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  • 1. Abbott, Benjamin W.
    et al.
    Jones, Jeremy B.
    Schuur, Edward A. G.
    Chapin, F. Stuart, III
    Bowden, William B.
    Bret-Harte, M. Syndonia
    Epstein, Howard E.
    Flannigan, Michael D.
    Harms, Tamara K.
    Hollingsworth, Teresa N.
    Mack, Michelle C.
    McGuire, A. David
    Natali, Susan M.
    Rocha, Adrian V.
    Tank, Suzanne E.
    Turetsky, Merritt R.
    Vonk, Jorien E.
    Wickland, Kimberly P.
    Aiken, George R.
    Alexander, Heather D.
    Amon, Rainer M. W.
    Benscoter, Brian W.
    Bergeron, Yves
    Bishop, Kevin
    Blarquez, Olivier
    Bond-Lamberty, Ben
    Breen, Amy L.
    Buffam, Ishi
    Cai, Yihua
    Carcaillet, Christopher
    Carey, Sean K.
    Chen, Jing M.
    Chen, Han Y. H.
    Christensen, Torben R.
    Cooper, Lee W.
    Cornelissen, J. Hans C.
    de Groot, William J.
    DeLuca, Thomas H.
    Dorrepaal, Ellen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Fetcher, Ned
    Finlay, Jacques C.
    Forbes, Bruce C.
    French, Nancy H. F.
    Gauthier, Sylvie
    Girardin, Martin P.
    Goetz, Scott J.
    Goldammer, Johann G.
    Gough, Laura
    Grogan, Paul
    Guo, Laodong
    Higuera, Philip E.
    Hinzman, Larry
    Hu, Feng Sheng
    Hugelius, Gustaf
    Jafarov, Elchin E.
    Jandt, Randi
    Johnstone, Jill F.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Kasischke, Eric S.
    Kattner, Gerhard
    Kelly, Ryan
    Keuper, Frida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Kling, George W.
    Kortelainen, Pirkko
    Kouki, Jari
    Kuhry, Peter
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Laurion, Isabelle
    Macdonald, Robie W.
    Mann, Paul J.
    Martikainen, Pertti J.
    McClelland, James W.
    Molau, Ulf
    Oberbauer, Steven F.
    Olefeldt, David
    Pare, David
    Parisien, Marc-Andre
    Payette, Serge
    Peng, Changhui
    Pokrovsky, Oleg S.
    Rastetter, Edward B.
    Raymond, Peter A.
    Raynolds, Martha K.
    Rein, Guillermo
    Reynolds, James F.
    Robards, Martin
    Rogers, Brendan M.
    Schaedel, Christina
    Schaefer, Kevin
    Schmidt, Inger K.
    Shvidenko, Anatoly
    Sky, Jasper
    Spencer, Robert G. M.
    Starr, Gregory
    Striegl, Robert G.
    Teisserenc, Roman
    Tranvik, Lars J.
    Virtanen, Tarmo
    Welker, Jeffrey M.
    Zimov, Sergei
    Biomass offsets little or none of permafrost carbon release from soils, streams, and wildfire: an expert assessment2016In: Environmental Research Letters, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 11, no 3, article id 034014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the permafrost region warms, its large organic carbon pool will be increasingly vulnerable to decomposition, combustion, and hydrologic export. Models predict that some portion of this release will be offset by increased production of Arctic and boreal biomass; however, the lack of robust estimates of net carbon balance increases the risk of further overshooting international emissions targets. Precise empirical or model-based assessments of the critical factors driving carbon balance are unlikely in the near future, so to address this gap, we present estimates from 98 permafrost-region experts of the response of biomass, wildfire, and hydrologic carbon flux to climate change. Results suggest that contrary to model projections, total permafrost-region biomass could decrease due to water stress and disturbance, factors that are not adequately incorporated in current models. Assessments indicate that end-of-the-century organic carbon release from Arctic rivers and collapsing coastlines could increase by 75% while carbon loss via burning could increase four-fold. Experts identified water balance, shifts in vegetation community, and permafrost degradation as the key sources of uncertainty in predicting future system response. In combination with previous findings, results suggest the permafrost region will become a carbon source to the atmosphere by 2100 regardless of warming scenario but that 65%-85% of permafrost carbon release can still be avoided if human emissions are actively reduced.

