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  • 1.
    Bohn, Dorothee
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Agency and strategic selectivity in regional opportunity spaces: understanding the case of arctic-themed resort enclave developmentManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Bohn, Dorothee
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Arctic geographies in the making: understanding political economy, institutional strategic selectivity, and agency in tourism pathway development2024Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism has long been promoted as a catalyst for socio-economic development in sparsely populated areas based on the commodification of culture and natural environments. This thesis examines the case of Arctic tourism in the two neighbouring northern counties of Finnish Lapland and Norrbotten (Sweden). Although characterised by similar resource endowments for tourism, these two regions have historically pursued divergent pathways, leading to different industry characteristics and spatial development outcomes. More recently, Lapland and Norrbotten have witnessed a remarkable increase in Arctic-themed tourism featuring soft nature-based winter activities and resort accommodation for export markets.

    To better understand the complex factors facilitating the emergence and consolidation of this pathway, a theoretical framework combining perspectives drawn from evolutionary economic geography, geographical political economy, and the strategic relational approach to structure and agency was selected. Through this theoretical lens, the thesis studies how wider politico-economic trajectories, institutional priorities and strategic selectivity, and entrepreneurial agency are intertwined in tourism path creation that takes place in path-dependent regional opportunity spaces. Empirically, the thesis rests upon a case study methodology that integrates expert interviews, document analysis, and spatial mapping of regional development funding for tourism projects and firms.

    The findings show that the geographical reimagination of Lapland and Norrbotten as Arctic tourism regions is part of wider socio-economic transformations. Export-oriented Arctic tourism is linked to a global political economy promoting economic growth and entrepreneurship, governed by multiscalar public-private networks, as the foundation of sustainable development and social wellbeing. For local places, the alignment with the Arctic represents an upscaling strategy to gain visibility and competitiveness within globalised politico-economic environments. At the regional level, public organisations mediate Arctic tourism pathways inter alia by granting funding and financing for firms and public-private development projects. The institutional strategic selectivity entailed therein privileges commonly established actors and business ideas over new ones, fostering pathway reproduction and the (unintended) continuation of uneven development structures. These opportunity spaces also conditioned the rise of Arctic-themed resort enclave as a distinct tourism product in Lapland and Norrbotten. Although these venues offer potential for new tourism development in previously underdeveloped locations as well as local business cooperation and spinoffs, there remain challenges, not least in relation to their limitations regarding year-round employment and a homogenous market focus implying a boom-and-bust vulnerability.

    To summarise, the findings of the four papers included in the thesis provide a nuanced picture of the processes that have shaped Arctic tourism in the two case study regions, raising attention to the limits and opportunities of export-oriented tourism for regional development and local communities in sparsely populated areas.

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  • 3.
    Bohn, Dorothee
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Evaluation research2022In: Encyclopedia of tourism management and marketing: volume 2 / [ed] Dimitrios Buhalis, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2022, p. 133-136Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Bohn, Dorothee
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Adie, B.A.
    Amore, A.
    Aquino, R.S.
    Baird, T.
    Hall, C.M.
    Hateftabar, F.
    Naderi Koupaei, S.
    Love, T.
    Lu, L.
    Rezapouragham, H.
    Soleimani, S.
    Zhu, C.
    Careers, citations, bibliometrics and impact: perspectives of new and emerging scholars2024In: How to get published in the best tourism journals / [ed] Chris Cooper; C. Michael Hall, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2024Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Bohn, Dorothee
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Carson, Doris A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Demiroglu, O. Cenk
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Public funding and destination evolution in sparsely populated Arctic regions2023In: Tourism Geographies, ISSN 1461-6688, E-ISSN 1470-1340, Vol. 25, no 8, p. 1833-1855Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the role of public funding in transforming tourism pathways in sparsely populated Arctic destinations, comparing Northern Sweden and Finnish Lapland. Our theoretical framework considers destination path plasticity and moments of change through the lens of geographical political economy to understand patterns of uneven development. This perspective helps explain how regional development funding driven by multi-scalar political priorities and global markets set structural conditions for tourism. We present a spatial analysis of public funding between 2007 and 2021 for private firms and public projects, complemented by document analysis and expert interviews. We find that public funding in Finnish Lapland has largely reinforced ‘Arctification’ and export-driven tourism in a few locations. In Northern Sweden, it has focused more on redistributing resources to micro-businesses and broader socio-economic development in lagging regions, yet with limited impacts on changing dominant tourism pathways. Public projects improved knowledge creation and networking among public and private actors but were largely unable to consolidate emerging pathways in the long run. Overall, regional development funding supported incremental change around existing pathways and had limited transformative effects in response to shocks or disruptive moments due to the rigid nature of funding programmes.

