Umeå University's logo

umu.sePublications
Change search
Refine search result
12 1 - 50 of 79
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Abdul Kader, Hale
    et al.
    Centre for Risk and Insurance Studies, University of Nottingham, Nottingham,.
    Adams, Michael
    Swansea University, UK.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    The determinants of reinsurance in the Swedish property fire insurance market during the interwar years, 1919–392010In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 268-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing a framework from agency theory, we use a panel data design to examine the factors motivating the level of demand for reinsurance in the rapidly developing Swedish property fire insurance market during the interwar period 1919–39. We find that as hypothesised, reinsurance enabled Swedish fire insurers to mitigate underwriting and solvency risks and thus increased their capacity to underwrite new business in uncertain economic times. This in turn helped to increase the supply of indemnity coverage for property (buildings) fire risks in the Swedish insurance market. We also find that as expected, investment earnings are inversely related to reinsurance purchases. However, contrary to what was hypothesised, reinsurance appears to be positively related to liquidity levels, suggesting that over our period of analysis, fire insurers could have been reinsuring to ‘protect’ earnings and accumulated cash reserves therefore enabling investment opportunities to be realised. Analysis of the sub-period 1919–28 further supports this contention, while our results for the economic depression years after 1929 show that reinsurance helped mitigate underwriting and insolvency risks, suggesting that the reinsurance decision of fire insurance companies could be motivated by macroeconomic factors.

  • 2.
    Acar, Sevil
    et al.
    Istanbul Kemerburgaz University.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Convergence of CO2 emissions and economic growth in the OECD countries: did the type of fuel matter?2017In: Energy Sources, Part B: Economics, Planning, and Policy, ISSN 1556-7249, Vol. 12, no 7, p. 618-627Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes convergence in CO2 emissions in the OECD countries with respect to the source of emissions (oil versus coal). The investigated period 1973-2010 is divided into two sub-periods, 1973-1991 and 1992-2010. The first period covers the OPEC oil price shocks, where the OECD oil policy was to a high extent governed by energy security concerns and cold war strategic considerations. The second period corresponds to the end of the cold war and the rise of climate policy in several OECD countries. Due to such contextual differences, oil and coal behave differently in the two sub-periods. The generally stronger convergence with respect to oil-related emissions until 1991 conditional on GDP per capita is compatible with a situation where the rising oil prices led to a strong transformation in the countries of interest. Besides, we evidence decoupling of economic growth from oil-related emissions in the post-cold war period.

  • 3.
    Acar, Sevil
    et al.
    Istanbul Kemerburgaz University, Department of Economics, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Periods of converging carbon dioxide emissions from oil combustion: Evidence from a global sample and OECD countries2015In: International Journal of Disability, Community & Rehabilitation, ISSN 1054-853X, E-ISSN 2405-5352, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 685-697Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines convergence of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions caused by oil combustion for a panel of 86 countries considering the importance of analyzing sub-periods separately. The investigation also points at the necessity of choosing a restricted global sample, which takes into account, for instance, that Eastern Bloc countries reacted differently to increasing world crude oil prices than the rest of the world. The analysis builds on examining the β-convergence hypothesis in a neoclassical growth model setting with additional control variables such as emissions from combustion of solid fuels. The results reveal evidence in support of unconditional β-convergence of CO2 emissions intensity due to oil combustion in the restricted sample for the sub-periods 1973–1979 and 1979–1991, while no evidence for convergence was found for the post-1991, pre-Kyoto period. We could not find support for coal substituting for oil, which suggests that the two types of fuels were related to different basic technologies.

  • 4.
    Acar, Sevil
    et al.
    Istanbul Kemerburgaz University, Turkey.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Periods of converging carbon dioxide emissions from oil combustion in a pre-Kyoto context2016In: Environmental Development, ISSN 2211-4645, Vol. 19, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines convergence of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions caused by oil combustion for a panel of 86 countries considering the importance of analyzing sub-periods separately. The investigation also points at the necessity of choosing a restricted global sample, which takes into account, for instance, that Eastern Bloc countries reacted differently to increasing world crude oil prices than the rest of the world. The analysis builds on examining the β-convergence hypothesis in a neoclassical growth model setting with additional control variables such as emissions from combustion of solid fuels. The results reveal evidence in support of unconditional β-convergence of CO2 emissions intensity due to oil combustion in the restricted sample for the sub-periods 1973–1979 and 1979–1991, while no evidence for convergence was found for the post-1991, pre-Kyoto period. We could not find support for coal substituting technologies.

  • 5. Adams, M.
    et al.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Veprauskaite, E.
    Competing models of organizational form: Risk management strategies and underwriting profitability in the Swedish fire insurance market between 1903 and 19392012In: Journal of Economic History, ISSN 0022-0507, E-ISSN 1471-6372, Vol. 72, no 4, p. 990-1014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mutual and stock insurers have coexisted and competed against each other in insurance markets for centuries. In this article, we examine the risk management strategies and underwriting profitability of the different organizational forms in Sweden's property fire insurance market between 1903 and 1939. We demonstrate that stock insurers acted as intermediaries between policyholders and reinsurers to operate effectively in the potentially high-risk segments of the fire insurance market. In contrast, nationwide mutual insurers kept larger reserves to balance fluctuations in claims experiences, while local insurance pools relied on social obligation and trust to mobilize capital after adverse fire events.