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  • 2. Ala-aho, P.
    et al.
    Soulsby, C.
    Pokrovsky, O. S.
    Kirpotin, S. N.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Serikova, Svetlana
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Manasypov, R.
    Lim, A.
    Krickov, I.
    Kolesnichenko, L. G.
    Laudon, H.
    Tetzlaff, D.
    Permafrost and lakes control river isotope composition across a boreal Arctic transect in the Western Siberian lowlands2018In: Environmental Research Letters, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 13, no 3, p. =20-=20, article id 034028Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Western Siberian Lowlands (WSL) store large quantities of organic carbon that will be exposed and mobilized by the thawing of permafrost. The fate of mobilized carbon, however, is not well understood, partly because of inadequate knowledge of hydrological controls in the region which has a vast low-relief surface area, extensive lake and wetland coverage and gradually increasing permafrost influence. We used stable water isotopes to improve our understanding of dominant landscape controls on the hydrology of the WSL. We sampled rivers along a 1700 km South-North transect from permafrost-free to continuous permafrost repeatedly over three years, and derived isotope proxies for catchment hydrological responsiveness and connectivity. We found correlations between the isotope proxies and catchment characteristics, suggesting that lakes and wetlands are intimately connected to rivers, and that permafrost increases the responsiveness of the catchment to rainfall and snowmelt events, reducing catchment mean transit times. Our work provides rare isotope-based field evidence that permafrost and lakes/wetlands influence hydrological pathways across a wide range of spatial scales (10-105 km2) and permafrost coverage (0%-70%). This has important implications, because both permafrost extent and lake/wetland coverage are affected by permafrost thaw in the changing climate. Changes in these hydrological landscape controls are likely to alter carbon export and emission via inland waters, which may be of global significance.

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  • 3. Ala-aho, P.
    et al.
    Soulsby, C.
    Pokrovsky, O. S.
    Kirpotin, S. N.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Serikova, Svetlana
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Vorobyev, S. N.
    Manasypov, R. M.
    Loiko, S.
    Tetzlaff, D.
    Using stable isotopes to assess surface water source dynamics and hydrological connectivity in a high-latitude wetland and permafrost influenced landscape2018In: Journal of Hydrology, ISSN 0022-1694, E-ISSN 1879-2707, Vol. 556, p. 279-293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is expected to alter hydrological and biogeochemical processes in high-latitude inland waters. A critical question for understanding contemporary and future responses to environmental change is how the spatio-temporal dynamics of runoff generation processes will be affected. We sampled stable water isotopes in soils, lakes and rivers on an unprecedented spatio-temporal scale along a 1700 km transect over three years in the Western Siberia Lowlands. Our findings suggest that snowmelt mixes with, and displaces, large volumes of water stored in the organic soils and lakes to generate runoff during the thaw season. Furthermore, we saw a persistent hydrological connection between water bodies and the landscape across permafrost regions. Our findings help to bridge the understanding between small and large scale hydrological studies in high-latitude systems. These isotope data provide a means to conceptualise hydrological connectivity in permafrost and wetland influenced regions, which is needed for an improved understanding of future biogeochemical changes.

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  • 4.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Jurgensone, Iveta
    Rowe, Owen F.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Simonelli, Paolo
    Bignert, Anders
    Lundberg, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF).
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Can Humic Water Discharge Counteract Eutrophication in Coastal Waters?2013In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 4, p. e61293-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A common and established view is that increased inputs of nutrients to the sea, for example via river flooding, will cause eutrophication and phytoplankton blooms in coastal areas. We here show that this concept may be questioned in certain scenarios. Climate change has been predicted to cause increased inflow of freshwater to coastal areas in northern Europe. River waters in these areas are often brown from the presence of high concentrations of allochthonous dissolved organic carbon ( humic carbon), in addition to nitrogen and phosphorus. In this study we investigated whether increased inputs of humic carbon can change the structure and production of the pelagic food web in the recipient seawater. In a mesocosm experiment unfiltered seawater from the northern Baltic Sea was fertilized with inorganic nutrients and humic carbon (CNP), and only with inorganic nutrients (NP). The system responded differently to the humic carbon addition. In NP treatments bacterial, phytoplankton and zooplankton production increased and the systems turned net autotrophic, whereas the CNP-treatment only bacterial and zooplankton production increased driving the system to net heterotrophy. The size-structure of the food web showed large variations in the different treatments. In the enriched NP treatments the phytoplankton community was dominated by filamentous >20 mu m algae, while in the CNP treatments the phytoplankton was dominated by picocyanobacteria <5 mu m. Our results suggest that climate change scenarios, resulting in increased humic-rich river inflow, may counteract eutrophication in coastal waters, leading to a promotion of the microbial food web and other heterotrophic organisms, driving the recipient coastal waters to net-heterotrophy.

