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  • 1.
    Aler Tubella, Andrea
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Coelho Mollo, Dimitri
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Dahlgren, Adam
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Devinney, Hannah
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Dignum, Virginia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Ericson, Petter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Jonsson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science. SAP Signavio, Germany.
    Lenaerts, Tom
    Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium; University of California, Berkeley, USA.
    Mendez, Julian Alfredo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    ACROCPoLis: a descriptive framework for making sense of fairness2023In: FAccT '23: Proceedings of the 2023 ACM conference on fairness, accountability, and transparency, ACM Digital Library, 2023, p. 1014-1025Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fairness is central to the ethical and responsible development and use of AI systems, with a large number of frameworks and formal notions of algorithmic fairness being available. However, many of the fairness solutions proposed revolve around technical considerations and not the needs of and consequences for the most impacted communities. We therefore want to take the focus away from definitions and allow for the inclusion of societal and relational aspects to represent how the effects of AI systems impact and are experienced by individuals and social groups. In this paper, we do this by means of proposing the ACROCPoLis framework to represent allocation processes with a modeling emphasis on fairness aspects. The framework provides a shared vocabulary in which the factors relevant to fairness assessments for different situations and procedures are made explicit, as well as their interrelationships. This enables us to compare analogous situations, to highlight the differences in dissimilar situations, and to capture differing interpretations of the same situation by different stakeholders.

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  • 2.
    Aler Tubella, Andrea
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Mora-Cantallops, Marçal
    Dpto. Ciencias de la Computación, Universidad de Alcalá, Madrid, Alcalá de Henares, Spain.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    How to teach responsible AI in Higher Education: challenges and opportunities2024In: Ethics and Information Technology, ISSN 1388-1957, E-ISSN 1572-8439, Vol. 26, no 1, article id 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the European Union has advanced towards responsible and sustainable Artificial Intelligence (AI) research, development and innovation. While the Ethics Guidelines for Trustworthy AI released in 2019 and the AI Act in 2021 set the starting point for a European Ethical AI, there are still several challenges to translate such advances into the public debate, education and practical learning. This paper contributes towards closing this gap by reviewing the approaches that can be found in the existing literature and by interviewing 11 experts across five countries to help define educational strategies, competencies and resources needed for the successful implementation of Trustworthy AI in Higher Education (HE) and to reach students from all disciplines. The findings are presented in the form of recommendations both for educators and policy incentives, translating the guidelines into HE teaching and practice, so that the next generation of young people can contribute to an ethical, safe and cutting-edge AI made in Europe.

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  • 3.
    Aler Tubella, Andrea
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Theodorou, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Interrogating the black box: Transparency through information-seeking dialogues2021In: Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, AAMAS, International Foundation for Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (IFAAMAS) , 2021, p. 106-114Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is preoccupied with the following question: given a (possibly opaque) learning system, how can we understand whether its behaviour adheres to governance constraints? The answer can be quite simple: we just need to “ask” the system about it. We propose to construct an investigator agent to query a learning agent- the suspect agent- to investigate its adherence to a given ethical policy in the context of an information-seeking dialogue, modeled in formal argumentation settings. This formal dialogue framework is the main contribution of this paper. Through it, we break down compliance checking mechanisms into three modular components, each of which can be tailored to various needs in a vast amount of ways: an investigator agent, a suspect agent, and an acceptance protocol determining whether the responses of the suspect agent comply with the policy. This acceptance protocol presents a fundamentally different approach to aggregation: rather than using quantitative methods to deal with the non-determinism of a learning system, we leverage the use of argumentation semantics to investigate the notion of properties holding consistently. Overall, we argue that the introduced formal dialogue framework opens many avenues both in the area of compliance checking and in the analysis of properties of opaque systems.

  • 4.
    Bahuguna, Ayush
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Haydar, Sajjad
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Brännström, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Do datapoints argue?: Argumentation for hierarchical agreement in datasets2024In: Artificial Intelligence. ECAI 2023 International Workshops: XAI^3, TACTIFUL, XI-ML, SEDAMI, RAAIT, AI4S, HYDRA, AI4AI, Kraków, Poland, September 30 – October 4, 2023, Proceedings, Part II / [ed] Sławomir Nowaczyk; Przemysław Biecek; Neo Christopher Chung; Mauro Vallati; Paweł Skruch; Joanna Jaworek-Korjakowska; Simon Parkinson; Alexandros Nikitas; Martin Atzmüller; Tomáš Kliegr; Ute Schmid; Szymon Bobek; Nada Lavrac; Marieke Peeters; Roland van Dierendonck; Saskia Robben; Eunika Mercier-Laurent; Gülgün Kayakutlu; Mieczyslaw Lech Owoc; Karl Mason; Abdul Wahid, Pierangela Bruno; Francesco Calimeri; Francesco Cauteruccio; Giorgio Terracina; Diedrich Wolter; Jochen L. Leidner; Michael Kohlhase; Vania Dimitrova, Springer, 2024, p. 291-303Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work aims to utilize quantitative bipolar argumentation to detect deception in machine learning models. We explore the concept of deception in the context of interactions of a party developing a machine learning model with potentially malformed data sources. The objective is to identify deceptive or adversarial data and assess the effectiveness of comparative analysis during different stages of model training. By modeling disagreement and agreement between data points as arguments and utilizing quantitative measures, this work proposes techniques for detecting outliers in data. We discuss further applications in clustering and uncertainty modelling.

  • 5.
    Baskar, Jayalakshmi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Janols, Rebecka
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Guerrero, Esteban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Lindgren, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    A Multipurpose Goal Model for Personalised Digital Coaching2017In: Agents and Multi-Agent Systems for Health Care: 10th International Workshop, A2HC 2017, São Paulo, Brazil, May 8, 2017, and International Workshop, A-HEALTH 2017, Porto, Portugal, June 21, 2017, Revised and Extended Selected Papers, Springer, 2017, Vol. 10685, p. 94-116Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Supporting human actors in daily living activities for improving health and wellbeing is a fundamental goal for assistive technology. The personalisation of the support provided by assistive technology in the form of digital coaching requires user models that handle potentially conflicting goals and motives. The aim of this research is to extend a motivational model implemented in an assistive technology, into a multipurpose motivational model for the human actor who is to be supported, which can be translated into a multipurpose goal model for a team of assistive agents. A team of assistive agents is outlined with supplementary goals following the human’s different properties. A method for generating multipurpose arguments relating to different motives were developed, and implemented in a human-agent dialogue system. The results are exemplified based on a use case from an earlier pilot user study of the assistive technology. Future work includes user studies to validate the model.

