tetracycline drugs such as doxycycline or minocycline are commonly used to treat infections caused by carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii. Here, we show that a subpopulation of cells associated with the opaque/translucent colony phase variation by A. baumannii AB5075 displays differential tolerance to subinhibitory concentrations of colistin and tetracycline. Using a variety of microscopic techniques, we demonstrate that extracellular polysaccharide moieties mediate colistin tolerance to opaque A. baumannii at single-cell level and that mushroom-shaped biofilm structures protect opaque bacteria at the community level. The colony switch phenotype is found to alter several traits of A. baumannii, including long-term survival under desiccation, tolerance to ethanol, competition with Escherichia coli, and intracellular survival in the environmental model host Acanthamoeba castellanii. Additionally, our findings suggest that extracellular DNA associated with membrane vesicles can promote colony switching in a DNA recombinase-dependent manner.

    Importance: As a WHO top-priority drug-resistant microbe, Acinetobacter baumannii significantly contributes to hospital-associated infections worldwide. One particularly intriguing aspect is its ability to reversibly switch its colony morphotype on agar plates, which has been remarkably underexplored. In this study, we employed various microscopic techniques and phenotypic assays to investigate the colony phase variation switch under different clinically and environmentally relevant conditions. Our findings reveal that the presence of a poly N-acetylglucosamine-positive extracellular matrix layer contributes to the protection of bacteria from the bactericidal effects of colistin. Furthermore, we provide intriguing insights into the multicellular lifestyle of A. baumannii, specifically in the context of colony switch variation within its predatory host, Acanthamoeba castellanii.

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  • 10.
    Myint, Si Lhyam
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Zlatkov, Nikola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Aung, Kyaw Min
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Toh, Eric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Sjöström, Annika E
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Nadeem, Aftab
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Duperthuy, Marylise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Département de Microbiologie, Infectiologie et Immunologie, Université de Montréal, Succ. Centre-ville, Montréal, Québec, Canada.
    Uhlin, Bernt Eric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Wai, Sun Nyunt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Ecotin and LamB in Escherichia coli influence the susceptibility to Type VI secretion-mediated interbacterial competition and killing by Vibrio cholerae2021In: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - General Subjects, ISSN 0304-4165, E-ISSN 1872-8006, Vol. 1865, no 7, article id 129912Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A prevailing action of the Type VI secretion system (T6SS) in several Gram-negative bacterial species is inter-bacterial competition. In the past several years, many effectors of T6SS were identified in different bacterial species and their involvement in inter-bacterial interactions were described. However, possible defence mechanisms against T6SS attack among prey bacteria were not well clarified yet. Methods: Escherichia coli was assessed for susceptibility to T6SS-mediated killing by Vibrio cholerae. TheT6SS-mediated bacterial killing assays were performed in absence or presence of different protease inhibitors and with different mutant E. coli strains. Expression levels of selected proteins were monitored using SDS-PAGE and immunoblot analyses. Results: The T6SS-mediated killing of E. coli by V. cholerae was partly blocked when the serine protease inhibitor Pefabloc was present. E. coli lacking the periplasmic protease inhibitor Ecotin showed enhanced susceptibility to killing by V. cholerae. Mutations affecting E. coli membrane stability also caused increased susceptibility to killing by V. cholerae. E. coli lacking the maltodextrin porin protein LamB showed reduced susceptibility to killing by V. cholerae whereas E. coli with induced high levels of LamB showed reduced survival in inter-bacterial competition. Conclusions: Our study identified two proteins in E. coli, the intrinsic protease inhibitor Ecotin and the outer membrane porin LamB, that influenced E. coli susceptibility to T6SS-mediated killing by V. cholerae. General significance: We envision that it is feasible to explore these findings to target and modulate their expression to obtain desired changes in inter-bacterial competition in vivo, e.g. in the gastrointestinal microbiome.