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  • 5.
    Ask, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Net ecosystem production in clear-water and brown-water lakes2012In: Global Biogeochemical Cycles, ISSN 0886-6236, E-ISSN 1944-9224, Vol. 26, p. GB1017-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied 15 lakes in northern Sweden with respect to primary production and respiration in benthic and pelagic habitats. The lakes were characterized by different concentrations of colored dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of terrestrial origin, forming a gradient ranging from clear-water to brown-water lakes. Primary production decreased and respiration increased on a whole-lake scale along the gradient of increasing DOC. Thus, the lakes became more net heterotrophic, i.e., had lower net ecosystem production (NEP = gross primary production - community respiration), with increasing terrestrial DOC and this change coincided with increasing partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO(2)) in the surface waters. The single most important process for the increasing net heterotrophy along the DOC gradient was pelagic respiration of terrestrial organic carbon. In spite of high metabolic activity in the benthic habitat, benthic primary production and benthic respiration decreased simultaneously with increasing DOC, showing that the benthic habitat was in metabolic balance throughout the gradient. Therefore, the net heterotrophic states of the lakes depended on the terrestrial DOC export to lakes and the concomitant respiration of terrestrial organic carbon in the pelagic habitat.

  • 6.
    Ask, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Persson, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ask, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Byström, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Terrestrial organic matter and light penetration: Effects on bacterial and primary production in lakes2009In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 54, no 6, p. 2034-2040Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated productivity at the basal trophic level in 15 unproductive lakes in a gradient ranging from clear-water to brown-water (humic) lakes in northern Sweden. Primary production and bacterial production in benthic and pelagic habitats were measured to estimate the variation in energy mobilization from external energy sources (primary production plus bacterial production on allochthonous organic carbon) along the gradient. Clear-water lakes were dominated by autotrophic energy mobilization in the benthic habitat, whereas humic lakes were dominated by heterotrophic energy mobilization in the pelagic habitat. Whole-lake (benthic + pelagic) energy mobilization was negatively correlated to the light-extinction coefficient, which was determined by colored terrestrial organic matter in the lake water. Thus, variation in the concentration of terrestrial organic matter and its light-absorbing characteristics exerts strong control on the magnitude, as well as on the processes and pathways, of energy mobilization in unproductive lakes. We suggest that unproductive lakes in general are sensitive to input of terrestrial organic matter because of its effects on basal energy mobilization in both benthic and pelagic habitats.

  • 7.
    Ask, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Persson, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ask, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Byström, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Whole-lake estimates of carbon flux through algae and bacteria in benthic and pelagic habitats of clear-water lakes2009In: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 90, no 7, p. 1923-1932Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study quantified new biomass production of algae and bacteria in both benthic and pelagic habitats of clear-water lakes to contrast how carbon from the atmosphere and terrestrial sources regulates whole-lake metabolism. We studied four small unproductive lakes in subarctic northern Sweden during one summer season. The production of new biomass in both benthic and pelagic habitats was calculated as the sum of autotrophic production by algae and heterotrophic production by bacteria using allochthonous organic carbon (OC). Whole-lake production of new biomass was dominated by the benthic habitat (86% +/- 4% [mean +/- SD]) and by primary production (77% +/- 9%). Still, heterotrophic bacteria fueled by allochthonous OC constituted a significant portion of the new biomass production in both benthic (19% +/- 11%) and pelagic habitats (51% +/- 24%). In addition, overall net production (primary production minus respiration) was close to zero in the benthic habitats but highly negative (-163 +/- 81 mg C.m(-2).d(-1)) in pelagic regions of all lakes. We conclude (1) that allochthonous OC supported a significant part of total production of new biomass in both pelagic and benthic habitats, (2) that benthic habitats dominated the whole-lake production of new biomass, and (3) that respiration and net CO2 production dominated the carbon flux of the pelagic habitats and biomass production dominated the benthic carbon flux. Taken together, these findings suggest that previous investigations have greatly underestimated the productivity of clear-water lakes when benthic autotrophic production and metabolism of allochthonous OC have not been measured.