  • 6.
    Bhuyan, Monowar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Argumentation-based adversarial regression with multiple learners2022In: 2022 IEEE 34th international conference on tools with artificial intelligence (ICTAI), IEEE, 2022, p. 96-104Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the extensive benefits of machine learning techniques in practice, several studies demonstrated that many approaches are vulnerable to attacks. These attacks generate adversarial data to manipulate learning models that result ambiguous decisions. In this paper, we propose a hybrid-reasoning framework that combines data-driven and non-monotonic reasoning, specifically formal argumentation and adversarial regression with multiple learners, to deal with ambiguous predictions of predictive models. The introduced hybrid-reasoning framework ensures three significant benefits. It (i) provides an argumentation-based aggregation function for combining multiple learners, (ii) reduces the effort to resolve conflicts in predictions, and (iii) cost-effective and robust training in adversarial regression solutions. To illustrate the introduced framework, we consider a benchmark of resource traces obtained from Yahoo's service cluster for anomaly detection under adversarial settings. The experimental analysis shows 3% more accuracy in prediction under argumentation-based adversarial settings.

  • 7.
    Blusi, Madeleine
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Feasibility and Acceptability of Smart Augmented Reality Assisting Patients with Medication Pillbox Self-Management2019In: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, ISSN 0926-9630, E-ISSN 1879-8365, Vol. 264, p. 521-525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Complex prescribed medicine regimens require extensive self-management. Handling multiple pills can be confusing; using a pillbox organiser is a common strategy. A smart Medication Coach Intelligent Agent (MCIA) can support patients in handling medicine. The aim of this research was to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the MCIA. A prototype was tested with 15 participants, age 17-76, filled a pillbox according to prescription assisted by the MCIA implemented in a Microsoft HoloLens. A quantitative method using questionnaires was applied. Results showed that using the MCIA implemented in an AR-headset, to assist people with prescribed polypharmacy regimen in filling a pillbox, was feasible and acceptable. There was a difference related to age regarding people's willingness to use an AR-headset for medication self-management. People older than 65 felt less comfortable using the technology and were also more hesitant to use the technology than those under 65.

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  • 8.
    Blöcker, Christopher
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Rosvall, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Map equation centrality: community-aware centrality based on the map equation2022In: Applied Network Science, E-ISSN 2364-8228, Vol. 7, no 1, article id 56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To measure node importance, network scientists employ centrality scores that typically take a microscopic or macroscopic perspective, relying on node features or global network structure. However, traditional centrality measures such as degree centrality, betweenness centrality, or PageRank neglect the community structure found in real-world networks. To study node importance based on network flows from a mesoscopic perspective, we analytically derive a community-aware information-theoretic centrality score based on network flow and the coding principles behind the map equation: map equation centrality. Map equation centrality measures how much further we can compress the network's modular description by not coding for random walker transitions to the respective node, using an adapted coding scheme and determining node importance from a network flow-based point of view. The information-theoretic centrality measure can be determined from a node's local network context alone because changes to the coding scheme only affect other nodes in the same module. Map equation centrality is agnostic to the chosen network flow model and allows researchers to select the model that best reflects the dynamics of the process under study. Applied to synthetic networks, we highlight how our approach enables a more fine-grained differentiation between nodes than node-local or network-global measures. Predicting influential nodes for two different dynamical processes on real-world networks with traditional and other community-aware centrality measures, we find that activating nodes based on map equation centrality scores tends to create the largest cascades in a linear threshold model.

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  • 9.
    Brännström, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Dignum, Virginia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    A formal framework for deceptive topic planning in information-seeking dialogues2023In: AAMAS '23: Proceedings of the 2023 International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, 2023, p. 2376-2378Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a formal framework for goal-hiding information-seeking dialogues to deal with interactions where a seeker agent estimates a human respondent to not be willing to share the sought-for information. Hence, the seeker postpones (hides) a sensitive goal topic until the respondent is perceived willing to talk about it. This regards a type of deceptive strategy to withhold information, e.g., a sensitive question, that, in a given dialogue state, may be harmful to a respondent, e.g., by violating privacy. The framework uses Quantitative Bipolar Argumentation Frameworks to assign willingness scores to topics, inferred from a respondent's asserted beliefs. A gradual semantics is introduced to handle changes in willingness scores based on relations among topics. The goal-hiding dialogue process is illustrated using an example inspired by primary healthcare nurses' strategies for collecting sensitive health information from patients.

  • 10.
    Brännström, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Towards Human-Aware Epistemic Planning For Promoting Behavior-Change2020In: Workshop Program, 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces an approach to human-aware epistemicplanning in which a rational intelligent agent plans its actionsfor encouraging a human to proceed in a social virtual real-ity (VR) environment. In order to persuade the human user toexecute specific actions, the agent adapts the virtual environ-ment by adjusting motivators in the environment. The agent’smodel of the human is based on the theory of planned behav-ior (TPB), a cognitive theory to explain and predict humanbehavior. The intelligent agent manipulates the environment,a process where the agent conducts epistemic actions, i.e.,adapting the environment and observing human responses, inorder to understand the human’s behavior and encourage hu-man actions. An action reasoning framework is introducedthat defines transitions between goal-oriented human activi-ties in the virtual scenario. The proposed human-aware plan-ning architecture can also be applied in environments that arenot virtual, by utilizing modern mobile devices which havebuilt-in sensors that measure motion, orientation, and variousenvironmental conditions.

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  • 11.
    Brännström, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    A Framework for Developing Interactive Intelligent Systems in Unity2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a lightweight framework for implementing intelligent interactive systems (IIS). In particular, systems that integrate symbolic knowledge bases for reasoning, planning and rational decision-making in interactions with humans. This is done by integrating Web Ontology Language (OWL)-based reasoning and Answer Set Programming (ASP)-based planning software. In order to provide interactive user components, the framework is encompassed in a widely used game development tool, Unity. The proposed framework, UnityIIS, is the first approach for integrating OWL together with ASP in Unity. Its central functionalities for knowledge representation and knowledge revision is presented together with an example application created in the framework. A chatbot agent, embodied in Augmented Reality, is designed, following a Belief, Desire, Intention (BDI) agent model. The set of tools that the framework provides can be applied for developing IIS research prototypes as well as being an asset in teaching practices.

