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  • 1.
    Alanentalo, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Optical projection tomography based 3D-spatial and quantitative assessments of the diabetic pancreas2008Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The gastrointestinal tract comprises a number of digestive organs including the stomach and pancreas. The stomach is involved in the digestion and short term storage of food while the pancreas is a mixed endocrine and exocrine gland which provides the body with hormones and enzymes essential for nutritional utilisation. The pancreas consists of three different cell lineages, acinar, ductal and endocrine cells. The endocrine cells, organised in the islets of Langerhans, are scattered throughout the exocrine parenchyma and regulate blood glucose levels by production of hormones such as glucagon and insulin.

    The Nkx family of homeodomain proteins controls numerous processes during development. Previous studies have identified two members belonging to the Nkx6 subfamily of Nkx proteins, Nkx6.1 and Nkx6.2. We have described the cloning and embryonic expression pattern of Nkx6.3. All three members of the Nkx6 gene family were shown to be expressed in partially overlapping domains during the development of the gastrointestinal tract and the central nervous system. Nkx6.2 was also identified as a transient marker for pancreatic exocrine cells.

    Analysing gene expression patterns and morphological features in tissues and organs is often performed by stereologic sampling which is a labour-intensive two dimensional approach that rely on certain assumptions when calculating e.g. β-cell mass and islet number in the pancreas. By combined improvements in immunohistochemical protocols, computational processing and tomographic scanning, we have developed a methodology based on optical projection tomography (OPT) allowing for 3D visualisation and quantification of specifically labelled objects within intact adult mouse organs. In the pancreas, this technique allows for spatial and quantitative measurements of total islet number and β-cell mass. We have further developed a protocol allowing for high resolution regional analyses based on global OPT assessments of the pancreatic constitution. This methodology is likely to facilitate detailed cellular and molecular analysis of user defined regions of interest in the pancreas, at the same time providing information on the overall disease state of the gland.

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) can occur at any age and is characterized by the marked inability of the pancreas to secrete insulin due to an autoimmune destruction of the insulin producing β-cells. Information on the key cellular and molecular events underlying the recruitment of lymphocytes, their infiltration of the islets of Langerhans and consequent β-cell destruction is essential for understanding the pathogenesis of T1D. Using the developed methodology we have recorded the spatial and quantitative distribution of islet β-cells and infiltrating lymphocytes in the non obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model for T1D. This study shows that the smaller islets, which are predominantly organised in the periphery of the organ, are the first to disappear during the progression of T1D. The larger islets appear more resistant and our data suggest that a compensatory proliferative process is going on side by side with the autoimmune-induced β-cell destruction. Further, the formation of structures resembling tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) in areas apparently unaffected by insulitis suggests that local factors may provide cues for the homing of these lymphocytes back to the pancreas.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 2.
    Alanentalo, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Asayesh, Amir
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Morrison, Harris
    Lorén, Christina E
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Holmberg, Dan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM). Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Medicinsk biovetenskap, Medicinsk och klinisk genetik.
    Sharpe, James
    Ahlgren, Ulf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Tomographic molecular imaging and 3D quantification within adult mouse organs.2007Inngår i: Nature Methods, ISSN 1548-7091, E-ISSN 1548-7105, Vol. 4, nr 1, s. 31-33Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 3.
    Alanentalo, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Hahn, Max
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Willekens, Stefanie M. A.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Ahlgren, Ulf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Mesoscopic Optical Imaging of the Pancreas: Revisiting Pancreatic Anatomy and Pathophysiology2021Inngår i: Frontiers in Endocrinology, E-ISSN 1664-2392, Vol. 12, artikkel-id 633063Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The exocrine-endocrine multipart organization of the pancreas makes it an exceedingly challenging organ to analyze, quantitatively and spatially. Both in rodents and humans, estimates of the pancreatic cellular composition, including beta-cell mass, has been largely relying on the extrapolation of 2D stereological data originating from limited sample volumes. Alternatively, they have been obtained by low resolution non-invasive imaging techniques providing little detail regarding the anatomical organization of the pancreas and its cellular and/or molecular make up. In this mini-review, the state of the art and the future potential of currently existing and emerging high-resolution optical imaging techniques working in the mm-cm range with μm resolution, here referred to as mesoscopic imaging approaches, will be discussed regarding their contribution toward a better understanding of pancreatic anatomy both in normal conditions and in the diabetic setting. In particular, optical projection tomography (OPT) and light sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) imaging of the pancreas and their associated tissue processing and computational analysis protocols will be discussed in the light of their current capabilities and future potential to obtain more detailed 3D-spatial, quantitative, and molecular information of the pancreas.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 4.
    Alanentalo, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Hörnblad, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Mayans, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Medicinsk och klinisk genetik.
    Nilsson, Anna Karin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk kemi och biofysik.
    Sharpe, James
    Larefalk, Åsa
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Medicinsk och klinisk genetik.
    Ahlgren, Ulf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Holmberg, Dan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Medicinsk och klinisk genetik.
    Quantification and 3-D imaging of the insulitis-induced destruction of β-cells in murine type 1 diabetes2010Inngår i: Diabetes, ISSN 0012-1797, E-ISSN 1939-327X, Vol. 59, nr 7, s. 1756-1764Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this study was to refine the information regarding the quantitative and spatial dynamics of infiltrating lymphocytes and remaining beta-cell volume during the progression of type 1 diabetes in the NOD mouse model of the disease.