  • 8.
    Ask, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ask, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Byström, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Persson, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Competition mediated coexistence of invading intermediate consumer, ninespine stickleback, and a resident omnivorous top predator, Arctic charManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change results in changes in the geographical distribution of species. Species invasion success into a new area is dependent both on the dispersal ability of species as well as the strength and identity of biotic interactions between resident and invading species. Coexistence in intraguild predation (IGP) systems depends on the relative strength of predation and competition interactions which in turn are temperature dependent. We investigated the effects of introducing an intermediate consumer, ninespine stickleback (Pungitius pungitius), into allopatric populations of the omnivorous top predator Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus). Introductions were performed in lakes with different climate regimes, two tundra lakes and two forest lakes that differed in average summer temperatures with 1.4 ± 0.5 ºC (average ± 1SD). We found that sticklebacks were able to invade and increase in density in both tundra and forest lakes. Sticklebacks had strong negative effects on resource densities which also was reflected in a decreased growth of small char. Increasing stickleback density had a positive effect on growth of large adults and on the maximum size of char. We conclude that stickleback presence is not limited by biological interactions in these systems but rather by dispersion ability. We suggest that the size dependency in the response of char to the invasion of sticklebacks is fundamental for the successful invasion of sticklebacks, and that size dependent interactions including cannibalism play important roles for coexistence in natural IGP-systems.

  • 9.
    Ask, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ask, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Byström, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Persson, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Temperature mediated effects on top consumer populations in subarctic lakesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of temperature on top consumer populations in subarctic lake communities were studied by contrasting two lake pairs in different climate regimes: one pair on the low alpine tundra and one pair in the subalpine birch forest. We measured zooplankton and macroinvertebrate biomasses over the season and estimated population density and size structure of the top consumer Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus). Furthermore, we modelled char growth using literature data on temperature dependent search rate, handling time and metabolic demands. The forest lakes were warmer than the tundra lakes. Char in the forest lakes were larger and had a higher individual growth compared to char in the tundra lakes, while population density and biomasses of char were not different between the forest and the tundra lakes. There were no differences in macroinvertebrate and zooplankton resource levels available for char between lake pairs. Our modeling of char growth revealed that higher temperature increased growth of char at the observed resource densities, suggesting that the higher temperature in the forest lakes was primarily the cause of the higher growth of char in these lakes. We suggest that cannibalism in char may regulate char recruitment and thereby population density and biomass of char leading to effects of increasing temperature on consumer biomass and consumer individual growth different from what is expected in pure consumer-resource systems. Our results emphasize the importance of feedbacks within ecosystems when addressing effects of climate change and increasing temperature on lake communities.

  • 10.
    Bartels, Pia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ask, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Climate Impacts Research Centre (CIRC), Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, Abisko, Sweden.
    Giesler, Reiner
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Climate Impacts Research Centre (CIRC), Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, Abisko, Sweden.
    Allochthonous Organic Matter Supports Benthic but Not Pelagic Food Webs in Shallow Coastal Ecosystems2018In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 21, no 7, p. 1459-1470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rivers transport large amounts of allochthonous organic matter (OM) to the ocean every year, but there are still fundamental gaps in how allochthonous OM is processed in the marine environment. Here, we estimated the relative contribution of allochthonous OM (allochthony) to the biomass of benthic and pelagic consumers in a shallow coastal ecosystem in the northern Baltic Sea. We used deuterium as a tracer of allochthony and assessed both temporal variation (monthly from May to August) and spatial variation (within and outside river plume). We found variability in allochthony in space and time and across species, with overall higher values for zoobenthos (26.2 +/- 20.9%) than for zooplankton (0.8 +/- 0.3%). Zooplankton allochthony was highest in May and very low during the other months, likely as a result of high inputs of allochthonous OM during the spring flood that fueled the pelagic food chain for a short period. In contrast, zoobenthos allochthony was only lower in June and remained high during the other months. Allochthony of zoobenthos was generally higher close to the river mouth than outside of the river plume, whereas it did not vary spatially for zooplankton. Last, zoobenthos allochthony was higher in deeper than in shallower areas, indicating that allochthonous OM might be more important when autochthonous resources are limited. Our results suggest that climate change predictions of increasing inputs of allochthonous OM to coastal ecosystems may affect basal energy sources supporting coastal food webs.