  • 6.
    Adams, Mike
    et al.
    Swansea University, UK.
    Andersson, Jonas
    Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration, Norway.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Commercial banking, insurance and economic growth in Sweden between 1830 and 19982009In: Accounting Business and Financial History, ISSN 0958-5206, E-ISSN 1466-4275, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 21-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine empirically the dynamic historical relation between commercial bank lending, insurance and economic (income) growth in Sweden using time-series data from 1830 to 1998 and performing tests for Granger causality. Because of the non-stationary nature of the time series examined the procedure of Toda andYamamoto (1995) is used. Our results, which have accounted for possible regime changes due to different exchange rate mechanisms over time, indicate that insurance has Granger-caused economic growth and bank lending. Therefore, we conclude that insurance is an important prerequisite for stimulating economic growth and that this could have important implications for contemporary developing economies.

  • 7. Adams, Mike
    et al.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Eriksson, Liselotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Veprauskaite, Elena
    Managing policy lapse risk in Sweden's life insurance market between 1915 and 19472020In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 62, no 2, p. 222-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the challenges that Swedish life insurers faced in managing the lapse risk of policies written on the lives of the industrial urban working class between 1915 and 1947. We observe that with the threat of State socialisation of insurance in the 1930s, industrial life insurers modified their business practices to better control policy lapses. Using firm-level data, we also analyse the effect of socio-economic changes, such as rising real wages, interest rate fluctuations and unemployment on life insurance policy lapses. Our results support contemporary tests of the emergency fund and interest rate explanations for the voluntary premature termination of life insurance policies.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 8. Adams, Mike
    et al.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Yihui Jia, Joy
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Mutuality as a control for information asymmetry: a historical analysis of the claims experience of mutual and stock fire insur ance companies in Sweden, 1889 to 19392011In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 53, no 7, p. 1074-1091Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We test two competing arguments regarding the influence of organisational form onunderwritingperformance usingdatafromtheSwedish fireinsuranceindustry for the years 1889 to 1939 – a period of both economic growth and stagnation. Since mutuality is a response to information asymmetry problems, mutual insurers are expected to report lower annual claims relative to premiums than stock insurance companies. However, an alternative view is that stock insurers seek to reduce information asymmetry problems by issuing non-participatory rights insurance contracts with high deductibles that induce risk-sharing between the insurer’s shareholders and policyholders. This implies that stock insurers are likely to report lower annual claims than mutual insurers. Our results show that organisational form is an important determinant of the claims experience of Swedish fire insurers, suggesting that mutuality acts as an effective control for information asymmetries in the market.

  • 9. Adams, Mike
    et al.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Hardwick, Philip
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Firm size and growth in Sweden's life insurance market between 1855 and 1947: A test of Gibrat's law2014In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 56, no 6, p. 956-974Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using data for the period from 1855 to 1947 and the two sub-periods, 1855-1902 and 1903-47, the article examines whether the organic growth rates of 38 Swedish life insurance firms are independent of size, as predicted by Gibrat's (1931) Law of Proportionate Effects. Using panel unit root tests and panel Generalised Method of Moments (GMM) regression, the article finds a significant difference between the growth rates of small and large Swedish life insurance firms (with smaller firms tending to grow faster than larger firms), a result that clearly contradicts Gibrat's Law as a long-run tendency in the Swedish life insurance sector. significant influences were also found on firm growth from profitability, organisational form, reinsurance, the real rate of interest and the Swedish regulatory environment.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Eriksson, Liselotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Life insurance and income growth: the case of Sweden 1830-19502010In: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 203-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we provide an analysis of the life insurance market in Sweden from the early 19th century to the mid 20th century. We consider determinants put forward in the financial history literature to explain the growth of life insurance. The paper shows that income elasticity of demand gives a fairly good approximation of the development in the twentieth century, while the development of risk and insurance innovation among other things need to be taken into account to explain the growth of life insurance in nineteenth century. The price of life insurance, measured as the overhead-to-premium-income-ratio, remained fairly constant during the second half of the 19th century, while the risk, as indicated in terms of crude mortality rates and its volatility did decline.  This probably improved the return on life-insurance savings and further helped the entry of new firms. The average premium size was reduced to enable the diffusion of life insurance to workers.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Is Structural Change Speeding Up?: The Case of Sweden, 1850-20002008In: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 1750-2837 (electronic) 0358-5522 (paper), Vol. 56, no 3, p. 192-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on the importance of structural change on productivity growth and conditions in the labour market. From a productivity perspective, a positive relation is found between structural change and productivity growth from the industrial breakthrough until the first oil crisis. From the early 1970s, this positive relation weakened and eventually became negative as labour moved from high to low productive industries. From a labour market perspective, it is found that extent of sectoral reallocation of labour has become more intense over the twentieth century. The extent of job gains and losses seems to have been more intense during the postwar period than during the industrialization phase.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Unintentional climate policy: Swedish experiences of carbon dioxide emissions and economic growth 1950-20052010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the development of carbon dioxide emissions in Sweden, especially with a focus on the absolute reductions during the post-war period, during the 1970s and 1980s. The paper shows that the largest reductions were achieved before the introduction of an active climate policy in 1991. This was in turn the result of significant improvements in energy efficiency and energy conversion, while structural changes were considerably less important. One reason behind this decoupling process may be that the active energy policy put pressure on households and industries to conserve energy and to substitute from oil to electricity and biofuels. The process was substantially reinforced by the development of world oil prices in combination with the development of domestic electricity prices, where nuclear power seems to have played an important role.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 13.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Välfärden, skatterna, baumoleffekten och högerpopulismens framväxt2018In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 46, no 7, p. 33-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi ser i dag en förtroendekris för de politiska krafter som under hela efterkrigstiden har fört en kamp kring avvägningen mellan skatter och offentligt finansierad välfärd under förutsättning att den makroekonomiska jämvikten inteäventyras. Utmanare är högerpopulismen som vunnit mark genom utpekandetav invandring som en allmän förklaring till höga skatter och upplevda brister ivälfärden. Men lika lite som invandringen egentligen kan förklara långsiktigtstigande skatter, lika bortglömd tycks Baumoleffekten vara. Bristen på strukturellekonomisk-historisk analys för att förstå utmaningarna för välfärdsfinansieringär uppenbara