    Research design and methods: Using an ex vivo technique, optical projection tomography (OPT), we quantified and assessed the 3D spatial development and progression of insulitis and beta-cell destruction in pancreas from diabetes prone NOD and non-diabetes prone congenic NOD.H-2b mice between 3 and 16 weeks of age.

    Results: Together with results showing the spatial dynamics of the insulitis process we provide data of beta-cell volume distributions down to the level of the individual islets and throughout the pancreas during the development and progression of type 1 diabetes. Our data provide evidence for a compensatory growth potential of the larger insulin(+) islets during the later stages of the disease around the time point for development of clinical diabetes. This is in contrast to smaller islets, which appear less resistant to the autoimmune attack. We also provide new information on the spatial dynamics of the insulitis process itself, including its apparently random distribution at onset, the local variations during its further development, and the formation of structures resembling tertiary lymphoid organs at later phases of insulitis progression.

    Conclusions: Our data provides a powerful tool for phenotypic analysis of genetic and environmental effects on type 1 diabetes etiology as well as for evaluating the potential effect of therapeutic regimes.

  • 5.
    Alanentalo, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Lorén, Christina E
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Larefalk, Asa
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Medicinsk och klinisk genetik.
    Sharpe, James
    Holmberg, Dan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Medicinsk och klinisk genetik.
    Ahlgren, Ulf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    High-resolution three-dimensional imaging of islet-infiltrate interactions based on optical projection tomography assessments of the intact adult mouse pancreas2008Inngår i: Journal of Biomedical Optics, ISSN 1083-3668, E-ISSN 1560-2281, Vol. 13, nr 5, s. 054070-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A predicament when assessing the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of type-1 diabetes (T1D) has been to maintain simultaneous global and regional information on the loss of insulin-cell mass and the progression of insulitis. We present a procedure for high-resolution 3-D analyses of regions of interest (ROIs), defined on the basis of global assessments of the 3-D distribution, size, and shape of molecularly labeled structures within the full volume of the intact mouse pancreas. We apply a refined protocol for optical projection tomography (OPT)-aided whole pancreas imaging in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy of site-directed pancreatic microbiopsies. As such, the methodology provides a useful tool for detailed cellular and molecular assessments of the autoimmune insulitis in T1D. It is anticipated that the same approach could be applied to other areas of research where 3-D molecular distributions of both global and regional character is required.