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  • 11. Bartels, Pia
    et al.
    Cucherousset, Julien
    Gudasz, Cristian
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Persson, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Premke, Katrin
    Rubach, Anja
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Steger, Kristin
    Tranvik, Lars J.
    Eklov, Peter
    Terrestrial subsidies to lake food webs: an experimental approach2012In: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 168, no 3, p. 807-818Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-ecosystem movements of material and energy are ubiquitous. Aquatic ecosystems typically receive material that also includes organic matter from the surrounding catchment. Terrestrial-derived (allochthonous) organic matter can enter aquatic ecosystems in dissolved or particulate form. Several studies have highlighted the importance of dissolved organic carbon to aquatic consumers, but less is known about allochthonous particulate organic carbon (POC). Similarly, most studies showing the effects of allochthonous organic carbon (OC) on aquatic consumers have investigated pelagic habitats; the effects of allochthonous OC on benthic communities are less well studied. Allochthonous inputs might further decrease primary production through light reduction, thereby potentially affecting autotrophic resource availability to consumers. Here, an enclosure experiment was carried out to test the importance of POC input and light availability on the resource use in a benthic food web of a clear-water lake. Corn starch (a C-4 plant) was used as a POC source due to its insoluble nature and its distinct carbon stable isotope value (delta C-13). The starch carbon was closely dispersed over the bottom of the enclosures to study the fate of a POC source exclusively available to sediment biota. The addition of starch carbon resulted in a clear shift in the isotopic signature of surface-dwelling herbivorous and predatory invertebrates. Although the starch carbon was added solely to the sediment surface, the carbon originating from the starch reached zooplankton. We suggest that allochthonous POC can subsidize benthic food webs directly and can be further transferred to pelagic systems, thereby highlighting the importance of benthic pathways for pelagic habitats.

  • 12. Berggren, M.
    et al.
    Bengtson, P.
    Soares, A. R. A.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Climate Impacts Research Centre (CIRC).
    Terrestrial support of zooplankton biomass in northern rivers2018In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 63, no 6, p. 2479-2492Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The contribution of terrestrially derived carbon to micro-crustacean zooplankton biomass (i.e., allochthony) has been previously studied in lakes, reservoirs, and estuaries, but little is known about zooplankton allochthony in rivers. In lacustrine environments, allochthony is regulated by distinct selective feeding behavior of different taxa. However, we hypothesized that restricted possibility for selective grazing in turbulent environments such as rivers would decouple zooplankton from specific microbial and algal food resources, such that their allochthony would mirror the terrestrial contribution to the surrounding bulk particle pool. We tested this idea by analyzing allochthony in 13 widely distributed Swedish rivers, using a dual-isotope mixing model. Zooplankton biomasses were generally low, and allochthony in different micro-crustacean groups (Cladocera, Cyclopoida, Calanoida) varied from 2% to 77%. As predicted, there were no correlations between allochthony and variables indicating the supply of algal and microbial food resources, such as chlorophyll a and bacterial production. Instead, the allochthony was generally similar to the share allochthonous contribution in bulk particulate organic matter, with relationships close to the 1 : 1 line. The zooplankton community allochthony was strongly regulated by the ecosystem metabolic balance between production and respiration, which in turn was dependent upon the ratio between total autochthonous organic carbon concentrations and water color. Our study for the first time shows that micro-crustacean allochthony is regulated differently in rivers compared to in lacustrine systems, and points to inefficient support of zooplankton biomass by algal resources in turbulent waters.

  • 13. Berggren, Martin
    et al.
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Intraspecific Autochthonous and Allochthonous Resource Use by Zooplankton in a Humic Lake during the Transitions between Winter, Summer and Fall2015In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 3, article id e0120575Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seasonal patterns in assimilation of externally produced, allochthonous, organic matter into aquatic food webs are poorly understood, especially in brown-water lakes. We studied the allochthony (share biomass of terrestrial origin) in cladoceran, calanoid and cyclopoid micro-crustacean zooplankton from late winter to fall during two years in a small humic lake (Sweden). The use of allochthonous resources was important for sustaining a small population of calanoids in the water column during late winter. However, in summer the calanoids shifted to 100% herbivory, increasing their biomass several-fold by making efficient use of the pelagic primary production. In contrast, the cyclopoids and cladocerans remained at high levels of allochthony throughout the seasons, both groups showing the mean allochthony of 0.56 (range in mean 0.17-0.79 and 0.34-0.75, for the respective group, depending on model parameters). Our study shows that terrestrial organic matter can be an important resource for cyclopoids and cladocerans on an annual basis, forming a significant link between terrestrial organic matter and the higher trophic levels of the food web, but it can also be important for sustaining otherwise herbivorous calanoids during periods of low primary production in late winter.

