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  • 1. Appleby, Ralph
    et al.
    Davis, Louise
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Davis, Paul A.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Gustafsson, Henrick
    Examining perceptions of teammates’ burnout and training hours in athlete burnout2018Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, ISSN 1932-9261, E-ISSN 1932-927X, Vol. 12, nr 3, s. 316-332Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Perceptions of teammates and training load have been shown to influence athletes' physical and psychological health; however, limited research has investigated these factors in relation to burnout. Athletes (N = 140) from a variety of competitive team sports, ranging in level from regional to professional, completed questionnaires measuring individual burnout, perceptions of teammates' burnout, and training hours perweek on two occasions separated by threemonths. After controlling for burnout at time one, training hours were associated with athletes' burnout and perceptions of teammates' burnout at time two. Multilevel modeling indicated actual team burnout (i.e., the average burnout score of the individual athletes in a team) and perceived team burnout were associated with individual's own burnout. The findings highlight that burnout is dynamic and relates to physiological stressors associated with training and psychological perceptions of teammates' burnout. Future research directions exploring potential social influences on athlete burnout are presented.

  • 2. Börjesson, Marcus
    et al.
    Lundqvist, Carolina
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Davis, Paul A.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Flotation REST as a Stress Reduction Method: The Effects on Anxiety, Muscle Tension, and Performance2018Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, ISSN 1932-9261, E-ISSN 1932-927X, Vol. 12, nr 3, s. 333-346Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of flotation REST upon skilled and less skilled golfers' anxiety in terms of physiological indicators of stress, self-rated anxiety scores, muscle tension, and the effect on golf putting. Prior to performing the putting task participants underwent a treatment of flotation REST or a period of resting in an armchair. Participants completed both treatments in a randomized order with a two-week interval. The results showed that both flotation REST and the armchair treatment reduced systolic blood pressure and heart rate, with no differences between treatments or athlete skill levels. No significant differences between treatments were revealed regarding self-ratings, level of muscle tension or putting precision. The results indicate that flotation REST may be useful for reducing negative symptoms related to stress and anxiety in general; however, no support for direct positive effects on golf performance were found.

  • 3.
    Davis, Louise
    et al.
    Northumbria University.
    Jowett, Sophia
    Attachment styles within the coach-athlete dyad: preliminary investigation and assessment development2013Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, ISSN 1932-9261, E-ISSN 1932-927X, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 120-145Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present preliminary study aimed to develop and examine the psychometric properties of a new sport-specific self-report instrument designed to assess athletes’ and coaches’ attachment styles. The development and initial validation comprised three main phases. In Phase 1, a pool of items was generated based on pre-existing self-report attachment instruments, modified to reflect a coach and an athlete’s style of attachment. In Phase 2, the content validity of the items was assessed by a panel of experts. A final scale was developed and administered to 405 coaches and 298 athletes (N = 703 participants). In Phase 3, confirmatory factor analysis of the obtained data was conducted to determine the final items of the Coach-Athlete Attachment Scale (CAAS). Confirmatory factor analysis revealed acceptable goodness of ft indexes for a 3-first order factor model as well as a 2-first order factor model for both the athlete and the coach data, respectively. A secure attachment style positively predicted relationship satisfaction, while an insecure attachment style was a negative predictor of relationship satisfaction. The CAAS revealed initial psychometric properties of content, factorial, and predictive validity, as well as reliability.

  • 4.
    Davis, Louise
    et al.
    School of Sport, Exercise, and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, UK.
    Jowett, Sophia
    School of Sport, Exercise, and Health Sciences, Loughborough University, Leicestershire, UK.
    Investigating the interpersonal dynamics between coaches and athletes based on fundamental principles of attachment theory2010Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, ISSN 1932-9261, E-ISSN 1932-927X, Vol. 4, nr 2, s. 112-132Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Grounded in Bowlby’s (1969/1982, 1988) attachment theory, this study aimed to explore (a) the pervasiveness of the three main functions of attachment within the context of the coach-athlete relationship, (b) the associations of athletes’ attachment styles with such important variables as satisfaction with the relationship and satisfaction with the sport, and (c) the process by which athletes’ attachment styles and satisfaction with sport are associated. Data were collected through self-report measures of attachment functions and styles as well as relationship satisfaction and sport satisfaction from 309 student athletes (males = 150, females = 159) whose age ranged from 18 to 28 years (Mage = 19.9, SD = 1.58 years). Athletes’ mean scores indicated that the coach was viewed as an attachment figure fulfilling all three functions of secure base, safe haven, and proximity maintenance. Bivariate correlations indicated that athletes’ avoidant and anxious styles of attachment with the coach were negatively correlated with both relationship satisfaction and sport satisfaction. Mediational regression analysis revealed that athletes’ satisfaction with the coach-athlete relationship may be a process that links athletes’ attachment styles with levels of satisfaction with sport. The findings from this study highlight the potential theoretical and practical utility of attachment theory in studying relationships within the sport context.