  • 14.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Mike B., Adams
    Jonas, Andersson
    The Historical Relation between Banking, Insurance and Economic Growth in Sweden: 1830 to 19982005Report (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Adams, Mike
    School of Management, University of Bath.
    Upreti, Vineet
    School of Management, University of Bath.
    The determinants of investment returns in the fire insurance industry: the case of Sweden, 1903-19392013In: Financial History Review, ISSN 0968-5650, E-ISSN 1474-0052, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 73-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Weemploy a panel data research design to examine the determinants of investmentreturns in the Swedish property fire insurance industry from 1903 to 1939 – aperiod of great economic and political uncertainty. Contrary to expectations,we find that mutual fire insurers generated systematically higher investmentreturns than stock fire insurers. Investment returns are inversely related toleverage but positively related to liquidity, showing that firms adopting amore precautionary investment strategy attain higher returns.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 16.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Samförstånd, spänning och förändring: institutioner och ekonomisk tillväxt i svensk ekonomisk historia under 150 år2017In: Marknad och politik / [ed] Lars Hultkrantz och Pär Österholm, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, 12, p. 11-39Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economic History.
    Lindmark, MagnusUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economic History.
    Strukturernas dynamik : kontinuitet och förändring i ekonomisk historia: festskrift till Olle Krantz2004Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 18. Astrid, Kander
    et al.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economic History. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economic History.
    Foreign trade and declining pollution in Sweden: A decomposition analysis of long-term structural and technological effects2006In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, Vol. 34, no 13, p. 1590-1599Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines whether there exists any causal relationship between foreign trade and declining pollution in developed countries. In other words, do developed countries outsource their problems to less developed countries rather than solve them? The case study is the Swedish economy and the two environmental indicators employed are energy consumption and CO2 emissions. No causal relationships are found, since Sweden has long been a net exporter of embodied energy and CO2 and continues to be so after 1970, when energy consumption stabilizes and CO2 emissions decline. In addition, the ratios of net exported energy and CO2 to total consumption remain stable, which means there were no effects on the energy intensity or CO2 intensity either. These results suggest that internal forces, like efficiency improvements, changed consumption patterns and transformation of the energy system, have been crucial for relative environmental improvement in Sweden, while foreign trade has played no role.

  • 19. Balk, Berth M.
    et al.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. SLU.
    Färe, Rolf
    Grosskopf, Shwana
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Environmental Performance in Swedish Manufacturing 1913-19902006In: The theory and practice of environmental and resource economics: essays in honour of Karl-Gustaf Löfgren / [ed] Thomas Aronsson, Roger Axelsson, Runar Brännlund, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar , 2006, p. 287-306Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Förutsättningar och hinder för att nå nollutsläpp: Empirisk kartläggning av koldioxidutvecklingen inom olika sektorer och betydelsen av ekonomiska och politiska drivkrafter 2009–2019 samt en forskningsöversikt om betydelsen av populism och högerextrema värderingar för klimatpolitiken ur ett längre tidsperspektiv2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppdraget

    Följande rapport är författad av docent Ann-Kristin Bergquist och professor Magnus Lindmark, ekonomisk historia, Umeå Universitet. Uppdraget för rapporten har varit att dels försöka gruppera drivkrafter bakom utsläppens faktiska utveckling i olika kategorier, med avseende på ekonomiska, tekniska och politiska förändringar, dels att undersöka betydelsen av populistiska och nationalistiska strömningar (värderingar) för utsläppsutvecklingen och klimatpolitiken. Önskemålet från Klimatrådet har varit att få utrett om det går det att säga något om betydelsen av dessa strömningar ur ett längre tidsperspektiv.