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  • 14. Berggren, Martin
    et al.
    Gudasz, Cristian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Guillemette, Francois
    Hensgens, Geert
    Ye, Linlin
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Systematic microbial production of optically active dissolved organic matter in subarctic lake water2020In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 65, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ecology and biogeochemistry of lakes in the subarctic region are particularly sensitive to changes in the abundance and optical properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM). External input of colored DOM to these lakes is an extensively researched topic, but little is known about potential reciprocal feedbacks between the optical properties of DOM and internal microbial processes in the water. We performed 28-day dark laboratory incubation trials on water from 101 subarctic tundra lakes in northern Sweden, measuring the microbial decay of DOM and the resulting dynamics in colored (CDOM) and fluorescent (FDOM) DOM components. While losses in dissolved oxygen during the incubations corresponded to a 20% decrease in mean DOM, conversely the mean CDOM and total FDOM increased by 22% and 30%, respectively. However, the patterns in microbial transformation of the DOM were not the same in all lakes. Notably, along the gradient of increasing ambient CDOM (water brownness), the lakes showed decreased microbial production of protein-like fluorescence, lowered DOM turnover rates and decreasing bacterial growth per unit of DOM. These trends indicate that browning of subarctic lakes systematically change the way that bacteria interact with the ambient DOM pool. Our study underscores that there is no unidirectional causal link between microbial processes and DOM optical properties, but rather reciprocal dependence between the two.

  • 15. Berggren, Martin
    et al.
    Klaus, Marcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Selvam, Balathandayuthabani Panneer
    Ström, Lena
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Quality transformation of dissolved organic carbon during water transit through lakes: contrasting controls by photochemical and biological processes2018In: Biogeosciences, ISSN 1726-4170, E-ISSN 1726-4189, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 457-470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) may be removed, transformed, or added during water transit through lakes, resulting in changes in DOC composition and pigmentation (color). However, the process-based understanding of these changes is incomplete, especially for headwater lakes. We hypothesized that because heterotrophic bacteria preferentially consume noncolored DOC, while photochemical processing removes colored fractions, the overall changes in DOC color upon water passage through a lake depend on the relative importance of these two processes, accordingly. To test this hypothesis we combined laboratory experiments with field studies in nine boreal lakes, assessing both the relative importance of different DOC decay processes (biological or photochemical) and the loss of color during water transit time (WTT) through the lakes. We found that influence from photo-decay dominated changes in DOC quality in the epilimnia of relatively clear headwater lakes, resulting in systematic and selective net losses of colored DOC. However, in highly pigmented brown-water lakes (absorbance at 420 nm > 7 m(-1)) biological processes dominated, and there was no systematic relationship between color loss and WTT. Moreover, in situ data and dark experiments supported our hypothesis on the selective microbial removal of nonpigmented DOC, mainly of low molecular weight, leading to persistent water color in these highly colored lakes. Our study shows that brown headwater lakes may not conform to the commonly reported pattern of the selective removal of colored constituents in freshwaters, as DOC can show a sustained degree of pigmentation upon transit through these lakes.

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  • 16.
    Berggren, Martin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ström, L
    Laudon, H
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jonsson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Giesler, Reiner
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jansson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Lake secondary production fueled by rapid transfer of low molecular weight organic carbon from terrestrial sources to aquatic consumers2010In: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248, Vol. 13, no 7, p. 870-880Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ecology Letters (2010) Abstract Carbon of terrestrial origin often makes up a significant share of consumer biomass in unproductive lake ecosystems. However, the mechanisms for terrestrial support of lake secondary production are largely unclear. By using a modelling approach, we show that terrestrial export of dissolved labile low molecular weight carbon (LMWC) compounds supported 80% (34-95%), 54% (19-90%) and 23% (7-45%) of the secondary production by bacteria, protozoa and metazoa, respectively, in a 7-km(2) boreal lake (conservative to liberal estimates in brackets). Bacterial growth on LMWC was of similar magnitude as that of primary production (PP), and grazing on bacteria effectively channelled the LMWC carbon to higher trophic levels. We suggest that rapid turnover of forest LMWC pools enables continuous export of fresh photosynthates and other labile metabolites to aquatic systems, and that substantial transfer of LMWC from terrestrial sources to lake consumers can occur within a few days. Sequestration of LMWC of terrestrial origin, thus, helps explain high shares of terrestrial carbon in lake organisms and implies that lake food webs can be closely dependent on recent terrestrial PP.