  • 6.
    Asayesh, Amir
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Alanentalo, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Khoo, Nelson K S
    Ahlgren, Ulf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Developmental expression of metalloproteases ADAM 9, 10, and 17 becomes restricted to divergent pancreatic compartments.2005Inngår i: Developmental Dynamics, ISSN 1058-8388, E-ISSN 1097-0177, Vol. 232, nr 4, s. 1105-1114Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 7.
    Eriksson, Anna U.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Svensson, Christoffer
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Hörnblad, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Cheddad, Abbas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Kostromina, Elena
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Eriksson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Norlin, Nils
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Pileggi, Antonello
    Cell Transplants Center, Diabetes Research Institute, University of Miami.
    Sharpe, James
    EMBL-CRG Systems Biology Program, Centre for Genomic Regulation, Catalan Institute of Research and Advance Studies.
    Georgsson, Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Alanentalo, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Ahlgren, Ulf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Near infrared optical projection tomography for assessments of beta-cell mass distribution in diabetes research2013Inngår i: Journal of Visualized Experiments, E-ISSN 1940-087X, Vol. 71, artikkel-id e50238Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    By adapting OPT to include the capability of imaging in the near infrared (NIR) spectrum, we here illustrate the possibility to image larger bodies of pancreatic tissue, such as the rat pancreas, and to increase the number of channels (cell types) that may be studied in a single specimen. We further describe the implementation of a number of computational tools that provide: 1/ accurate positioning of a specimen's (in our case the pancreas) centre of mass (COM) at the axis of rotation (AR)2; 2/ improved algorithms for post-alignment tuning which prevents geometric distortions during the tomographic reconstruction2 and 3/ a protocol for intensity equalization to increase signal to noise ratios in OPT-based BCM determinations3. In addition, we describe a sample holder that minimizes the risk for unintentional movements of the specimen during image acquisition. Together, these protocols enable assessments of BCM distribution and other features, to be performed throughout the volume of intact pancreata or other organs (e.g. in studies of islet transplantation), with a resolution down to the level of individual islets of Langerhans.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 8.
    Hahn, Max
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Nord, Christoffer
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Eriksson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Morini, Federico
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Alanentalo, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Korsgren, Olle
    Ahlgren, Ulf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    3D imaging of human organs with micrometer resolution - applied to the endocrine pancreas2021Inngår i: Communications Biology, E-ISSN 2399-3642, Vol. 4, nr 1, artikkel-id 1063Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The possibility to quantitatively study specific molecular/cellular features of complete human organs with preserved spatial 3D context would have widespread implications for pre-clinical and clinical medicine. Whereas optical 3D imaging approaches have experienced a formidable revolution, they have remained limited due to current incapacities in obtaining specific labelling within large tissue volumes. We present a simple approach enabling reconstruction of antibody labeled cells within entire human organs with preserved organ context. We demonstrate the utility of the approach by providing volumetric data and 3D distribution of hundreds of thousands of islets of Langerhans within the human pancreas. By assessments of pancreata from non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic individuals, we display previously unrecognized features of the human islet mass distribution and pathology. As such, this method may contribute not only in unraveling new information of the pancreatic anatomy/pathophysiology, but it may be translated to essentially any antibody marker or organ system.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 9.
    Hahn, Max
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Nord, Christoffer
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Franklin, Oskar
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi.
    Alanentalo, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Isaksson Mettävainio, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Morini, Federico
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Eriksson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Korsgren, Olle
    Sund, Malin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi. Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences/Surgery, Umeå University Hospital, Umeå, Swede.
    Ahlgren, Ulf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Mesoscopic 3D imaging of pancreatic cancer and Langerhans islets based on tissue autofluorescence2020Inngår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 10, nr 1, artikkel-id 18246Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The possibility to assess pancreatic anatomy with microscopic resolution in three dimensions (3D) would significantly add to pathological analyses of disease processes. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has a bleak prognosis with over 90% of the patients dying within 5 years after diagnosis. Cure can be achieved by surgical resection, but the efficiency remains drearily low. Here we demonstrate a method that without prior immunohistochemical labelling provides insight into the 3D microenvironment and spread of PDAC and premalignant cysts in intact surgical biopsies. The method is based solely on the autofluorescent properties of the investigated tissues using optical projection tomography and/or light-sheet fluorescence microscopy. It does not interfere with subsequent histopathological analysis and may facilitate identification of tumor-free resection margins within hours. We further demonstrate how the developed approach can be used to assess individual volumes and numbers of the islets of Langerhans in unprecedently large biopsies of human pancreatic tissue, thus providing a new means by which remaining islet mass may be assessed in settings of diabetes. Generally, the method may provide a fast approach to provide new anatomical insight into pancreatic pathophysiology.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 10.