    Den första delen av rapporten (Del I) bygger dels på en kvantitativ kartläggning som syftar till att undersöka utsläppsförändringar fördelade efter olika ekonomiska aktiviteter på produktionssidan av ekonomin, dels på att med utgångspunkt i denna kvantitativa kartläggning diskutera centrala drivkrafter (ekonomiska, politiska, tekniska) bakom den kvantitativa förändringen. Fokus har enligt uppdraget riktats mot den icke handlande sektorn. Det specifika syftet med den kvantitativa undersökning har varit att studera de sektorer som bidragit minst respektive mest till utsläppsförändringarna, avgränsat till den icke handlande sektorn.  På så sätt är det möjligt att identifiera mer precist var stagnationen har skett och varför. Metoden bygger på en explorativ analys av tidsseriedata, i syfte att identifiera de sektorer som varit ledande bakom utsläppsutvecklingen i Sverige. Med utgångspunkt i resultatet från undersökningen genomförs en kvalitativt baserad analys av drivkrafter.

    Den andra delen av rapporten (Del II) syftar till att undersöka betydelsen av populistiska och nationalistiska strömningar (värderingar) för utsläppsutvecklingen och klimatpolitiken ur ett längre tidsperspektiv. Det längre tidsperspektivet har en begränsning i att klimatfrågan som politikområdet är ett nytt fenomen, dvs att klimatfrågan utvecklades som ett aktivt politikfält först under 1990-talet. Utsläppsförändringarna av exempelvis koldioxid hade dessförinnan andra drivkrafter än klimatpolitiska, såsom förändrade priser på energi under 1970-talets oljekriser, som resulterade i både energisubstitution och energibesparingar, inte minst i Sverige.   

    Sammanfattning av resultaten

    Del I. Var har stagnationen av utsläppsreduktioner i den icke-handlande sektorn skett? Rapporten behandlar perioden 2005 till 2017. Startåret motiveras av introduktionen av EU:s system för handel utsläppsrätter och slutåret är det sista året med officiell statistik över utsläpp av växthusgaser vid den tidpunkt rapporten skrevs.

     Den direkta förklaringen till stagnationen mellan 2014 och 2017 är att sektorer som hade en hög minskningstakt mellan 2005 och 2014 har upplevt avtagande minskningstakter från 2014. Dessa sektorer har främst varit bostäder och lokaler, industri samt el och fjärrvärme. Stagnationen förklaras även av sektorer som inte upplevt några större utsläppsminskningar under hela perioden 2005 till 2017: jordbruk, arbetsmaskiner samt produktanvändning.  Detta beror på att dessa sektorer har kommit att utgöra en allt större del av de totala utsläppen från den icke-handlande sektorn. Utsläppen från inrikes transporter har motverkat stagnationen. 

    Följande specifika faktorer förklarar i korthet varför de totala utsläppen stagnerat:

    ·      Struktureffekter: Sektorer med minskande utsläpp utgör en allt mindre andel av de totala utsläppen varför bidraget till de totala minskningarna avtar även om minskningstakten är oförändrad eller svagt avtagande. 

    ·      Konjunktureffekter: Stagnationen har sannolikt även påverkats av konjunktureffekter. Detta beror på ett den ekonomiska tillväxten nästan var dubbelt så hög under perioden 2014 till 2017 i jämförelse med perioden 2005 till 2014. 

    ·      Fallande reala bränslepriser: De inflationsjusterade bränslepriserna steg 2005 till 2014, men föll mellan 2014 till 2017. Efter 2017 har de reala bränslepriserna stigit något. 

    ·      Stigande undvikandekostnader på marginalen i historiskt framgångsrika sektorer: Stagnationen i sektorer med hög, men avtagande procentuell minskning har sannolikt påverkats av att de billigaste minskningarna redan skett. Därmed stiger kostnaden för ytterligare reduktioner. Historiska erfarenheter är att spridningen av teknologi sker efter ett S-format mönster. Gäller det även klimatvänlig teknologi leder det till att utsläppen minskar efter en kurva som ser ut som ett spegelvänt S. 

    ·      Institutionella struktureffekter: Minskningarna i sektorer som avfall beror delvis på att utsläppen flyttas till den handlande sektorn. Detta är att betrakta som en politisk drivkraft. Exakt hur stor effekten är har inte kunnat fastslås.

    ·      Det är svårt att avgöra om det politiska omvandlingstrycket ökat eller minskat eller om marginalkostnaderna stigit. Det är också svårt att avgöra hur starkt omvandlingstrycket varit mellan olika sektorer. Styrmedel har tveklöst haft stor betydelse i till exempel transportsektorn men små effekter i jordbruket. 