  • 12.
    Brännström, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Emotional Reasoning in an Action Language for Emotion-Aware Planning2022In: Logic Programming and Nonmonotonic Reasoning: 16th International Conference, LPNMR 2022, Genova, Italy, September 5–9, 2022, Proceedings / [ed] Georg Gottlob, Daniela Inclezan, Marco Maratea, Springer, 2022, p. 103-116Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces formal models for emotional reasoning, expressing emotional states and emotional causality, using action reasoning and transition systems. A general framework is defined, comprised of two main components: 1) a model for emotions based on the Appraisal theory of Emotion (AE), and 2) a model for emotional change based on Hedonic Emotion Regulation (HER). A particular transition system is modelled in which states correspond to human emotional states and transitions correspond to restrictive (safe) ways to influence emotions while reducing negative emotional side-effects. The introduced emotional reasoning can be applied to guide a software agent’s actions for dealing with emotions while estimating and planning future interactions with humans.

  • 13.
    Brännström, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Modelling Human Mental-States in an Action Language following the Theory of Planned Behavior2021In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Logic Programming 2021 Workshops, Porto, Portugal, September 20-21, 2021 / [ed] Joaquin Arias; Fabio Aurelio D'Asaro; Abeer Dyoub; Gopal Gupta; Markus Hecher; Emily LeBlanc; Rafael Peñaloza; Elmer Salazar; Ari Saptawijaya; Felix Weitkämper; Jessica Zangari, CEUR-WS , 2021, Vol. 2970, article id 5Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces an action language for modelling the causality between a human’s motivational beliefs and behavior in human activities. The action language is based on a psychological theory, the theory of planned behavior (TPB), which centers on three sets of beliefs that shape an individual’s behavioral intentions: attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. The language is modelled in the structure of a transition system in which states correspond to different mental states of an individual, and actions correspond to ways to transition between mental states in order to influence human intentions. We introduce its syntax and semantics. The semantics is characterized in terms of answer sets.

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  • 14.
    Brännström, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Multi-mind dynamics in intentional agents2023In: Artificial Intelligence. ECAI 2023 International Workshops: XAI^3, TACTIFUL, XI-ML, SEDAMI, RAAIT, AI4S, HYDRA, AI4AI, Kraków, Poland, September 30 – October 4, 2023, Proceedings, Part II / [ed] Sławomir Nowaczyk; Przemysław Biecek; Neo Christopher Chung; Mauro Vallati; Paweł Skruch; Joanna Jaworek-Korjakowska; Simon Parkinson; Alexandros Nikitas; Martin Atzmüller; Tomáš Kliegr; Ute Schmid; Szymon Bobek; Nada Lavrac; Marieke Peeters; Roland van Dierendonck; Saskia Robben; Eunika Mercier-Laurent; Gülgün Kayakutlu; Mieczyslaw Lech Owoc; Karl Mason; Abdul Wahid; Pierangela Bruno; Francesco Calimeri; Francesco Cauteruccio; Giorgio Terracina; Diedrich Wolter; Jochen L. Leidner; Michael Kohlhase; Vania Dimitrova, Cham: Springer Nature, 2023, p. 346-359Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces an agent framework that integrates the Belief, Desire, Intention (BDI) model with Multi-Context Systems (MCS), particularly for dealing with diverse knowledge sources in belief revision, deliberation and means-end reasoning. By specifying a separate MCS in each BDI-component, the framework manages the interaction between, possibly conflicting, sets of beliefs, desires, intentions and plans generated by specialized sub-systems. A MCS-based BDI-component generates an equilibrium. An approach is introduced for transferring equilibrium between MCSs according to the BDI control loop. This involves the translation of knowledge bases to Answer Set Programming (ASP) to build a shared logic. The proposed framework contributes to the advancement of hybrid intentional agents, where multiple goals and plans must be interwoven in order to deal with a complex multi-modal domain. The potential of the framework is illustrated in a running example, where a driving assistant agent is designed to manage diverse mental states of a human driver, such as emotions, motivations and norms, within each stage of the BDI control loop, producing a plan that is in balance with the diverse contexts.

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  • 15.
    Brännström, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Towards control in agents for human behavior change: an autism case2024In: Journal of Intelligent & Fuzzy Systems, ISSN 1064-1246, E-ISSN 1875-8967Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces an automated decision-making framework for providing controlled agent behavior in systems dealing with human behavior-change. Controlled behavior in such settings is important in order to reduce unexpected side-effects of a system’s actions. The general structure of the framework is based on a psychological theory, the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), capturing causes to human motivational states, which enables reasoning about dynamics of human motivation. The framework consists of two main components: 1) an ontological knowledge-base that models an individual’s behavioral challenges to infer motivation states and 2) a transition system that, in a given motivation state, decides on motivational support, resulting in transitions between motivational states. The system generates plans (sequences of actions) for an agent to facilitate behavior change. A particular use-case is modeled regarding children with Autism Spectrum Conditions (ASC) who commonly experience difficulties in everyday social situations. An evaluation of a proof-of-concept prototype is performed that presents consistencies between ASC experts’ suggestions and plans generated by the system.

  • 16.
    Brännström, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Wester, Joel
    Aalborg University, Department of Computer Science, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    A formal understanding of computational empathy in interactive agents2024In: Cognitive Systems Research, ISSN 2214-4366, E-ISSN 1389-0417, Vol. 85, article id 101203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interactive software agents, such as chatbots, are progressively being used in the area of health and well-being. In such applications, where agents engage with users in interpersonal conversations for, e.g., coaching, comfort or behavior-change interventions, there is an increased need for understanding agents’ empathic capabilities. In the current state-of-the-art, there are no tools to do that. In order to understand empathic capabilities in interactive software agents, we need a precise notion of empathy. The literature discusses a variety of definitions of empathy, but there is no consensus of a formal definition. Based on a systematic literature review and a qualitative analysis of recent approaches to empathy in interactive agents for health and well-being, a formal definition—an ontology—of empathy is developed. We present the potential of the formal definition in a controlled user-study by applying it as a tool for assessing empathy in two state-of-the-art health and well-being chatbots; Replika and Wysa. Our findings suggest that our definition captures necessary conditions for assessing empathy in interactive agents, and how it can uncover and explain trends in changing perceptions of empathy over time. The definition, implemented in Web Ontology Language (OWL), may serve as an automated tool, enabling systems to recognize empathy in interactions—be it an interactive agent evaluating its own empathic performance or an intelligent system assessing the empathic capability of its interlocutors.