    Hahn, Max
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    van Krieken, Pim P.
    Nord, Christoffer
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Alanentalo, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Morini, Federico
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Xiong, Yan
    Eriksson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Mayer, Jurgen
    Kostromina, Elena
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Ruas, Jorge L.
    Sharpe, James
    Pereira, Teresa
    Berggren, Per-Olof
    Ilegems, Erwin
    Ahlgren, Ulf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Topologically selective islet vulnerability and self-sustained downregulation of markers for β-cell maturity in streptozotocin-induced diabetes2020Inngår i: Communications Biology, E-ISSN 2399-3642, Vol. 3, nr 1, artikkel-id 541Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mouse models of Streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetes represent the most widely used preclinical diabetes research systems. We applied state of the art optical imaging schemes, spanning from single islet resolution to the whole organ, providing a first longitudinal, 3D-spatial and quantitative account of β-cell mass (BCM) dynamics and islet longevity in STZ-treated mice. We demonstrate that STZ-induced β-cell destruction predominantly affects large islets in the pancreatic core. Further, we show that hyperglycemic STZ-treated mice still harbor a large pool of remaining β-cells but display pancreas-wide downregulation of glucose transporter type 2 (GLUT2). Islet gene expression studies confirmed this downregulation and revealed impaired β-cell maturity. Reversing hyperglycemia by islet transplantation partially restored the expression of markers for islet function, but not BCM. Jointly our results indicate that STZ-induced hyperglycemia results from β-cell dysfunction rather than β-cell ablation and that hyperglycemia in itself sustains a negative feedback loop restraining islet function recovery.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 11.
    Lehrstrand, Joakim
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk och translationell biologi.
    Davies, Wayne I. L.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk och translationell biologi.
    Hahn, Max
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk och translationell biologi.
    Korsgren, Olle
    Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Alanentalo, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk och translationell biologi.
    Ahlgren, Ulf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk och translationell biologi.
    Illuminating the complete ß-cell mass of the human pancreas - signifying a new view on the islets of Langerhans2024Inngår i: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 15, nr 1, artikkel-id 3318Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Pancreatic islets of Langerhans play a pivotal role in regulating blood glucose homeostasis, but critical information regarding their mass, distribution and composition is lacking within a whole organ context. Here, we apply a 3D imaging pipeline to generate a complete account of the insulin-producing islets throughout the human pancreas at a microscopic resolution and within a maintained spatial 3D context. These data show that human islets are far more heterogenous than previously accounted for with regards to their size distribution and cellular make up. By deep tissue 3D imaging, this in-depth study demonstrates that 50% of the human insulin-expressing islets are virtually devoid of glucagon-producing α-cells, an observation with significant implications for both experimental and clinical research.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 12. Petersen, Maj
    et al.
    Gandhi, Prafull S.
    Buchardt, Jens
    Alanentalo, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Fels, Johannes Josef
    Langeland Johansen, Nils
    Helding-Kvist, Peter
    Vad, Knud
    Thygesen, Peter
    Tissue Distribution and Receptor Activation by Somapacitan, a Long Acting Growth Hormone Derivative2020Inngår i: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, ISSN 1661-6596, E-ISSN 1422-0067, Vol. 21, nr 4, artikkel-id 1181Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Somapacitan is a long-acting, once-weekly, albumin-binding growth hormone (GH) derivative. The reversible albumin-binding properties leads to prolonged circulation half-life. Here, we investigated and compared somapacitan with human GH on downstream receptor signaling in primary hepatocytes and hepatocellular models and using isothermal titration calorimetry to characterize receptor binding of somapacitan in the presence or absence of human serum albumin (HSA). With non-invasive fluorescence imaging we quantitatively visualize and compare the temporal distribution and examine the tissue-specific growth hormone receptor (GHR) activation at distribution sites. We found that signaling kinetics were slightly more rapid and intense for GH compared with somapacitan. Receptor binding isotherms were characterized by a high and a low affinity interaction site with or without HSA. Using in vivo optical imaging we found prolonged systemically biodistribution of somapacitan compared with GH, which correlated with plasma pharmacokinetics. Ex vivo mouse organ analysis revealed that the temporal fluorescent intensity in livers dosed with somapacitan was significantly increased compared with GH-dosed livers and correlated with the degree of downstream GHR activation. Finally, we show that fluorescent-labeled analogs distributed to the hypertrophic zone in the epiphysis of proximal tibia of hypophysectomized rats and that somapacitan and GH activate the GHR signaling in epiphyseal tissues.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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