  • 17.
    Berggren, Martin
    et al.
    Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Ye, Linlin
    Department of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; School of Geographic Sciences, Nantong University, Nantong, China.
    Sponseller, Ryan A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Verheijen, Hendricus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Hensgens, Geert
    Department of Earth Sciences, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Nutrient limitation masks the dissolved organic matter composition effects on bacterial metabolism in unproductive freshwaters2023In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 68, no 9, p. 2059-2069Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aquatic microbial responses to changes in the amount and composition of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) are of fundamental ecological and biogeochemical importance. Parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis of excitation–emission fluorescence spectra is a common tool to characterize DOC, yet its ability to predict bacterial production (BP), bacterial respiration (BR), and bacterial growth efficiency (BGE) vary widely, potentially because inorganic nutrient limitation decouples microbial processes from their dependence on DOC composition. We used 28-d bioassays with water from 19 lakes, streams, and rivers in northern Sweden to test how much the links between bacterial metabolism and fluorescence PARAFAC components depend on experimental additions of inorganic nutrients. We found a significant interaction effect between nutrient addition and fluorescence on carbon-specific BP, and weak evidence for influence on BGE by the same interaction (p = 0.1), but no corresponding interaction effect on BR. A practical implication of this interaction was that fluorescence components could explain more than twice as much of the variability in carbon-specific BP (R2 = 0.90) and BGE (R2 = 0.70) after nitrogen and phosphorus addition, compared with control incubations. Our results suggest that an increased supply of labile DOC relative to ambient phosphorus and nitrogen induces gradually larger degrees of nutrient limitation of BP, which in turn decouple BP and BGE from fluorescence signals. Thus, while fluorescence does contain precise information about the degree to which DOC can support microbial processes, this information may be hidden in field studies due to nutrient limitation of bacterial metabolism.

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  • 18.
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Deininger, A.
    Jonsson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Vrede, T.
    Effects of nitrogen enrichment on zooplankton biomass and N:P recycling ratios across a DOC gradient in northern-latitude lakes2021In: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 848, no 21, p. 4991-5010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We used data from whole-lake studies to assess how changes in food quantity (phytoplankton biomass) and quality (phytoplankton community composition, seston C:P and N:P) with N fertilization affect zooplankton biomass, community composition and C:N:P stoichiometry, and their N:P recycling ratio along a gradient in lake DOC concentrations. We found that despite major differences in phytoplankton biomass with DOC (unimodal distributions, especially with N fertilization), no major differences in zooplankton biomass were detectable. Instead, phytoplankton to zooplankton biomass ratios were high, especially at intermediate DOC and after N fertilization, implying low trophic transfer efficiencies. An explanation for the observed low phytoplankton resource use, and biomass responses in zooplankton, was dominance of colony forming chlorophytes of reduced edibility at intermediate lake DOC, combined with reduced phytoplankton mineral quality (enhanced seston N:P) with N fertilization. N fertilization, however, increased zooplankton N:P recycling ratios, with largest impact at low DOC where phytoplankton benefitted from light sufficiently to cause enhanced seston N:P. Our results suggest that although N enrichment and increased phytoplankton biomass do not necessarily increase zooplankton biomass, bottom-up effects may still impact zooplankton and their N:P recycling ratio through promotion of phytoplankton species of low edibility and altered mineral quality.

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  • 19.
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Faithfull Mathisen, Carolyn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nitrogen deposition and warming  – effects on phytoplankton nutrient limitation in subarctic lakes2013In: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 19, no 8, p. 2557-2568Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to predict the combined effects of enhanced nitrogen (N) deposition and warming on phytoplankton development in high latitude and mountain lakes. Consequently, we assessed, in a series of enclosureexperiments, how lake water nutrient stoichiometry and phytoplankton nutrient limitation varied over the growingseason in 11 lakes situated along an altitudinal/climate gradient with low N-deposition (<1 kg N ha1yr1) in northern subarctic Sweden. Short-term bioassay experiments with N- and P-additions revealed that phytoplankton inhigh-alpine lakes were more prone to P-limitation, and with decreasing altitude became increasingly N- andNP-colimited. Nutrient limitation was additionally most obvious in midsummer. There was also a strong positivecorrelation between phytoplankton growth and water temperature in the bioassays. Although excess nutrients wereavailable in spring and autumn, on these occasions growth was likely constrained by low water temperatures. Theseresults imply that enhanced N-deposition over the Swedish mountain areas will, with the exception of high-alpinelakes, enhance biomass and drive phytoplankton from N- to P-limitation. However, if not accompanied by warming,N-input from deposition will stimulate limited phytoplankton growth due to low water temperatures during largeparts of the growing season. Direct effects of warming, allowing increased metabolic rates and an extension of thegrowing season, seem equally crucial to synergistically enhance phytoplankton development in these lakes.