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  • 17. Confalonieri, Roberto
    et al.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Osorio, Mauricio
    Vazquez-Salceda, Javier
    Dealing with explicit preferences and uncertainty in answer set programming2012In: Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence, ISSN 1012-2443, E-ISSN 1573-7470, Vol. 65, no 2-3, p. 159-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we show how the formalism of Logic Programs with Ordered Disjunction (LPODs) and Possibilistic Answer Set Programming (PASP) can be merged into the single framework of Logic Programs with Possibilistic Ordered Disjunction (LPPODs). The LPPODs framework embeds in a unified way several aspects of common-sense reasoning, nonmonotonocity, preferences, and uncertainty, where each part is underpinned by a well established formalism. On one hand, from LPODs it inherits the distinctive feature of expressing context-dependent qualitative preferences among different alternatives (modeled as the atoms of a logic program). On the other hand, PASP allows for qualitative certainty statements about the rules themselves (modeled as necessity values according to possibilistic logic) to be captured. In this way, the LPPODs framework supports a reasoning which is nonmonotonic, preference- and uncertainty-aware. The LPPODs syntax allows for the specification of (1) preferences among the exceptions to default rules, and (2) necessity values about the certainty of program rules. As a result, preferences and uncertainty can be used to select the preferred uncertain default rules of an LPPOD and, consequently, to order its possibilistic answer sets. Furthermore, we describe the implementation of an ASP-based solver able to compute the LPPODs semantics.

  • 18.
    De Vos, Marina
    et al.
    University of Bath, Claverton Down, United Kingdom.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Theodorou, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Preface2022In: Coordination, organizations, institutions, norms, and ethics for governance of multi-agent systems XIV: international workshop, COINE 2021, London, UK, May 3, 2021 : revised selected papers / [ed] Andreas Theodorou; Juan Carlos Nieves; Marina De Vos, Springer, 2022, p. v-viiChapter in book (Other academic)
  • 19. Espinoza, Angelina
    et al.
    Penya, Yoseba
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Ortega, Mariano
    Pena, Aitor
    Rodriguez, Daniel
    Supporting Business Workflows in Smart Grids: An Intelligent Nodes-Based Approach2013In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 1384-1397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an application of business intelligence (BI) for electricity management systems in the context of the Smart Grid domain. Combining semantic web technologies (SWT) and elements of grid computing (GC), we have designed a distributed architecture of intelligent nodes, which are called power grid distributed nodes (PGDINs). This distributed architecture supports the majority of the grid management activities in an intelligent and collaborative way by means of distributed processing of semantic data. A node collaborative scheme is defined based on logical states that each node presents according to the events occurring in the grid. A specific BPEL business-workflow is formally defined for each logical state, based on the node's knowledge base (an electrical model) and the distributed data. The introduced core workflows allow the potential grid behavior to be predefined when a business requirement is triggered. Thus, this approach supports the grid to react and reach over again a stable state, which is defined as a working state that facilitates the provision of the required business tasks. We have validated our approach with the simulation of a well-known use case, the energy balancing verification, fed with real data from the Spanish electrical grid.

  • 20.
    Gaggl, Sarah Alice
    et al.
    Technische Universität Dresden, Germany.
    Nieves, Juan CarlosUmeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.Strass, HannesUniversity of Leipzig, Germany.
    Arg-LPNMR 2016 proceedings: First International Workshop on Argumentation in Logic Programming and Non-Monotonic Reasoning2016Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume contains the papers presented at Arg-LPNMR 2016: First International Workshop on Argumentation in Logic Programming and Nonmonotonic Reasoning held on July 8-10, 2016 in New York City, NY.

  • 21.
    Gaggl, Sarah Alice
    et al.
    Technische Universität Dresden, Germany.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Strass, Hannes
    Leipzig University, Germany.
    Torroni, Paolo
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Preface: Argumentation and Logic Programming (Revised Selected Papers of ArgLP 2015)2017In: Fundamenta Informaticae, ISSN 0169-2968, E-ISSN 1875-8681, Vol. 155, no 3Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 22. Garcia-Gasulla, Dario
    et al.
    Poch, Mane
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Cortes, Ulises
    Turon, Claudia
    A logic-based environmental decision support system for the management of horizontal subsurface constructed wetlands2012In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 47, p. 44-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of Horizontal Subsurface Constructed Wetlands (HSCWs) for treating wastewaters in small communities has increased in the last years due to HSCW's ecological singularities. Unfortunately, the same singularities that differentiate HSCWs complicate any attempt to develop models and produce generic decision-support systems for them. Classical mathematical and statistical approaches used in other Wastewater Treatment Plants do not properly fit the particularities of HSCW and provide little insight in the domain of HSCW. We introduce a novel approach based on logic-based declarative specifications, i.e. non-monotonic causal logic, to capture explicit and implicit knowledge about HSCWs. By expressing all the relevant aspects of a HSCW in a declarative way, we produce a logic-based model which captures features that other approaches fail to formalize. At the end, we produce a complete decision-support system based on that model and test it against a set of realistic scenarios validated by experts. We discuss in which aspects this approach performs better than the most commonly proposed solutions in the bibliography and why it does so. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 23.
    Guerrero, Esteban
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Lindgren, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    ALI, an ambient assisted living system for supporting behavior change2013In: VIII Workshop on Agents Applied in Health Care (A2HC 2013), 2013, p. 81-92Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Guerrero, Esteban
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Lindgren, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    ALI, an Assisted Living System Based on a Human-Centric Argument-Based Decision Making Framework2013In: 13th Workshop on Computational Models of Natural Arguments (CMNA 2013), 2013, p. 46-51Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Guerrero, Esteban
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Lindgren, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    ALI: an assisted living system for persons with mild cognitive impairment2013In: 2013 IEEE 26th International symposium on computer-based medical systems (CBMS), 2013, p. 526-527Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce the Assisted Living system ALI, which is a novel approach to providing assistance and support in activities of daily life. We integrate a human behavior theory with a default reasoning decision making framework. This integration allows us to model a decision making problem from a human activity centric point of view and at the same time, formalize these elements using a possibilistic argumentation theory. ALI sends personalized notifications suggesting the most suitable activities to perform and determines what activities were performed during a time period.

  • 26.
    Guerrero, Esteban
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Lindgren, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    ALI: an Assisted Living System for Persons with Mild Cognitive Impairment2013In: 26th IEEE International Symposium on Computer-Based Medical Systems (CBMS 2013), IEEE Computer Society, 2013, p. 526-527Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce the Assisted Living system ALI, which is a novel approach to providing assistance and support in activities of daily life. We integrate a human behavior theory with a default reasoning decision making framework. This integration allows us to model a decision making problem from a human activity centric point of view and at the same time, formalize these elements using a possibilistic argumentation theory. ALI sends personalized notifications suggesting the most suitable activities to perform and determines what activities were performed during a time period.