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  • 6.
    Bohn, Dorothee
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    De Bernardi, Cecilia
    Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    A labour regime perspective on workforce formation in Nordic tourism: exploring national tourism policy and strategy documents2020In: Tourism employment in Nordic countries: trends, practices, and opportunities / [ed] Andreas Walmsley; Kajsa Åberg; Petra Blinnikka; Gunnar Thór Jóhannesson, Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2020, 1, p. 349-373Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter adopts a public policy perspective to tourism workforce formation in Finland, Norway and Sweden. The qualitative content analysis of national tourism strategy, planning and policy documents reveals that aspired labour regimes are predominantly characterised by mobility, flexibility and segmentation. While these practices ensure a competitive operational environment, satisfy seasonal employee demand and provide means for states to integrate immigrants into the labour market, negative societal consequences including precariousness, low-quality employment and inequality arise as well. Although all examined documents advocate sustainable production and consumption for Nordic tourism, workforce is essentially not included in sustainability discourses and initiatives.

  • 7.
    Bohn, Dorothee
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    de Bernardi, Cecilia
    Celebrating 30 years louder than hell: exploring commercial and social 'Host Event Zone' developments of the heavy metal festival Wacken Open Air2022In: Annals of Leisure Research, ISSN 1174-5398, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 116-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although respective research has proliferated, little attention has been given to the processual nature of festivals. By drawing upon the concept of host event zones, we examine how different spectators perceive the development of the heavy metal festival Wacken Open Air (WOA) with respect to the dynamics between the festival as a temporary place in which visitors enjoy spectacle and ritual, a commercial site and the everyday living space of local inhabitants. WOA has grown in 30 years from an initiative by a few friends for devoted metal fans into an internationally renowned music mega-event. WOA represents a consumption mediated 'peaceful utopia' where festivalgoers find social meaningfulness in neo-tribes. However, the accelerating mainstream appeal of Wacken Open Air for a non-metal fan audience, which significantly spurt by the media, challenges both regular attendees' experience of this idealized space and the relationship between the host community and the festival.

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  • 8.
    Bohn, Dorothee
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    De Bernardi, Cecilia
    The different shades of snow: an analysis of winter tourism in European regional planning and policy documents2019In: Winter tourism: trends and challenges / [ed] Ulrike Pröbstl-Haider, Harold Richins, Stefan Tuerk, Wallingford: CABI Publishing, 2019, p. 47-63Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Bohn, Dorothee
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Hall, C. Michael
    University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Building a gateway to the arctic: a political economy perspective on tourism development and conservation in Finnish Lapland2022In: Tourism transformations in protected area gateway communities / [ed] Susan L. Slocum; Peter Wiltshier; John Basil Read IV, CABI Publishing, 2022, p. 49-65Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on gateway communities conventionally focuses on micro-level aspects that emerge in the nexus of environmental conservation, tourism development and local livelihoods. However, the embeddedness of places and the local tourism sector in the modes of production, consumption and capital circulation of contemporary capitalism remains oftentimes unaddressed. This chapter, therefore, adopts a political economy perspective and examines the macro-frameworks that condition tourism development in Finnish Lapland, in tandem with attempts to consolidate its gateway position to the Arctic. The aim is to encourage a more nuanced view on gateway status in regions where tourism development is driven by multi-scalar stakeholder interests and embedded into competitive regional development initiatives. While the devastating effects of climate change and human induced pollution on the fragile terrestrial and maritime Arctic ecosystems are well recognized, the spatial reimagination of Lapland in the Arctic represents another neoliberal step towards the total commodification of the environment.

