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  • 1.
    Granholm Valmari, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Occupational Therapy.
    Beyond the badge: police officers’ lifestyles and health2023Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Being a frontline police officer is regarded to be one of the most high-strain professions in the world, encompassing physical, emotional and cognitive stressors. These stressors may cause ill health, physically, mentally and socially, impacting both professional and private life roles and everyday activities. Despite this, there has been limited consideration of the broader complexities of police officers’ lifestyles. Thus, the primary aim of this thesis was to identify health promoters and health challenges within the lifestyles of frontline police officers using a transactional perspective. The secondary aim was to translate these findings into the initial developmental stages of an instrument targeting critical areas of police officers’ lifestyles to foster health sustainability.

    Method: The thesis includes four studies. In Study I, a method for scoping reviews was used when gathering data from previously conducted studies within Europe. Studies II and III were qualitative studies using in-depth interviews. In Study II a reflexive thematic analysis was used, whereas in Study III qualitative content analysis was utilized. Study IV builds on data from the other studies. During the early development process of the instrument focus groups, cognitive interviewing methods and a content validity approach were undertaken.

    Findings: Altogether, the findings offer insights into how police officers’ lifecontexts, roles and everyday activities transact to become their unique lifestyles. In Study I the life contexts affecting police officers’ lives and health were mapped. It was concluded that research on police officers’ private lives is limited in Europe, despite contextual and environmental influences on their lives and health. In Studies II and III it was found that balancing work with private-life activities and roles included health challenges and resources. The findings relate to balancing risk and violence with vigilance in private life, societal attitudes with the police identity, work with healthy routines and habits, and unpredictability with stability. Study IV took initial steps towards crafting a self-reflection instrument targeting the essential conditions for living a sustainable and healthy lifestyle asa police officer.

    Conclusion: This thesis illuminates the complex interplay of factors that definethe unique lifestyles of police officers, influenced by their life contexts, roles, and everyday activities. It highlights the importance of both organizational strategies and police officers utilizing health-promoting strategies in maintaining asustainable lifestyle essential for fostering health sustainability. In the context of societal challenges and the need for a strong police force, maintaining police officers’ health sustainability is crucial for the benefit of both the Police Authority and society.

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  • 2.
    Granholm Valmari, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Occupational Therapy.
    European patrolling police officers’ life balance: A systematic review synthesizing their lifestyle and health2022In: Journal of Occupational Science, ISSN 1442-7591, E-ISSN 2158-1576, Vol. 29, no sup1, p. S94-S95, article id 216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The police profession is a high-strain and high-risk profession, sometimes resulting in poor health. Although preceding reviews have synthesized police officers’ health, their lifestyle from an occupational perspective has not been synthesized. This systematic review aims to identify crucial areas for a healthy and sustainable lifestyle by investigating the life contexts of patrolling police officers in the European Union. The review was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines. A protocol was scientifically published and also registered with PROSPERO. Searches were carried out in eight databases, locating patrolling officers’ life contexts. Two independent authors screened articles and critically appraised the remaining studies using MMAT. A narrative synthesis (Popayet al., 2006) was conducted, including assessing the total body of evidence using GRADE-CERQual.16 articles were located. The findings of what constitutes a healthy and sustainable lifestyle were analyzed and linked to a framework of life balance(Matuska & Christiansen, 2008). Subsequently, a linkage model was created to explain how different barriers and resources for life balance affects patrolling officers' health (physical, social and mental). The result indicates that crucial areas in patrolling officers' life contexts affect their opportunities of living a balanced lifestyle. Depending on which part is compromised it might disturb aspects of health. There view complements earlier reviews by adding occupational science to police research. Thus, contributing to the understanding of what constitutes a balanced lifestyle for patrolling officers, and providing insight into which crucial areas affect their lifestyle and health.

  • 3.
    Granholm Valmari, Elin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Occupational Therapy.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University. Police Education, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nygren, Ulla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Gilenstam, Kajsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation. Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    A systematic review of lifestyle and health among patrolling police officers2023In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 721-744Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The police profession is a high-strain and high-risk profession, sometimes resulting in poor physical, mental and social health. This systematic review aims to identify and describe crucial areas for a healthy and sustainable lifestyle among patrolling police officers in Europe, an area not previously studied.