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  • 11.
    Nadeem, Aftab
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Alam, Athar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Toh, Eric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Myint, Si Lhyam
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Ur Rehman, Zia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics. Department of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Kohat University of Science and Technology,Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.
    Liu, Tao
    Department of Microbiology, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China.
    Bally, Marta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Wallenberg Centre for Molecular Medicine at Umeå University (WCMM).
    Arnqvist, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Wang, Hui
    Department of Microbiology, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, China.
    Zhu, Jun
    Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, PA, Philadelphia, United States.
    Persson, Karina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Uhlin, Bernt Eric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Wai, Sun Nyunt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Phosphatidic acid-mediated binding and mammalian cell internalization of the Vibrio cholerae cytotoxin MakA2021In: PLoS Pathogens, ISSN 1553-7366, E-ISSN 1553-7374, Vol. 17, no 3, article id 1009414Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vibrio cholerae is a noninvasive intestinal pathogen extensively studied as the causative agent of the human disease cholera. Our recent work identified MakA as a potent virulence factor of V. cholerae in both Caenorhabditis elegans and zebrafish, prompting us to investigate the potential contribution of MakA to pathogenesis also in mammalian hosts. In this study, we demonstrate that the MakA protein could induce autophagy and cytotoxicity of target cells. In addition, we observed that phosphatidic acid (PA)-mediated MakA-binding to the host cell plasma membranes promoted macropinocytosis resulting in the formation of an endomembrane-rich aggregate and vacuolation in intoxicated cells that lead to induction of autophagy and dysfunction of intracellular organelles. Moreover, we functionally characterized the molecular basis of the MakA interaction with PA and identified that the N-terminal domain of MakA is required for its binding to PA and thereby for cell toxicity. Furthermore, we observed that the ΔmakA mutant outcompeted the wild-type V. cholerae strain A1552 in the adult mouse infection model. Based on the findings revealing mechanistic insights into the dynamic process of MakA-induced autophagy and cytotoxicity we discuss the potential role played by the MakA protein during late stages of cholera infection as an anti-colonization factor.

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  • 12.
    Nadeem, Aftab
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Aung, Kyaw Min
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Ray, Tanusree
    Division of Pathophysiology, National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Kolkata, India.
    Alam, Athar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Persson, Karina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Pal, Amit
    Division of Pathophysiology, National Institute of Cholera and Enteric Diseases, Kolkata, India.
    Uhlin, Bernt Eric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Wai, Sun Nyunt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Suppression of β-catenin signaling in colon carcinoma cells by a bacterial protein2021In: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215, Vol. 149, no 2, p. 442-459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide. The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene is mutated in hereditary colorectal tumors and in more than 80% of sporadic colorectal tumors. APC mutations impair β-catenin degradation, leading to its permanent stabilization and increased transcription of cancer-driving target genes. In colon cancer, impairment of β-catenin degradation leads to its cytoplasmic accumulation, nuclear translocation, and subsequent activation of tumor cell proliferation. Suppressing β-catenin signaling in cancer cells therefore appears to be a promising strategy for new anticancer strategies. Recently, we discovered a novel Vibrio cholerae cytotoxin, motility-associated killing factor A (MakA), that affects both invertebrate and vertebrate hosts. It promotes bacterial survival and proliferation in invertebrate predators but has unknown biological role(s) in mammalian hosts. Here, we report that MakA can cause lethality of tumor cells via induction of apoptosis. Interestingly, MakA exhibited potent cytotoxic activity, in particular against several tested cancer cell lines, while appearing less toxic toward nontransformed cells. MakA bound to the tumor cell surface became internalized into the endolysosomal compartment and induced leakage of endolysosomal membranes, causing cytosolic release of cathepsins and activation of proapoptotic proteins. In addition, MakA altered β-catenin integrity in colon cancer cells, partly through a caspase- and proteasome-dependent mechanism. Importantly, MakA inhibited β-catenin-mediated tumor cell proliferation. Remarkably, intratumor injection of MakA significantly reduced tumor development in a colon cancer murine solid tumor model. These data identify MakA as a novel candidate to be considered in new strategies for development of therapeutic agents against colon cancer.