  • 10.
    Bohn, Dorothee
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Unpacking the multispatial configurations of metagoverning tourism development: a longitudinal application of the TPSNE framework2024In: Territory, Politics, Governance, ISSN 2162-2671Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper advances the study of metagovernance by examining its spatial horizons in the empirical case of tourism development. Drawing upon Jessop et al.’s (2008) TPSNE framework on territory, place, scale, network and environment for a longitudinal qualitative analysis, the article traces the evolution of tourism metagovernance in northernmost Finland and Sweden over the past 150 years. The shifts from pre-Fordism over welfare state Fordism to the competition state manifest themselves in tourism metagovernance through distinct socio-spatial relationships between the state, tourism stakeholders and society at large. Applying the TPSNE framework provides crucial explanatory insights into processes and drivers of change and continuity in tourism’s sectoral development as part of wider societal and political transformations.

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  • 11.
    Bohn, Dorothee
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Unpacking the multispatial configurations of metagoverning tourism development: a longitudinal application of the TSPNE frameworkManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Bohn, Dorothee
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Varnajot, Alix
    A geopolitical outlook on Arctification in northern Europe: Insights from tourism, regional branding and higher education and research institutions2021In: Arctic Yearbook 2021: Defining and Mapping the Arctic: Sovereignties, Policies and Perceptions / [ed] Lassi Heininen, Heather Exner-Pirot & Justin Barnes, Akureyri: Arctic Portal , 2021Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the everyday bordering practices of non- and sub-state actors in the European Arctic through a geopolitical lens. Specifically, we analyse the mechanisms, aims, and effects of how regional development and higher education and research institutions (HER), as well as the tourism sector, in climatically subarctic Fennoscandia, actively reposition themselves as centrally located in the Arctic. We depart from a critical and economic reading of geopolitics, which enquires into the production of territories of wealth, power, security, and belonging. Given the global publicity of the Arctic in media, research, and politics, the region has become an economic opportunity for sparsely populated areas in the European High North. This rescaling towards the global Arctic, also termed Arctification, offers non- and sub-state bodies the possibility to turn a historically deprived peripheral location into a competitive advantage. Hence, the Arctic moves southwards into Fennoscandian provinces that until recently had shown little identification with the region. The soft borders of the Arctic render the region a relational space that can be adapted and reinterpreted according to the interests of different actors. As such, Arctification appears to be a geopolitical process that alters representations of both the Arctic and the Nordic countries, which is nonetheless rooted in the global circuits of contemporary capitalism.

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  • 13.
    Lundmark, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Müller, Dieter K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Bohn, Dorothee
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Arctification and the paradox of overtourism in sparsely populated areas2020In: Dipping in to the North: Living, Working and Traveling in Sparsely Populated Areas / [ed] L. Lundmark, D.B. Carson, & M. Eimermann, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2020, p. 349-371Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, the Arctic is put in relation to increasing tourism to the North caused not least by increasing geopolitical interests in combination with the focus climate change is putting on the area, here referred to as Arctification. The growth of tourism, and the dispersion or concentration of tourists, has led to new challenges characterized as overtourism that in an Arctic context materializes on a microscale, where small communities can experience relatively large numbers of tourists for a limited time period. The implications of this increase and changing flow require more in-depth or locally based research. This chapter ends by asking what effects there might be of anti-tourism social movements, xenophobia or climate change in the future?

1 - 13 of 13
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