  • 27.
    Guerrero, Esteban
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Lindgren, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    An activity-centric argumentation framework for assistive technology aimed at improving health2016In: Argument & Computation, ISSN 1946-2174, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 5-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tailoring assistive systems for guiding and monitoring an individual in daily living activities is a complex task. This paper presents ALI, an assistive system combining a formal possibilistic argumentation system and an informal model of human activity: the Cultural-Historic Activity Theory, facilitating the delivery of tailored advices to a human actor. We follow an activity-centric approach, taking into consideration the human’s motives, goals and prioritized actions. ALI tracks a person in order to I) determine what activities were performed over a period of time (activity recognition tracking), and II) send personalized notifications suggesting the most suitable activities to perform (decision-making monitoring). The ALI system was evaluated in a formative pilot study related to promote social activities and physical exercise.

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  • 28.
    Guerrero, Esteban
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Lindgren, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Arguing through the well-founded semantics: an argumentation engine2014Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Guerrero, Esteban
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Lindgren, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Semantic-based construction of arguments: an answer set programming approach2015In: International Journal of Approximate Reasoning, ISSN 0888-613X, E-ISSN 1873-4731, Vol. 64, p. 54-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we introduce an argumentation approach which takes an extended logic program as input and gives a set of arguments with the respective disagreements among them as output. We establish the notion of an argument under the Well-Founded semantics and Stable semantics inferences, allowing us to identify arguments with stratified programs as support, even when the input for the argument engine is a non-stratified program. We propose a set of rationality postulates for argument-based systems under extended logic programs, which are based on a definition of closure for a set of clauses that consider the well-known Gelfond-Lifschitz reduction. We establish the conditions under which our approach satisfies these principles. In addition, we present a standalone argumentation-tool based on the XSB system which implements our argumentation approach.

  • 30.
    Guerrero, Esteban
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Sandlund, Marlene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Lindgren, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Activity qualifiers in an argumentation framework as instruments for agents when evaluating human activity2016In: Advances in Practical Applications of Scalable Multi-agent Systems. The PAAMS Collection: 14th International Conference, PAAMS 2016, Sevilla, Spain, June 1-3, 2016, Proceedings / [ed] Yves Demazeau, Takayuki Ito, Javier Bajo, Maria José Escalona, Springer, 2016, Vol. 9662, p. 133-144Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Theoretical frameworks have been developed for enabling software agents to evaluate simple activities such as walking and sitting. However, such frameworks typically do not include methods for how practically dealing with uncertain sensor information. We developed an argument-based method for evaluating complex goal-based activities by adapting two qualifiers: Performance and Capacity defined in the health domain. The first one evaluates what a person does, and the second one how "well" or "bad" an activity is executed. Our aim is to deal with uncertainty and inconsistent information; generate consistent hypotheses about the activity execution; and resemble an expert therapist judgment, where an initial hypothesis assessment can be retracted under new evidence. We conducted a pilot test in order to evaluate our approach using a Physiotherapy assessment test as a goal-based activity. Results show that skeptic argumentation semantics are may be useful for discriminating individuals without physical issues by considering Performance and Capacity; conversely, credulous semantics may be suitable for obtaining information in the evaluation of activity, which an intelligent agent may use for providing personalized assistance in an ambient assisted living environment.

  • 31.
    Guerrero, Esteban
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Sandlund, Marlene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Lindgren, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Activity qualifiers using an argument-based construction2018In: Knowledge and Information Systems, ISSN 0219-1377, E-ISSN 0219-3116, Vol. 54, no 3, p. 633-658Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on an argumentation theory approach, we present a novel method for evaluating complex goal-based activities by generalizing a notion of qualifier defined in the health domain. Three instances of the general qualifier are proposed: Performance, Actuation and Capacity; the first one evaluates what a person does, the second how an individual follows an action plan, and the third one how "well" or "bad" an activity is executed. Qualifiers are intended to be used by autonomous systems for evaluating human activity. We exemplify our approach using a health domain assessment protocol. Main results of this test show a partial correlation between ambiguities assessed by experts and our argument-based approach; and a multi-dimensional perspective how an activity is executed when a combined evaluation of qualifiers is used. This last outcome was interesting for some therapists consulted. Results also show differences between values of qualifiers using different argumentation semantics; two scenarios were proposed by therapist for using different semantics: preliminary activity screening and time-span follow-up evaluation.

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  • 32.
    Ingeson, Martin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Blusi, Madeleine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Microsoft Hololens: A mHealth Solution for Medication Adherence2019In: Artificial Intelligence in Health: First International Workshop, AIH 2018, Stockholm, Sweden, 13-14 July, 2018, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Koch F. et al., Springer, 2019, p. 99-115Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to introduce a smart mHealth application based on the augmented reality (AR)-paradigm that can support patients with common problems, related to management of their medication. This smart mHealth application is designed and implemented as a medication coach intelligent agent, called Medication Coach Intelligent Agent (MCIA). The MCIA has to manage different types of information such as the medication plan (medication regime) of the patients, medication restrictions, as well as the patient’s preferences and sensor input data from an AR-headset. Considering all this information, the MCIA leads with holistic decisions in order to offer personalized and unobtrusive interventions, in an autonomous way, to the patients. From a long-term perspective, the MCIA should also evaluate its performance over time and adapt in order to improve its interventions with the patients. To show the feasibility of our approach, a proof-of-concept prototype was implemented and evaluated. In this proof-of-concept prototype, the MCIA has been embodied as a smart augmented reality (AR)-mHealth application in the settings of a Microsoft HoloLens. The results show a high potential for using the MCIA in real settings.

  • 33.
    Ingeson, Martin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Blusi, Madeleine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Smart augmented reality mHealth for medication adherence2018In: AIH 2018: Joint Workshop on AI in Health / [ed] Bichindaritz et.al ., 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to introduce a smart mHealth applicationbased on the augmented reality (AR)-paradigm that can support patients with common problems, related to management of their medication. This smart mHealth application is designed and implemented as a medication coach intelligent agent, called Medication Coach Intelligent Agent (MCIA). TheMCIA will have to manage different types of information such as the medication plan (medication regime) of the patients, medication restrictions, as well as the patient’s preferences andsensor input data from an AR-headset. Considering all this information, theMCIA leads with holistic decisions in order to offer personalized and unobtrusive inter-ventions, in an autonomous way, to the patients. From a long term perspective, the MCIAshould also evaluate its performance over time and adapt in order to improve its interventions with the patients. To show the feasibility of our approach,a proof-of-concept prototype was implemented and evaluated. The results showa high potential for using theMCIAin real settings.