    ·      Om omvandlingstrycket är konstant i en sektor och utsläppen minskar, allt annat lika, kan man anta att utsläppsminskningen drivs av teknisk utveckling. Ser vi till historiska erfarenheter av ekonomisk tillväxt är tillväxten i regel långsammare i länder med höga inkomstnivåer. Det beror på att det är dyrare att utveckla ny teknik än vad det är att börja använda befintlig teknik. I den mån Sverige är teknikledande på klimatområdet är det hypotetiskt möjligt att minskningstakten är lägre än i andra länder. Att så kan vara fallet visas av studier av koldioxidkonvergens (att CO2/BNP i olika länder närmar sig varandra över tid).

    Del II. På vilket sätt kan extrema och populistiska rörelser påverka klimatutsläppen? Vad finns de för historiska lärdomar?

    Den andra delen av rapporten bygger på en översikt av befintlig forskning. Forskningen är tämligen omfattande om fokus riktas mot sambandet mellan högerkonservatism och klimatförnekelse, framförallt vad gäller utvecklingen i USA där stödet för och attityder till den etablerade klimatforskningen och klimatpolitiken blivit alltmer partipolitiskt polariserad sedan början av 1990-talet. I fråga om ett tidsperspektiv som sträcker sig längre tillbaka än de senaste 40 åren, finns en begränsning i att klimatfrågan som politikområdet är ett nytt fenomen, dvs att det utvecklades som ett aktivt politikfält först under 1990-talet.

     I korthet drar vi följande slutsatser 

    ·      Vad gäller frågan om hur högerpopulistiska och nationalistiska strömningar och värderingar påverkat klimatutsläppen historiskt, är det svårt att dra några slutsatser för perioden innan 1990-talet. 1930-talets fascistiska regimer i Europa hade exempelvis inte större klimatutsläpp än demokratier som hade en rik tillgång till fossil energi och med ekonomier på samma teknologiska nivå. Ur historisk synvinkel är det inte en självklarhet att dagens högerpopulistiska rörelser (far-right) skulle motsätta sig klimatpolitiska åtgärder eller klimatvetenskapen. 

     ·      Det hot som de högerpopulistiska och nationalistiska rörelserna kan utgöra för svensk klimatpolitik blir beroende av i vilken utsträckning dessa partier anammar den nya vågen av högerpopulism i USA. Den högerpopulistiska och nationalistiska ideologi som idag har stort inflytande i USA under president Donald Trump, omfattar klimatförnekelse, ifrågasättande av IPCC:s trovärdighet, traditionella medier med mera. 

    ·      Klimatförnekelsen i USA karaktäriseras enligt en omfattande forskningslitteratur som ideologiskt förankrad och har sedan 1990-talet ett säte i det Republikanska partiet. Som ideologi har den enligt tillgänglig forskning förhindrat genomförandet av en federal klimatpolitik i USA och har försvagat Kyotoprotokollet och Parisavtalet. 

    ·      I en svensk kontext är den rörelse som motsvarar den amerikanska mycket liten och marginaliserad, men försöker att påverka opinionen främst via hemsidor, bloggar och sociala medier. Klimatförnekelsen har inte anammats av de traditionella etablerade svenska partierna.  

    ·      Den trend som tycks finnas bland de europeiska högerpopulistiska och nationalistiska partierna är att klimatpolitiken, om den erkänns, inte ska påverka den “vanliga” människan. Priset på bensin och diesel blir den direkta frågan som dessa partier söker röster med, vilket också är tydligt i Sverige. 

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 21.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Satsa på radikal teknikförändring – inte på biobränslen!2007In: Bioenergi: till vad och hur mycket? / [ed] Birgitta Johansson, Forskningsrådet Formas, 2007Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Sustainability and Shared Value in the Interwar Swedish Copper Industry2016In: Business history review, ISSN 0007-6805, E-ISSN 2044-768X, Vol. 90, no 2, p. 197-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study of the Swedish-based mining company Boliden examines the proactive strategies it adopted to deal with the potential for severe environmental problems associated with the establishment of its large copper smelter in the 1920s. The article demonstrates how international networks, personal experience, and knowledge transfer from the U.S. copper industry help to explain the importance given to environmental issues by the Swedish industrialists. It is suggested that the main explanation for the proactive stance of the Swedish managers is that they perceived excessive pollution as working against creating a profitable and sustainable business. This case provides compelling evidence that firms pursuing an agenda focused on earning profits can still deliver environmental innovation and value to the local community, compatible with the concept of creating shared value.

