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  • 1.
    Milan, Manuela
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. IASMA Research and Innovation Centre, E. Mach Foundation.
    Bigler, Christian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Salmaso, Nico
    IASMA Research and Innovation Centre, E. Mach Foundation.
    Guella, Graziano
    Department of Physics, University of Trento.
    Tolotti, Monica
    IASMA Research and Innovation Centre, E. Mach Foundation.
    Multiproxy reconstruction of a large and deep subalpine lake's ecological history since the Middle Ages2015In: Journal of Great Lakes research, ISSN 0380-1330, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 982-994Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two short sediment cores collected at the deepest points of the two sub-basins of Lake Garda (Northern Italy) were radiometrically dated and analyzed for geochemistry, spheroidal carbonaceous particles, photosynthetic pigments and diatoms aimed at reconstructing the lake's ecological evolution over the last ~700 years, and at defining its reference conditions. Both cores showed steady dominance of small Cyclotella spp. and oligotrophic diatom-inferred lake TP concentrations from the Middle Ages until the 1960s. During the successive decades, meso- to eutraphentic elongated Fragilariaceae increased at the expense of small centrics, and diatom-inferred TP concentrations increased. Independent records of subfossil pigments revealed higher pytoplankton biomass and abundance of cyanobacteria in both lake basins since the 1990s. Trends of biological proxies and reconstructed lake TP level agree with modern limnological data collected since the 1990s. Multivariate analyses outlined lake nutrient level as the principal driver of long-term trophic and diatom evolution of Lake Garda and suggested that decadal scale climate dynamics (i.e. air temperature, East Atlantic and North Atlantic Oscillation teleconnection indices) may indirectly modulate the nutrient-driven phytoplankton evolution. The comparison of the two cores revealed that only the larger lake basin responded to major hydrological changes in the catchment during the 1940s. The study emphasizes the vulnerability of large and deep subalpine lakes towards the steadily increasing anthropogenic pressures affecting such lakes, under the present context of global warming.

  • 2.
    Wienhues, Giulia
    et al.
    Oeschger Center for Climate Change Research and Institute of Geography, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Temoltzin-Loranca, Yunuen
    Oeschger Center for Climate Change Research and Institute of Geography, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; Institute of Plant Sciences, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Vogel, Hendrik
    Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Morlock, Marina A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Cohen, Andrew S.
    Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona, AZ, Tucson, United States.
    Anselmetti, Flavio S.
    Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Bernasconi, Stefano M.
    Department of Earth Sciences, ETH Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Jaggi, Madalina
    Department of Earth Sciences, ETH Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Tylmann, Wojciech
    Institute of Geography, Gdańsk University, Gdańsk, Poland.
    Kishe, Mary A.
    Tanzania Fisheries Research Institute, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    King, Leighton
    Department of Fish Ecology and Evolution, Swiss Federal Institute for Aquatic Science and Technology (EAWAG), Kastanienbaum, Switzerland; Aquatic Ecology and Evolution, Institute of Ecology and Evolution, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Ngoepe, Nare
    Department of Fish Ecology and Evolution, Swiss Federal Institute for Aquatic Science and Technology (EAWAG), Kastanienbaum, Switzerland; Aquatic Ecology and Evolution, Institute of Ecology and Evolution, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Courtney-Mustaphi, Colin J.
    Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; Nelson Mandela African Institution of Science and Technology, Arusha, Tanzania.
    Muschick, Moritz
    Department of Fish Ecology and Evolution, Swiss Federal Institute for Aquatic Science and Technology (EAWAG), Kastanienbaum, Switzerland; Aquatic Ecology and Evolution, Institute of Ecology and Evolution, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Matthews, Blake
    Department of Fish Ecology and Evolution, Swiss Federal Institute for Aquatic Science and Technology (EAWAG), Kastanienbaum, Switzerland; Aquatic Ecology and Evolution, Institute of Ecology and Evolution, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Mwaiko, Salome
    Department of Fish Ecology and Evolution, Swiss Federal Institute for Aquatic Science and Technology (EAWAG), Kastanienbaum, Switzerland; Aquatic Ecology and Evolution, Institute of Ecology and Evolution, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Seehausen, Ole
    Department of Fish Ecology and Evolution, Swiss Federal Institute for Aquatic Science and Technology (EAWAG), Kastanienbaum, Switzerland; Aquatic Ecology and Evolution, Institute of Ecology and Evolution, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Tinner, Willy
    Institute of Plant Sciences, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Grosjean, Martin
    Oeschger Center for Climate Change Research and Institute of Geography, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    From desiccation to wetlands and outflow: rapid re-filling of Lake Victoria during the Latest Pleistocene 14–13 ka2023In: Journal of Great Lakes research, ISSN 0380-1330, article id 102246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reconstructing hydrological variability is critical for understanding Lake Victoria's ecosystem history, the evolution of its diverse endemic fish community, the dynamics of vegetation in the catchment, and the dispersal of aquatic and terrestrial fauna in the East African Rift system during Latest Pleistocene and Holocene times. Whereas consensus exists on widespread desiccation of Lake Victoria ∼18 – 17 ka, the re-filling history (16 – 13 ka) has remained highly controversial. Here, we present data from four new sediment cores along a depth transect. We use lithostratigraphic core correlation, sediment facies, XRF data, wetland vegetation analysis (Typha pollen), and 14C chronologies of unprecedented precision to document Latest Pleistocene lake-level variability. At our coring site in the central basin, local Typha wetlands existed >16.7 ka, alternating with periods of desiccation. Moisture increased slightly between ca. 16.7 – 14.5 ka and wetlands with permanent, shallow ponds established simultaneously in the center and the marginal, more elevated parts of the flat lake basin. After ca. 14.0 ka, lake levels increased; wetlands in the central basin were submerged and replaced by lacustrine environments and a >50 m deep lake established ca. 13.5 ka, likely with intermittent overflow most of the time. The lake reached modern or even above-modern levels around 10.8 ka. This lake-level history is consistent with regional terrestrial paleoenvironmental reconstructions, notably the expansion of Afromontane and rainforest. Our data suggest a complex picture of paleoclimatic conditions in Eastern Africa and teleconnections to the North-Atlantic and Indian Ocean domains.

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