  • 34.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Abstract argumentation and the rational man2021In: Journal of logic and computation (Print), ISSN 0955-792X, E-ISSN 1465-363X, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 654-699Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract argumentation has emerged as a method for non-monotonic reasoning that has gained popularity in the symbolic artificial intelligence community. In the literature, the different approaches to abstract argumentation that were refined over the years are typically evaluated from a formal logics perspective; an analysis that is based on models of economically rational decision-making does not exist. In this paper, we work towards addressing this issue by analysing abstract argumentation from the perspective of the rational man paradigm in microeconomic theory. To assess under which conditions abstract argumentation-based decision-making can be considered economically rational, we derive reference independence as a non-monotonic inference property from a formal model of economic rationality and create a new argumentation principle that ensures compliance with this property. We then compare the reference independence principle with other reasoning principles, in particular with cautious monotony and rational monotony. We show that the argumentation semantics as proposed in Dung’s seminal paper, as well as other semantics we evaluate, with the exception of naive semantics and the SCC-recursive CF2 semantics, violate the reference independence principle. Consequently, we investigate how structural properties of argumentation frameworks impact the reference independence principle and identify cyclic expansions (both even and odd cycles) as the root of the problem. Finally, we put reference independence into the context of preference-based argumentation and show that for this argumentation variant, which explicitly models preferences, reference independence cannot be ensured in a straight-forward manner.

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  • 35.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University.
    JS-son - A Minimal JavaScript BDI Agent Library2019In: EMAS 2019: Accepted Papers, Centre for Autonomous systems technology, University of Liverpool , 2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a multitude of agent-oriented software engineering frame-works available, most of them produced by the academic multi-agent systemscommunity. However, these frameworks often impose programming paradigmson their users that are hard to learn for engineers who are used to modern high-level programming languages such as JavaScript and Python. To show how theadoption of agent-oriented programming by the software engineering mainstreamcan be facilitated, we provide an early, simplistic JavaScript library prototype forimplementing belief-desire-intention (BDI) agents. The library focuses on thecore BDI concepts and refrains from imposing further restrictions on the pro-gramming approach. To illustrate its usefulness, we demonstrate how the librarycan be used for multi-agent systems simulations on the web, as well as embeddedin Python-based data science tools.

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  • 36.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    JS-son: A Lean, Extensible JavaScript Agent Programming Library2020In: Engineering Multi-Agent Systems / [ed] Dennis, Louise A. and Bordini, Rafael H. and Lespérance, Yves, Cham: Springer, 2020, p. 215-234Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A multitude of agent-oriented software engineering frameworks exist, most of which are developed by the academic multi-agent systems community. However, these frameworks often impose programming paradigms on their users that are challenging to learn for engineers who are used to modern high-level programming languages such as JavaScript and Python. To show how the adoption of agent-oriented programming by the software engineering mainstream can be facilitated, we provide a lean JavaScript library prototype for implementing reasoning-loop agents. The library focuses on core agent programming concepts and refrains from imposing further restrictions on the programming approach. To illustrate its usefulness, we show how the library can be applied to multi-agent systems simulations on the web, deployed to cloud-hosted function-as-a-service environments, and embedded in Python-based data science tools.

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  • 37.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Toward consistent agreement approximation in abstract argumentation and beyond2021In: Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, AAMAS / [ed] U. Endriss, A. Nowé, F. Dignum, A. Lomuscio, International Foundation for Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (IFAAMAS) , 2021, p. 1551-1553Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In cooperative human decision-making, agreements are often not total; a partial degree of agreement is sufficient to commit to a decision and move on, as long as one is somewhat confident that the involved parties are likely to stand by their commitment in the future, given no drastic unexpected changes. In this work, we introduce models that allow autonomous agents to reach such agreements, using abstract argumentation as the underlying model.

  • 38.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Gabbay, Dov
    Ensuring reference independence and cautious monotony in abstract argumentation2022In: International Journal of Approximate Reasoning, ISSN 0888-613X, E-ISSN 1873-4731, Vol. 140, p. 173-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the symbolic artificial intelligence community, abstract argumentation with its semantics, i.e. approaches for defining sets of valid conclusions (extensions) that can be derived from argumentation graphs, is considered a promising method for non-monotonic reasoning. However, from a sequential perspective, abstract argumentation-based decision-making processes typically do not guarantee an alignment with common formal notions to assess consistency; in particular, abstract argumentation can, in itself, not enforce the satisfaction of relational principles such as reference independence (based on a key principle of microeconomic theory) and cautious monotony. In this paper, we address this issue by introducing different approaches to ensuring reference independence and cautious monotony in sequential argumentation: a reductionist, an expansionist, and an extension-selecting approach. The first two approaches are generically applicable, but may require comprehensive changes to the corresponding argumentation framework. In contrast, the latter approach guarantees that an extension of the corresponding argumentation framework can be selected to satisfy the relational principle by requiring that the used argumentation semantics is weakly reference independent or weakly cautiously monotonous, respectively, and also satisfies some additional straightforward principles. To highlight the relevance of the approach, we illustrate how the extension-selecting approach to reference independent argumentation can be applied to model (boundedly) rational economic decision-making.

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  • 39.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Lindgren, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Coercion and deception in persuasive technologies2018In: Proceedings of the 20th International Trust Workshop / [ed] Robin Cohen, Murat Sensoy, Timothy J. Norman, CEUR-WS , 2018, p. 38-49Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technologies that shape human behavior are of high societal relevance, both when considering their current impact and their future potential. In information systems research and in behavioral psychology, such technologies are typically referred to as persuasive technologies. Traditional definitions like the ones created by Fogg, and Harjumaa and Oinas-Kukkonen, respectively, limit the scope of persuasive technology to non-coercive, non-deceptive technologies that are explicitly designed for persuasion. In this paper we analyze existing technologies that blur the line between persuasion, deception,and coercion. Based on the insights of the analysis, we lay down an updated definition of persuasive technologies that includes coercive and deceptive forms of persuasion. Our definition also accounts for persuasive functionality that was not designed by the technology developers. We argue that this definition will help highlight ethical and societal challenges related to technologies that shape human behavior and encourage research that solves problems with technology-driven persuasion. Finally, we suggest multidisciplinary research that can help address the challenges our definition implies. The suggestions we provide range from empirical studies to multi-agent system theory.