  • 5.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    The Faculty of Health, Science and Technology, Karlstad University.
    Skoog, Therése
    The School of Law, Psychology and Social Work Örebro University.
    Davis, Paul A.
    Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 8ST, Tyne & Wear, England.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Unit of Performance and Training, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Haberl, Peter
    United States Olympic Committee.
    Mindfulness and Its Relationship With Perceived Stress, Affect, and Burnout in Elite Junior Athletes2015Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, ISSN 1932-9261, E-ISSN 1932-927X, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 263-281Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between dispositional mindfulness and burnout and whether this relationship is mediated by perceived stress, negative affect, and positive affect in elite junior athletes. Participants were 233 (123 males and 107 females) adolescent athletes, ranging in age from 15–19 years (M = 17.50; SD = 1.08). Bivariate correlations revealed that mindfulness had a significant negative relationship with both perceived stress and burnout. To investigate mediation, we employed nonparametric bootstrapping analyses. These analyses indicated that positive affect fully mediated links between mindfulness and sport devaluation. Further, positive affect and negative affect partially mediated the relationships between mindfulness and physical/emotional exhaustion, as well as between mindfulness and reduced sense of accomplishment. The results point toward mindfulness being negatively related to burnout in athletes and highlight the role of positive affect. Future research should investigate the longitudinal effect of dispositional mindfulness on stress and burnout.

  • 6.
    Lundkvist, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Department of Geography and Sustainable development, University of St Andrews, United Kingdom .
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstads Universitet.
    Davis, Paul
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbria University, United Kingdom .
    Hassmén, Peter
    School of Health and Human Sciences, Southern Cross University, Australia .
    Workaholism, home-work/work-home interference, and exhaustion among sport coaches2016Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, ISSN 1932-9261, E-ISSN 1932-927X, Vol. 10, nr 3, s. 222-236Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of this study were to (a) examine the associations between workaholismand work-related exhaustion and (b) examine associations between work–home/home–work interference and work-related exhaustion in 261 Swedish coaches.Quantile regression showed that workaholism is only associated with exhaustionfor coaches who score high on exhaustion, that negative work–home interferencehas a stronger association with exhaustion than negative home–work interference,and that the coaches on a mean level scored low on all measured constructs. Inaddition, coaches in the higher percentiles have a higher risk for burnout. Ourresults highlight the importance of studying coach exhaustion with respect toaspects that extend beyond the sports life.

  • 7.
    Lundkvist, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Department of Educational Studies, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden; Department of Coaching and Psychology, Norwegian School of Sport Science, Oslo, Norway.
    Madigan, Daniel
    School of Science, Technology and Health, York St John University, York, United Kingdom.
    Hjälm, Sören
    School of Health Sciences, School of Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Kalén, Anton
    Faculty of Education Sciences & Sports, Vigo University, Vigo, Galicia, Spain; School of Informatics, University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    The prevalence of emotional exhaustion in professional and semiprofessional coaches2023Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, ISSN 1932-9261, E-ISSN 1932-927X, Vol. 17, nr 4, s. 376-389Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examined levels of emotional exhaustion, a key symptom of burnout, in Swedish professional and semiprofessional sport coaches in comparison to the normative values specified in the Maslach Burnout Inventory manual, and to the clinical cutoffs developed by Kleijweg, Verbraak, and Van Dijk. The sample contained 318 Swedish coaches (Mage = 42.7 years, 12% female) working at least 50% full time away from both team (60%) and individual (40%) sports. Our study shows that, in general, coaches in this sample experience lower average levels of exhaustion than normative samples both regarding the Maslach Burnout Inventory and clinical cutoffs. Two groups of coaches did, however, stand out. Coaches living in single households as well as coaches working part time had higher risk of severe levels of emotional exhaustion. These results place coach exhaustion levels in relation to other occupations and highlight that in this sample, the coaching profession does not stand out as more emotionally exhausting than other occupations.

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