  • 23.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Petrusenko, Nadezda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Creating value out of waste: the transformation of the Swedish waste and recycling sector, 1970s-2010s2023In: Business history review, ISSN 0007-6805, E-ISSN 2044-768X, Vol. 97, no 1, p. 3-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the growth of the waste and recycling sector in Sweden since the 1970s and seeks to identify the conditions for market growth and underlying business dynamics. The article identifies a slow growth pattern at aggregate level in the 1970s, while a major shift toward higher growth rates took place only in the mid-1990s. Resembling the findings of existing studies of German and US industry counterparts, Swedish recycling companies grew larger in the 1970s and more knowledge-intensive from the 1980s. Our study concludes that the growth of the Swedish recycling industry has been driven not only by government policies addressing household waste but even more so by large manufacturing firms that have increasingly demanded more complex recycling services over time.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 24.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Kinneryd, Hanna
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Command-and-control revisited: environmental compliance and technological change in Swedish industry 1970–19902013In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 85, p. 6-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the issue of environmental policy instrument choice for achieving deep emission reductions in the industrial sector. Specifically, it provides: (a) a theoretical and empirical review of the conditions under which performance standards can provide efficient incentives for deep emission reductions and technology adoption; and (b) an analysis of the design and the outcomes of the standards-based regulation of industrial pollutants in Sweden during the period 1970–1990. Our empirical findings suggest that the Swedish regulatory approach comprised many key elements of an efficient policy-induced transition towards radically lower emissions in the metal smelting and pulp and paper industries. The regulation relied solely on performance standards, thus granting flexibility to firms in terms of selecting the appropriate compliance measures. These standards were implemented in combination with extended compliance periods. R&D projects and the new knowledge that was advanced incrementally in interaction between the company, the environmental authorities and research institutions provided a direct catalyst to the regulatory process. In these ways the Swedish regulatory approach provided scope for creative solutions, environmental innovation, and permitted the affected companies to coordinate pollution abatement measures with productive investments.

  • 25.
    Brandén, Gunnar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Sandqvist, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Tjänstesektorns storlek: sysselsättning, produktivitet, förädlingsvärde, andel av BNP, andel av export med särskilt fokus på KIBS2010Report (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Honningdal Grytten, Ola
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Norwegian School of Economics, Norway.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Minde, Kjell Bjørn
    Hauge School of Management, NLA University College, Norway.
    The wealth of nations and sustainable development: energy intensity and the environmental Kuznets curve2020In: Environmental Economics, ISSN 1998-6041, E-ISSN 1998-605X, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 110-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scholars warn that wealth leads to unsustainable environmental development. However, over the last decades, studies have shown an increase in environmental degradation at the initial stage of economic growth, and then a decline when economic growth reaches a certain level. This first acceleration and then deceleration create an inverted U-shaped curve between pollution and economic growth, called the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC). Environmental degradation can be measured by different factors. This paper deals with two of them, i.e. energy consumption and energy intensity (EI). The latter is measured as the ratio between energy consumption and GDP. The relationship of energy consumption and intensity to economic growth can serve as a tool for examining whether an EKC exists.

    The paper presents continuous series of energy consumption energy intensity and gross domestic product for the Norwegian mainland economy 1835–2019. The series are used to examine the possible existence of relative and absolute environmental Kuznets curves (EKC). Time series are established using available data and annual figures for 1835–2019, which are presented for the first time. They depict a development that, first, reflects an almost constant downward trend in EI, and, second, the existence of EKCs. The paper also proposes a polynomial regression model to discuss the relationship between environmental degradation as measured by energy consumption and intensity on the one hand, and economic growth on the other. It is concluded that there are both relative and absolute EKC-relations between environmental degradation and economic growth, with 1975 as relative and 2002 as absolute turning point.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 27. Kander, Astrid
    et al.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economic History. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economic History.
    Energy consumption, pollutant emissions and growth in the long run-Sweden during 200 years2004In: European Review of Economic History, ISSN 1361-4916, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 297-335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the evolution of energy use and pollution emissions in Sweden over the past two centuries – a much longer period than has been investigated in the large literature on the environmental Kuznets curve. In this article we show that both energy consumption and pollution emissions in Sweden declined relative to GDP over the last two hundred years. In absolute terms both energy use and pollution increased up until 1970, after which date energy consumption stabilised and pollutant emissions declined, leading to less environmental stress. The energy intensity results are decomposed to determine the relative impact of structural changes in the output structure versus within-sector changes. For the period after 1970 another decomposition for pollution emissions is performed to separate out changes in preferences from energy-related changes. The analyses show that technical change in a broad sense has been crucial for explaining the long-term decline in both energy intensity and pollutant intensity, while the transition to the service economy had negligible effects. Changed preferences affected the decline in emissions after 1970.

  • 28.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    An EKC-pattern in historical perspective: carbon dioxideemissions, technology, fuel prices and growth in Sweden1870–19972002In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 333-347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) has been subject to research and debate since the early 1990s. This articleexamines the inverted-U trajectory of Swedish CO2 emissions during an extended time period beginning in 1870. Thebasis for the investigation is a structural time series approach that utilizes a stochastic trend as an indicator oftechnological and structural change, and GDP growth and changes in the price of fuel and cement price asindependent variables. Finally, the development of technological and structural change with respect to CO2 emissionsis interpreted within the context of growth regimes. The result suggests that the period 1920–1960, with high,sustained growth rates was associated with less technological and structural changes relating to CO2 emissions thanperiods with lower growth rates, such as the late 1800s and the post-1970 period. Furthermore, it is suggested thattime-specific technological clusters may affect EKC patterns.