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  • 40.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Lindgren, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Empathic autonomous agents2019In: Engineering multi-agent systems: 6th international workshop, EMAS 2018, Stockholm, Sweden, July 14-15, 2018, revised selected papers / [ed] Danny Weyns, Viviana Mascardi and Alessandro Ricci, Cham: Springer, 2019, 6, p. 181-201Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying and resolving conflicts of interests is a key challenge when designing autonomous agents. For example, such conflicts often occur when complex information systems interact persuasively with humans and are in the future likely to arise in non-human agent-to-agent interaction. We introduce a theoretical framework for an empathic autonomous agent that proactively identifies potential conflicts of interests in interactions with other agents (and humans) by considering their utility functions and comparing them with its own preferences using a system of shared values to find a solution all agents consider acceptable. To illustrate how empathic autonomous agents work, we provide running examples and a simple prototype implementation in a general-purpose programing language. To give a high-level overview of our work, we propose a reasoning-loop architecture for our empathic agent.

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  • 41.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Lindgren, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Explaining Sympathetic Actions of Rational Agents2019In: Explainable, Transparent Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems: First International Workshop, EXTRAAMAS 2019, Montreal, QC, Canada, May 13–14, 2019, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Calvaresi, Davide, Najjar, Amro, Schumacher, Michael och Främling, Kary, Cham: Springer, 2019, p. 59-76Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Typically, humans do not act purely rationally in the sense of classic economic theory. Different patterns of human actions have been identified that are not aligned with the traditional view of human actors as rational agents that act to maximize their own utility function. For instance, humans often act sympathetically -- i.e., they choose actions that serve others in disregard of their egoistic preferences. Even if there is no immediate benefit resulting from a sympathetic action, it can be beneficial for the executing individual in the long run. This paper builds upon the premise that it can be beneficial to design autonomous agents that employ sympathetic actions in a similar manner as humans do. We create a taxonomy of sympathetic actions, that reflects different goal types an agent can have to act sympathetically. To ensure that the sympathetic actions are recognized as such, we propose different explanation approaches autonomous agents may use. In this context, we focus on human-agent interaction scenarios. As a first step towards an empirical evaluation, we conduct a preliminary human-robot interaction study that investigates the effect of explanations of (somewhat) sympathetic robot actions on the human participants of human-robot ultimatum games. While the study does not provide statistically significant findings (but notable differences), it can inform future in-depth empirical evaluations.

  • 42.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Lindgren, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Implementing Argumentation-enabled Empathic Agents2018In: Multi-Agent Systems: 16th European Conference, EUMAS 2018, Bergen, Norway, December 6–7, 2018, Revised Selected Papers / [ed] Slavkovik, Marija, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2018, p. 140-155Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a previous publication, we introduced the core concepts of empathic agents as agents that use a combination of utility-based and rule-based approaches to resolve conflicts when interacting with other agents in their environment. In this work, we implement proof-of-concept prototypes of empathic agents with the multi-agent systems development framework Jason and apply argumentation theory to extend the previously introduced concepts to account for inconsistencies between the beliefs of different agents. We then analyze the feasibility of different admissible set-based argumentation semantics to resolve these inconsistencies. As a result of the analysis we identify the maximal ideal extension as the most feasible argumentation semantics for the problem in focus.

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  • 43.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Lindgren, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Towards empathic autonomous agents2018In: / [ed] Viviana Mascardi, Alessandro Ricci, Danny Weyns, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying and resolving conflicts of interests is a key challenge when designing autonomous agents. For example, such conflicts often occur when complex information systems interact persuasively with humans and are in the future likely to arise in non-human agent-to-agent interaction. We work towards a theoretical framework for an empathic autonomous agent that proactively identifies potential conflicts of interests in interactions with other agents (and humans) byl earning their utility functions and comparing them with its own preferences using a system of shared values to find a solution all agents consider acceptable.To provide a high-level overview of our work, we propose a reasoning-loop architecture to address the problem in focus. To realize specific components of the architecture, we suggest applying existing concepts in argumentation and utility theory. Reinforcement learning methods can be used by the agent to learn from and interact with its environment.

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  • 44.
    Lindgren, Helena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Baskar, Jayalakshmi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Guerrero, Esteban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Janols, Rebecka
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Towards a Multipurpose Goal Model for Personalised Digital Coaching2017In: Agents and Multi-Agent Systems for Health Care: 10th International Workshop, A2HC 2017, São Paulo, Brazil, May 8, 2017, and International Workshop, A-HEALTH 2017, Porto, Portugal, June 21, 2017, Revised and Extended Selected Papers, Springer, 2017, p. 94-116Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Supporting human actors in daily living activities for improv- ing health and wellbeing is a fundamental goal for assistive technology. The personalization of the support provided by assistive technology in the form of digital coaching requires user models that handle potentially conflicting goals and motives. The aim of this research is to extend a motivational model implemented in an assistive technology, and outline a team of assistive agents with supplementary goals following the human’s different properties, orchestrated by a companion agent based on the multipurpose motivational model for the human actor who is to be supported. The multi- purpose motivational model and supportive arguments relating to different motives are exemplified based on a use case from an earlier pilot user study of the assistive technology. Future work includes user studies to validate the model.

  • 45.
    Lindgren, Helena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Baskar, Jayalakshmi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Guerrero, Esteban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Nilsson, Ingeborg
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Yan, Chunli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Computer-Supported Assessment for Tailoring Assistive Technology2016In: DH'16: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2016 DIGITAL HEALTH CONFERENCE, New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2016, p. 1-10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of assistive technology is to support an individual's daily activities, in order to increase ability, autonomy, relatedness and quality of life. The aim for the work presented in this article is to develop automated methods to tailor the behavior of the assistive technology for the purpose to provide just-in-time, adaptive interventions targeting multiple domains. This requires methods for representing and updating the user model, including goals, preferences, abilities, activity and its situation. We focus the assessment and intervention tasks typically performed by therapists and provide knowledge-based technology for supporting the process. A formative evaluation study was conducted as a part of a participatory action research process, involving two rehabilitation experts, two young individuals and one senior individual as end-user participants, in addition to knowledge engineers. The main contribution of this work is a theory-based method for assessing the individual's goals, preferences, abilities and motives, which is used for building a holistic user model. The user model is continuously updated and functions as the base for tailoring the system's assistive behavior during intervention and follow-up.