    Methods: The review was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines. A protocol was published and registered with PROSPERO beforehand. Searches were carried out in eight databases. Two independent authors screened articles and critically appraised the included studies. A narrative synthesis was conducted to analyse the results. The review’s total body of evidence was assessed with GRADE-CERQaul.

    Results: A total of 16 articles were located, representing 13 studies. Barriers and resources for a healthy and sustainable lifestyle were linked to a theoretical framework of life balance. Subsequently, a linkage model was created to explain different aspects of patrolling police officers’ life balance and its relation to health (physical, social and mental).

    Conclusions: Several crucial areas for a healthy and sustainable lifestyle were found and described, indicating that patrolling officers’ working life affects their possibilities of living a balanced lifestyle, which might disturb different aspects of health, depending on which aspect is compromised.

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  • 4.
    Granholm Valmari, Elin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Occupational Therapy.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Nygren, Ulla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Gilenstam, Kajsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Exploring the life contexts of patrolling police officers in the European Union – A scoping review2023In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 585-603Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Patrolling police officers engage in different mentally, socially, and physically challenging life contexts which may affect their life and health. The aim of this scoping review is twofold, to explore life contexts of patrolling officers in the European Union, and to investigate how their lives and health are affected by environmental characteristics within these contexts.

    Methods: The scoping review followed Arksey and O’Malley’s methodology and included a critical appraisal. The environmental model within Kielhofner’s Model of Human Occupation was used in the thematic analysis. The review was reported following PRISMA-ScR.

    Results: In the 16 included studies, two contexts (where environments interact with persons on different levels) were discovered: the global and the immediate context. No local contexts were found. Primarily, research on the social, and occupational environments, including qualities identified in these environments were found. However, some environmental characteristics within patrolling officers’ physical environments were also discovered.

    Discussion: This review contributes to the emerging research area of police officers’ life contexts, by mapping contexts and environments affecting their life and health. However, to get a deeper understanding of how officers are affected by their environments, interviewing them regarding how their different contexts affect their everyday living, would be important.

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  • 5.
    Granholm Valmari, Elin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Occupational Therapy.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Nygren, Ulla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Gilenstam, Kajsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Sports Medicine.
    Life contexts among patrolling police officers in the European Union, investigating environmental characteristics and health: a protocol for a scoping review and a systematic review2023In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 30, no 7, p. 1135-1142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The police officer occupation is a high-risk profession, with significantly more traumatic and stressful events than other occupations. Key factors for the health of police officers have been found to be related to intra-interpersonal, occupational, and organizational factors. However, the mechanisms underlying why is inconclusive. This protocol therefore intends to explain the approach for conducting both a scoping review, and systematic review. The overall aim of the reviews is to investigate patrolling police officers' life contexts with the intention to identify barriers and resources that affect their lifestyle and health.

    Methods: The protocol is reported according to the PRISMA-P guidelines, with PROSPERO number: CRD42020190583. Searches will be carried out in SCOPUS, Web of Science, PubMed, OpenGrey, and EBSCO (Academic Search Premiere, APA PsychINFO, CINAHL, SocINDEX). Two independent raters will screen articles and conduct the critical appraisal. Analyses include Arksey and O'Malley's methodology for the scoping review, and a narrative synthesis for the systematic review, including critically appraising the total body of evidence in the systematic review.

    Discussion: The purpose of the reviews is to understand patrolling police officers' life contexts, and support future development of an assessment that measures patrolling police officers' life balance from a contextual viewpoint.

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  • 6.
    Granholm Valmari, Elin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Occupational Therapy.
    Inzunza, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Nygren, Ulla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Gilenstam, Kajsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Sports Medicine.
    Designing the Police sustainability and wellness instrumentManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Police officers’ lifestyles, and what they need for a sustainable lifestyle, are rarely addressed within police health research. The reason is partly that no specific tool exists to detect the conditions for living a sustainable and healthy lifestyle within this profession. Thus, the study aims to describe the initial steps and process during the development stage, towards creating an instrument targeting conditions for a sustainable and healthy lifestyle of police officers.Several steps were taken during the initial development stages of the instrument. Firstly, the construct ‘conditions for a sustainable and healthy lifestyle of police officers’ was defined by identifying theoretical dimensionality and operationalizing the construct using two focus groups. One focus group included seven occupational therapists skilled in occupational therapy and -science. The other focus group included four persons with knowledge of police officers’ health or work conditions. Secondly, items were identified, selected, and developed, and a draft of items was tested during cognitive interviews, to assess response processes with 28 police officers. Ultimately, the instrument used a content validity approach with nine occupational therapists. A total of 48 persons were enrolled in the study.In summary, our study provides transparency during the initial developmental stage of an instrument with the working name Police Sustainability and Wellness Instrument (PSWI), including its theoretical model and dimensions. The instrument requires additional validation testing, aiming to establish its suitability as a screening tool for the construct, and feasibility testing for its applicability in facilitating self-reflection.