  • 29.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    En global lyxfälla?: Långsiktiga perspektiv på hushållens skuldsättning2010Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 30.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Estimates of changes in the Swedish standing timber volume 1800 to 1980: An EHNA Study1996Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 31.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Förutsättningar för den cirkulära ekonomins framväxt: ett historiskt-strukturanalytiskt perspektiv2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This working paper deals with the conditions for the emergence of a circular economy from the perspective of structural change and economic growth. To do this, the economy is divided into a tangible and intangible sector whose growth and contribution to GDP have been studied since the early 20th century. The overall conclusion is that the sectors have experienced similar growth for a long time, while the non-material sector's contribution to GDP is significantly greater today than before. The circular economy is linked to the material sector and must therefore grow faster than the total economy in order for the degree of circularity to increase.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 32.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Greening the national accounts: basic concepts and a case study of historical environmental accounting for Sweden2019In: Handbook of green economics / [ed] Sevil Acar & Erinc Yeldan, Academic Press, 2019, p. 1-18Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter presents reconstructions of historical environmental accounts for Sweden for the period after 1970 with the purpose of both presenting key methodological issues pertaining to historical environmental accounting and demonstrating how historical series can be used for analysis of long-term economic and environmental change. The chapter also demonstrates how historical environmental accounts may be created by piecing together various data sources. Main empirical findings are that Swedish carbon emissions have decreased at approximately the discount rate suggested by William Nordhaus and that Environmental Protection Expenditures since 1972 have nearly been constant as a share of GDP, suggesting that environmental expenditure may have Cobb-Douglass characteristics.

  • 33.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Historical Environmental Protection Expenditure Accounts (EPEA) for Sweden 1972 to 20162022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents reconstructions of historical environmental accounts for Sweden for the period after 1970 with the purpose of both presenting key-methodological issues pertaining to historical environmental accounting and documenting methodological issues and considerations behind the figures. The paper also offers preliminary analyses of the series.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 34.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Hälsopolisens livsmedelskontroller: Kommentar till Ulf Rämme2001In: Historisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0345-469X, E-ISSN 2002-4827, no 4, p. 595-598Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economic History.
    Koldioxideffektivitet i ekonomisk-historiskt perspektiv2001Report (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Miljöjusterade historiska nationalräkenskaper1994In: Nordiska historiska nationalräkenskaper: Workshop vid Olofsfors herrgård 27-28 maj 1994 / [ed] Olle Krantz, Umeå: Umeå universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia , 1994, p. 1-29Conference paper (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 37.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Patterns of Historical CO2 intensity Transitions among High and Low-Income Countries2004In: Explorations in economic history, ISSN 0014-4983, E-ISSN 1090-2457, Vol. 41, no 4, p. 426-447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the long-term relationship between CO2 emissions and economic development for various high-income OECD countries that, in turn, are compared with pattern for developing countries. A majority of high-income countries have experienced environmental Kuznets curve types of transitions with respect to CO2 intensity (emissions per GDP), while the these patterns are absent in the poorer countries. Moreover, the overall historical pattern is one of convergence with respect to intensities. These observations are consistent with an explanation that takes into account includes time-specific, or vintage technology.

  • 38.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Politiker blundar för orsaken till välfärdens ökade kostnader2018In: Dagens nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447, , p. 1Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Förtroendekrisen för de etablerade partierna bottnar i att långsiktigt stigande kostnader för välfärden ignorerats. Talet om höga skatter för att förbättra välfärden är en skönmålning då de höga skatterna täckt upp för stigande kostnader. Och produktiviteten i välfärden har inte kunnat höjas med marknads­reformer.

  • 39.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Rethinking the environmental state: an economic history of the Swedish Environmental Kuznets Curve for carbon2019In: In search of good energy policy / [ed] Marc Ozawa, Jonathan Chaplin,Michael Pollitt, David Reiner, Paul Warde, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019, p. 139-164Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is important to recognize that macroeconomic conditions and dynamics were important for the design of Swedish energy policy and that the transformation pressure on the Swedish energy system was exceptionally high by international comparison. Historic decisions, which were governed by a rationality fostered by the circumstances in the 1940s and early 1950s, came to form important structures which affected the outcome of the energy policy in the 1970s and 1980s. The perhaps most striking consequence of this was the emergence of an Environmental Kuznets Curve for carbon with few international counterparts. The transformative change of the Swedish energy system included several steps, which in retrospect seem accidental. The challenge today is to copy the sequence, while at the same time realizing that the structures and historical circumstances that brought about a sequence that was historically determined and of a contingent nature cannot easily serve as a 'copy and paste' learning example.