  • 46.
    Lindgren, Helena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Kampik, Timotheus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Guerrero, Esteban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Blusi, Madeleine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Argumentation-based Health Information Systems: A Design Methodology2021In: IEEE Intelligent Systems, ISSN 1541-1672, E-ISSN 1941-1294, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 72-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we present a design methodology for argumentation-based health information systems. With a focus on the application of formal argumentation, the methodology aims at eliciting requirements in regard to argumentation reasoning behavior, knowledge and user models, and business logic on levels below and above the argumentation layer. We highlight specific considerations that need to be made dependent on the system type, i.e., for clinical decision-support systems, patient-facing systems, and administration systems. In addition, we outline challenges in regards to the design of argumentation-based intelligent systems for healthcare, considering the state of the art of argumentation research, health information systems, and software design methods. For each challenge, we outline a mitigation strategy. 

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  • 47.
    Mariela, Morveli-Espinoza
    et al.
    Federal University of Technology - Paraná (UTFPR), Curitiba, Brazil.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Ayslan, Trevizan
    Federal University of Technology - Paraná (UTFPR), Curitiba, Brazil.
    J., Puyol-Gruart
    Artificial Intelligence Research Institute (IIIA-CSIC), Barcelona, Spain.
    Cesar, Tacla
    Federal University of Technology - Paraná (UTFPR), Curitiba, Brazil.
    An Argumentation-based Approach for Identifying and Dealing with Incompatibilities among Procedural Goals2019In: International Journal of Approximate Reasoning, ISSN 0888-613X, E-ISSN 1873-4731, Vol. 105, p. 1-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the first step of practical reasoning, i.e. deliberation, an intelligent agent generates a set of pursuable goals and then selects which of them he commits to achieve. An intelligent agent may in general generate multiple pursuable goals, which may be incompatible among them. In this paper, we focus on the definition, identification and resolution of these incompatibilities. The suggested approach considers the three forms of incompatibility introduced by Castelfranchi and Paglieri, namely the terminal incompatibility, the instrumental or resources incompatibility and the superfluity. We characterize computationally these forms of incompatibility by means of arguments that represent the plans that allow an agent to achieve his goals. Thus, the incompatibility among goals is defined based on the conflicts among their plans, which are represented by means of attacks in an argumentation framework. We also work on the problem of goals selection; we propose to use abstract argumentation theory to deal with this problem, i.e. by applying argumentation semantics. We use a modified version of the “cleaner world” scenario in order to illustrate the performance of our proposal.

  • 48.
    Mariela, Morveli-Espinoza
    et al.
    Federal University of Technology - Paraná (UTFPR), Curitiba, Brazil.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Cesar Augusto, Tacla
    Federal University of Technology - Paraná (UTFPR), Curitiba, Brazil.
    Measuring the strength of threats, rewards, and appeals in persuasive negotiation dialogues2020In: Knowledge engineering review (Print), ISSN 0269-8889, E-ISSN 1469-8005, Vol. 35, p. 1-27, article id e36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to propose a model for the measurement of the strength of rhetorical arguments (i.e., threats, rewards, and appeals), which are used in persuasive negotiation dialogues when a proponent agent tries to convince his opponent to accept a proposal. Related articles propose a calculation based on the components of the rhetorical arguments, that is, the importance of the goal of the opponent and the certainty level of the beliefs that make up the argument. Our proposed model is based on the pre-conditions of credibility and preferability stated by Guerini and Castelfranchi. Thus, we suggest the use of two new criteria for the strength calculation: the credibility of the proponent and the status of the goal of the opponent in the goal processing cycle. We use three scenarios in order to illustrate our proposal. Besides, the model is empirically evaluated and the results demonstrate that the proposed model is more efficient than previous works of the state of the art in terms of numbers of negotiation cycles, number of exchanged arguments, and number of reached agreements.

  • 49.
    Morveli Espinoza, Mariela
    et al.
    UTFPR, Curitiba, Brazil.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Possebom, Ayslan T.
    UTFPR, Curitiba, Brazil.
    Puyol-Gruart, Josep
    IIIA-CSIC, Barcelona, Spain.
    Tacla, Cesar Augusto
    UTFPR, Curitiba, Brazil.
    Resolving Incompatibilities between Procedural Goals: An Argumentation-based Approach2018In: / [ed] Riccardo De Masellis, Valentin Goranko, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the deliberation phase in practical reasoning, an intelligent agent generates a set of pursuable goals (or desires) and then selects which of them he commits to achieve (intentions). When several pursuable goals are generated, it may cause that some incompatibilities arise between them. In this work, we focus on the denition, identication and resolution of these incompatibilities. The suggested approach considers the three forms of incompatibility introduced by Castelfranchi and Paglieri, namely the terminal incompatibility, the resources incompatibility and the superuity. We characterise computationally these forms of incompatibility by means of arguments that represent the plans that allow an agent to achieve his goals. The incompatibility between goals is dened based on the conicts between their plans, which are represented by means of attacks in an argumentation framework. For the goals selection, we propose to use abstract argumentation theory by applying argumentation semantics.

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  • 50. Morveli Espinoza, Mariela
    et al.
    Nieves, Juan Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Possebom, Ayslan
    Federal Institute of Parana, Brazil.
    Tacla, Cesar Augusto
    Federal University of Technology of Paraná (UTFPR), Curitiba, Brazil.
    Dealing with Incompatibilities among Procedural Goals under Uncertainty2019In: Inteligencia Artificial. Ibero-American Journal of Artificial Intelligence, ISSN 1137-3601, E-ISSN 1988-3064, Vol. 22, no 64, p. 47-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By considering rational agents, we focus on the problem of selecting goals out of a set of incompatible ones. We consider three forms of incompatibility introduced by Castelfranchi and Paglieri, namely the terminal, the instrumental (or based on resources), and the superfluity. We represent the agent's plans by means of structured arguments whose premises are pervaded with uncertainty. We measure the strength of these arguments in order to determine the set of compatible goals. We propose two novel ways for calculating the strength of these arguments, depending on the kind of incompatibility thatexists between them. The first one is the logical strength value, it is denoted by a three-dimensional vector, which is calculated from a probabilistic interval associated with each argument. The vector represents the precision of the interval, the location of it, and the combination of precision and location. This type of representation and treatment of the strength of a structured argument has not been defined before by the state of the art. The second way for calculating the strength of the argument is based on the cost of the plans (regarding the necessary resources) and the preference of the goals associated with the plans. Considering our novel approach for measuring the strength of structured arguments, we propose a semantics for the selection of plans and goals that is based on Dung's abstract argumentation theory. Finally, we make a theoretical evaluation of our proposal.

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