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  • 13.
    Nadeem, Aftab
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Berg, Alexandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Pace, Hudson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Wallenberg Centre for Molecular Medicine at Umeå University (WCMM).
    Alam, Athar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Toh, Eric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Ådén, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Zlatkov, Nikola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Myint, Si Lhyam
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Persson, Karina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Gröbner, Gerhard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Sjöstedt, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Bacteriology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Bally, Marta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Wallenberg Centre for Molecular Medicine at Umeå University (WCMM). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Barandun, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Uhlin, Bernt Eric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Wai, Sun Nyunt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Protein-lipid interaction at low pH induces oligomerization of the MakA cytotoxin from Vibrio cholerae2022In: eLIFE, E-ISSN 2050-084X, Vol. 11, article id e73439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The α-pore-forming toxins (α-PFTs) from pathogenic bacteria damage host cell membranes by pore formation. We demonstrate a remarkable, hitherto unknown mechanism by an α-PFT protein from Vibrio cholerae. As part of the MakA/B/E tripartite toxin, MakA is involved in membrane pore formation similar to other α-PFTs. In contrast, MakA in isolation induces tube-like structures in acidic endosomal compartments of epithelial cells in vitro. The present study unravels the dynamics of tubular growth, which occurs in a pH-, lipid-, and concentration-dependent manner. Within acidified organelle lumens or when incubated with cells in acidic media, MakA forms oligomers and remodels membranes into high-curvature tubes leading to loss of membrane integrity. A 3.7 Å cryo-electron microscopy structure of MakA filaments reveals a unique protein-lipid superstructure. MakA forms a pinecone-like spiral with a central cavity and a thin annular lipid bilayer embedded between the MakA transmembrane helices in its active α-PFT conformation. Our study provides insights into a novel tubulation mechanism of an α-PFT protein and a new mode of action by a secreted bacterial toxin.

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  • 14.
    Nadeem, Aftab
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Nagampalli, Raghavendra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Toh, Eric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Alam, Athar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Myint, Si Lhyam
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Heidler, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Dongre, Mitesh
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Zlatkov, Nikola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Pace, Hudson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Wallenberg Centre for Molecular Medicine at Umeå University (WCMM).
    Bano, Fouzia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Wallenberg Centre for Molecular Medicine at Umeå University (WCMM). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Sjöstedt, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Bally, Marta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Wallenberg Centre for Molecular Medicine at Umeå University (WCMM). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Uhlin, Bernt Eric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Wai, Sun Nyunt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS).
    Persson, Karina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    A tripartite cytolytic toxin formed by Vibrio cholerae proteins with flagellum-facilitated secretion2021In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 118, no 47, article id e2111418118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vibrio cholerae, responsible for outbreaks of cholera disease, is a highly motile organism by virtue of a single flagellum. We describe how the flagellum facilitates the secretion of three V. cholerae proteins encoded by a hitherto-unrecognized genomic island. The proteins MakA/B/E can form a tripartite toxin that lyses erythrocytes and is cytotoxic to cultured human cells. A structural basis for the cytolytic activity of the Mak proteins was obtained by X-ray crystallography. Flagellum-facilitated secretion ensuring spatially coordinated delivery of Mak proteins revealed a role for the V. cholerae flagellum considered of particular significance for the bacterial environmental persistence. Our findings will pave the way for the development of diagnostics and therapeutic strategies against pathogenic Vibrionaceae.

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  • 15.
    Nadeem, Aftab
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Oscarsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Wai, Sun Nyunt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Delivery of virulence factors by bacterial membrane vesicles to mammalian host cells2020In: Bacterial membrane vesicles: biogenesis, functions and applications / [ed] Maria Kaparakis-Liaskos; Thomas A. Kufer, Springer, 2020, p. 131-158Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacterial membrane vesicles represent a universal secretion mechanism enabling both Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms to transfer cargo to eukaryotic cells, as well as to other bacterial cells. Bacterial vesicles can deliver to target cells an extremely wide range of virulence factors, including exotoxins, lipids, nucleic acids, and small molecules. Although there has been extensive research to decipher the mechanisms regulating cellular uptake of Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), much less is known about the cellular uptake of Grampositive bacterial membrane vesicles (MVs). This chapter focuses on a selection of major bacterial pathogens and summarizes the present knowledge of OMV and MV-mediated virulence factor delivery, as well as mechanisms of bacterial vesicle- host cell interaction and uptake by mammalian cells.