  • 7.
    Granholm Valmari, Elin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Occupational Therapy.
    Melander, Marianne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Hariz, Gun-Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Neurosciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Occupational Therapy.
    Naesström, Matilda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Lindström, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Occupational Therapy.
    Translation and linguistic validation of the Swedish Recovering Quality of Life (ReQoL): a brief research report2023In: Frontiers in Psychiatry, E-ISSN 1664-0640, Vol. 14, article id 1059406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In research and among clinicians, the focus has shifted from mainly symptom reduction and increasing functionality to a more recovery-oriented focus. Although there are instruments measuring recovery, there has been a lack of instruments sensitive enough to measure the quality of life for people with severe mental health disorders. Therefore, this study aimed to obtain a Swedish version of the Recovering Quality of Life (ReQoL) questionnaire adhering to best practice guidelines using various steps of translation, linguistic validation, and cognitive debriefing. The cognitive debriefing was conducted with seven participants, and all felt the items in the questionnaire were relevant to their health, apprehensible, and easy to complete. However, some issues were raised regarding wording and the concepts behind certain items. All feedback was considered, and some items were revised in response to criticism after continuous discussions. A Swedish version of ReQoL now exists, and although there is a need for ReQoL in different clinical research settings in Sweden, further research is required to psychometrically test the construct validity as well as reliability of the Swedish version in Sweden.

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  • 8.
    Granholm Valmari, Elin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Occupational Therapy.
    Nygren, Ulla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Gilenstam, Kajsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Sports Medicine.
    Being a top cop in pursuit of a sustainable lifestyle2023In: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being, ISSN 1748-2623, E-ISSN 1748-2631, Vol. 18, no 1, article id 2235789Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has widely recognized the challenges uniformed police officers face in their working lives. However, little is known about the overall lifestyles of police officers, including what they do in private life. We interviewed 17 officers and used reflexive thematic analysis to explore their experiences. The study sheds light on how uniformed police officers navigate the intersection between their private and professional lives, as well as how their professional role impacts their day-to-day doings and private life roles. The key findings relate to how the demands of their professional role impact their private life, such as the profession becoming a way of life. Furthermore, they highlight the challenges of avoiding certain environments where they might be recognized as police officers. It also entails balancing energy levels in work and private life, as well as how their profession’s unpredictability affects their daily routines and roles. The findings also show how their personal choices in private life are frequently influenced by their professional role. The study’s findings have theoretical as well as practical implications, contributing to a better understanding of uniformed police officers’ challenges and resources for a sustainable and healthy lifestyle.

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  • 9.
    Granholm Valmari, Elin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Occupational Therapy.
    Nygren, Ulla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Occupational Therapy.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Gilenstam, Kajsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Occupational Therapy.
    How police officers juggle work, a life partner, and kids2023In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 14, article id 1178314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Police officers frequently encounter stressful social situations during their working days. Furthermore, previous research on policing and families show that police officers’ families are impacted in different ways when at least one member of the family has the role of a police officer. Despite work spilling over to family life there is currently little research on police officers’ role-balancing. Thus, the purpose of this study was to explore and describe the challenges that arise at the intersection between police officers’ professional roles and their private life roles as parents and life partners, as well as how police officers balance these roles in between. We used qualitative content analysis after interviewing 13 uniformed police officers. The findings show how the police officers’ professional roles affect their private life roles within three different sub-themes and are summarized under the theme of "Balancing conflicting roles: Coping with professional and private life commitments". The theme revolves around the various challenges of working as a uniformed police officer, such as hypervigilance and risks, as well as the enrichments and conflicts of working shifts while also juggling private life roles. The results also touch on gender and equality in life-partner relationships. The study raises an important question about how these challenges can be mitigated within Police authorities to enable uniformed police officers to balance their professional and personal lives in a healthy and sustainable manner.

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