  • 40.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Riktlinjer för historiska miljöräkenskaper2001In: Nordiska historiska nationalräkenskaper: Nordic historical national accounts. Artikelsamling från workshop V, Anumark, 29 september till 1 oktober, 2000 / [ed] Magnus Lindmark och Peter Vikström, Umeå: Institutionen för ekonomisk historia , 2001, p. 85-108Conference paper (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 41.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Some principles for environmental historical national accounting: a discussion paper1997In: Nordiska Historiska Nationalräkenskaper: Workshop 2 i Järvänpää 20-22 september 1996 / [ed] Jari Eloranta, Jyväskylä: Jyväskylä University , 1997Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Strypa tillväxten bästa lösningen?2013In: Generationsmålet: kontroverser kring klimat och konsumtion / [ed] Magnus Jiborn och Astrid Kander, Dialogos Förlag, 2013, 1, p. 78-92Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I kapitlet diskuteras möjliga konsekvenser av att möta de svenska klimatmålen genom att minska konsumtionen. Vad händer med levnadsstandarden om vi hade halverat arbetstiden och vilken historisk epok motsvarar det i termer av materiell välfärd?

  • 43.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Technical change and the pattern of industrialization in Sweden 1880-1990: TFP calculations based on new estimates of stocks2003In: Nordic Historical National Accounts: Proceedings from Workshop VI Reykjavik 19-20 September 2003 / [ed] Gundmundur Jonsson, Reykjavik: University of Iceland , 2003Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    The Nature of Natural Resource Net Prices: On the presence of Hotelling rents, monopoly rents and Ricardian rents in Swedish iron ore industry2004In: Studying Economic Growth. New Tools and Perspectives: Workshop arranged in Umeå June 2-3 2003 / [ed] Peter Vikström, Umeå: Umeå : Univ., Inst. för ekonomisk historia , 2004, p. 189-205Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 45.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Towards environmental historical national accounts for Sweden: methodological considerations and estimates for the 19th and 20th centuries1998Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    New questions in a changing economy demands development of both contemporary and historical national accounts. One such question concerns economic and environmental relationships. From a national accounting perspective this issue has been approached in terms of environmental accounting. The aim of this study is to investigate how proposals for integrated environmental and economic accounting can be used for an extension of the Historical National Accounts for Sweden and for examining the long-term relationship between economic growth and environmental degradation and resource depletion. This issue is approached through methodological considerations and estimates of iron ore and timber depletion and discharge of pollutants.

    The conclusions are that it is possible to construct environmental historical national accounts, but that the lack of historical data and theoretical difficulties cause a high level of abstraction and other problems concerning the series.

    The empirical investigations show that the 19th century can be considered a period of depletion intensive growth. Furthermore, there seems to be evidence of a correlation between changes in the natural resource net prices and previous periodizations of Swedish economic development. Concerning pollutants, the analyses shows an increase of the aggregated discharges until the late 1960s. However, the pollution intensity of growth has fallen throughout the period, possibly in a pattern of long trend periods.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 46.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economic History.
    Välfärdsstatens expansion. Ekonomisk tillväxt och offentlig sektor under 200 år. Av Peter H. Lindert2007In: Tidskrift for velferdsforskning, ISSN 0809-2052, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 65-66Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economic History.
    Öringsvatten eller terrawatt? : naturskydd i ett grönt strukturanalytiskt perspektiv2004In: Strukturernas dynamik : kontinuitet och förändring i ekonomisk historia : festskrift till Olle Krantz, Umeå : Univ., Inst. för ekonomisk historia, 2004 (Umeå : Print & Media, Umeå universitet) , 2004, p. 159-174Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Acar, Sevil
    Center for Climate Change and Policy Studies, School of Applied Disciplines, Bogazici University, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Riders on the storm2019In: Handbook of green economics / [ed] Sevil Acar; Erinç Yelda, Elsevier, 2019, p. 135-151Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter explores plausible environmental effects on American well-being from a historical perceptive, using quantitative data and a methodological approach that draws from green economics. This adds an environmental dimension of welfare to Robert Gordon’s interpretation of the development of well-being. First, it may be hypothesized that the levels of environmental damage rose especially during the prosperous decades following the World War II, including the spread of motor vehicles, diffusion of air traffic, and increased energy consumption. If so, the traditional way of measuring economic progress, i.e., gross domestic product, would exaggerate the true development of well-being. On the contrary, second, the true progress of the post-1970 period may have been underestimated if environmental damage actually decreased as a consequence of an environmental awakening among producers, consumers, and agents, creating modern environmental policy. However, as the cost of carbon is time dependent, we can foresee that the environmental costs will continue to increase.

  • 49.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Acar, Sevil
    Riders on the storm: how hard did Robert Gordon’s environmental headwind blow in the past?2019In: Handbook of green economics / [ed] Sevil Acar & Erinc Yeldan, Academic Press, 2019, p. 135-151Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE), Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Acar, Sevil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE), Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden; Istanbul Kemerburgaz University, Department of Economics, Mahmutbey Dilmenler Caddesi, No: 26, Bagcilar, 34217 Istanbul, Turkey.
    Sustainability in the making? A historical estimate of Swedish sustainable and unsustainable development 1850-20002013In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 86, p. 176-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]