  • 16.
    Schmidtchen, Artur
    et al.
    Division of Dermatology and Venereology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Copenhagen Wound Healing Center, Bispebjerg Hospital, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Mirza, Haris
    Department of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, CT, New Haven, United States.
    van der Plas, Mariena J. A.
    Department of Pharmacy, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nadeem, Aftab
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Puthia, Manoj
    Division of Dermatology and Venereology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Editorial: methods and applications in inflammation pharmacology2022In: Frontiers in Pharmacology, E-ISSN 1663-9812, Vol. 13, article id 1108263Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 17.
    Toh, Eric
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Baryalai, Palwasha
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Nadeem, Aftab
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Aung, Kyaw Min
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Chen, Sa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Persson, Karina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Persson, Jenny L.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Uhlin, Bernt Eric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Wai, Sun Nyunt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Bacterial protein MakA causes suppression of tumour cell proliferation via inhibition of PIP5K1α/Akt signalling2022In: Cell Death and Disease, ISSN 2041-4889, E-ISSN 2041-4889, Vol. 13, no 12, article id 1024Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, we demonstrated that a novel bacterial cytotoxin, the protein MakA which is released by Vibrio cholerae, is a virulence factor, causing killing of Caenorhabditis elegans when the worms are grazing on the bacteria. Studies with mammalian cell cultures in vitro indicated that MakA could affect eukaryotic cell signalling pathways involved in lipid biosynthesis. MakA treatment of colon cancer cells in vitro caused inhibition of growth and loss of cell viability. These findings prompted us to investigate possible signalling pathways that could be targets of the MakA-mediated inhibition of tumour cell proliferation. Initial in vivo studies with MakA producing V. cholerae and C. elegans suggested that the MakA protein might target the PIP5K1α phospholipid-signalling pathway in the worms. Intriguingly, MakA was then found to inhibit the PIP5K1α lipid-signalling pathway in cancer cells, resulting in a decrease in PIP5K1α and pAkt expression. Further analyses revealed that MakA inhibited cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1) and induced p27 expression, resulting in G2/M cell cycle arrest. Moreover, MakA induced downregulation of Ki67 and cyclin D1, which led to inhibition of cell proliferation. This is the first report about a bacterial protein that may target signalling involving the cancer cell lipid modulator PIP5K1α in colon cancer cells, implying an anti-cancer effect.

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  • 18.
    Toh, Eric
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Baryalai, Palwasha
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Nadeem, Aftab
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Aung, Kyaw Min
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Myint, Si Lhyam
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Uhlin, Bernt Eric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Wai, Sun Nyunt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). MIMS.
    Sublytic activity of a pore-forming protein from commensal bacteria causes epigenetic modulation of tumor-affiliated protein expressionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cytolysin A (ClyA) is a pore-forming protein expressed at sublytic levels by a strongly silenced gene in non-pathogenic Escherichia coli, including typical commensal isolates in the intestinal microbiome of healthy mammalian hosts. Upon overproduction, the ClyA-expressing bacteria display a cytolytic phenotype. However, it remains unclear whether sublytic amounts of native ClyA play a role in commensal E. coli-host interactions in vivo. Here, we show that sublytic amounts of ClyA are released via outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) and can affect host cells in a profound and remarkable manner. OMVs isolated from ClyA+ E. coli were rapidly internalised into cultured colon cancer cells. The OMV-associated ClyA inhibited the expression of cancer-activating proteins such as H3K27me3, CXCR4, STAT3, and MDM2 via the EZH2/H3K27me3/miR622/CXCR4 signalling axis. Our results demonstrate that sublytic amounts of ClyA in OMVs from non-pathogenic E. coli can target the stability of the EZH2 protein to modulate epigenetics of colon cancer cells 

  • 19.
    Zlatkov, Nikola
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Nadeem, Aftab
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Uhlin, Bernt Eric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Wai, Sun Nyunt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Eco-evolutionary feedbacks mediated by bacterial membrane vesicles2021In: FEMS Microbiology Reviews, ISSN 0168-6445, E-ISSN 1574-6976, Vol. 45, no 2, article id fuaa047Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bacterial membrane vesicles (BMVs) are spherical extracellular organelles whose cargo is enclosed by a biological membrane. The cargo can be delivered to distant parts of a given habitat in a protected and concentrated manner. This review presents current knowledge about BMVs in the context of bacterial eco-evolutionary dynamics among different environments and hosts. BMVs may play an important role in establishing and stabilizing bacterial communities in such environments; for example, bacterial populations may benefit from BMVs to delay the negative effect of certain evolutionary trade-offs that can result in deleterious phenotypes. BMVs can also perform ecosystem engineering by serving as detergents, mediators in biochemical cycles, components of different biofilms, substrates for cross-feeding, defense systems against different dangers and enzyme-delivery mechanisms that can change substrate availability. BMVs further contribute to bacteria as mediators in different interactions, with either other bacterial species or their hosts. In short, BMVs extend and deliver phenotypic traits that can have ecological and evolutionary value to both their producers and the ecosystem as a whole.

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