  • 20.
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Vrede, Tobias
    N-limited consumer growth and low nutrient regeneration N:P ratios in lakes with low N deposition2015In: Ecosphere, ISSN 2150-8925, E-ISSN 2150-8925, Vol. 6, no 1, article id 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nutrient limitation of primary producers and their consumers can have a large influence on ecosystem productivity. The nature and strength of nutrient limitation is driven both by external factors (e.g., nutrient loading) and internal processes (e.g., consumer-driven nutrient regeneration). Here we present results from a field study in 10 low productive headwater lakes in northern subarctic Sweden, where nitrogen (N) deposition is low and phytoplankton is primarily N-limited. We assessed the carbon:nitrogen:phosphorus (C:N:P) stoichiometry of seston and zooplankton and estimated the N:P ratio of consumer-driven nutrient regeneration. Based on stoichiometric models, the estimated elemental imbalances between seston and zooplankton suggest that zooplankton were mainly N-limited and regenerated nutrients with low N:P ratios (median 11.9, atomic ratio). The predicted N:P regeneration ratios were consistent with results from phytoplankton nutrient limitation bioassays in mid-summer, i.e., the N:P regeneration was predicted to be low when phytoplankton were N-limited, and high when phytoplankton were P-limited. During other seasons, when water discharge was high, nutrient loading from the surrounding catchments apparently had the strongest effect on phytoplankton nutrient limitation. We propose that lakes with higher N:P ratios than the open ocean is an effect of N deposition, that N-limitation of consumers and phytoplankton is further enhanced by low nutrient regeneration N:P ratios, and that in the absence of N deposition, lake and ocean N:P stoichiometry are similar.

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  • 21.
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Climate Impacts Research Centre (CIRC), Umeå University, Abisko, Sweden.
    Light and nutrient control phytoplankton biomass responses to global change in northern lakes2019In: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 2021-2029Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global change affects terrestrial loadings of colored dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nutrients to northern lakes. Still, little is known about how phytoplankton respond to changes in light and nutrient availability across gradients in lake DOC. In this study, we used results from whole-lake studies in northern Sweden to show that annual mean phytoplankton biomass expressed unimodal curved relationships across lake DOC gradients, peaking at threshold DOC levels of around 11 mg/L. Whole-lake single nutrient enrichment in selected lakes caused elevated biomass, with most pronounced effect at the threshold DOC level. These patterns give support to the suggested dual control by DOC on phytoplankton via nutrient (positively) and light (negatively) availability and imply that the lakes' location along the DOC axis is critical in determining to what extent phytoplankton respond to changes in DOC and/or nutrient loadings. By using data from the large Swedish Lake Monitoring Survey, we further estimated that 80% of northern Swedish lakes are below the DOC threshold, potentially experiencing increased phytoplankton biomass with browning alone, and/or combined with nutrient enrichment. The results support the previous model results on effects of browning and eutrophication on lake phytoplankton, and provide important understanding of how northern lakes may respond to future global changes.

  • 22.
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Vrede, Tobias
    Contrasting plankton stoichiometry and nutrient regeneration in northern arctic and boreal lakes2018In: Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 1015-1621, E-ISSN 1420-9055, Vol. 80, no 2, article id 24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contrasting carbon: nitrogen: phosphorus (C: N: P) stoichiometry between phytoplankton and zooplankton affect consumer growth and phytoplankton nutrient limitation via nutrient recycling by zooplankton. However, no study has assessed how regional differences in terrestrial loadings of organic matter affect plankton N: P stoichiometry and recycling in systems with low N deposition and N-limited phytoplankton. We address this question by using data from 14 unproductive headwater arctic and boreal lakes. We found that boreal lakes had higher lake water-and seston C, N and P concentrations than arctic lakes, whereas seston C: N, C: P and N: P ratios did not differ among regions. Boreal zooplankton were also richer in N and P relative to C, with lower somatic N: P ratios, compared to arctic lakes. Consequently, the estimated N: P imbalances between seston and zooplankton were negative in arctic lakes, indicating zooplankton feeding on phytoplankton of suboptimal N content, resulting in low consumer driven N: P recycling (medians arctic sub-mid and high altitude lakes: 11 and 13). In boreal lakes, estimated N: P imbalance did not differ from zero, with a seston N: P stoichiometry matching the N: P requirements of zooplankton, which resulted in higher consumer driven N: P recycling (median 18). Our results imply that regional climate induced catchment differences, through enhanced terrestrial nutrient inputs, affect plankton stoichiometry by raising consumer N: P recycling ratio and changing zooplankton from being mainly N-(arctic) to NP co-limited (boreal). Browning of lakes, in regions with low N deposition, may therefore promote large-scale regional changes in plankton nutrient limitation with potential feedbacks on pelagic food webs.

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  • 23.
    Byström, Pär
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Hedström, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Hotchkiss, Erin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Rodríguez, Patricia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Austral Centre for Scientific Research (CADIC-CONICET), 9410 Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina.
    Vasconcelos, Rivera Francisco
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Warming decrease fish population densities and biomassManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Temperature impact all biota and ecosystems through its direct effect on the vital rates of primary producers and consumers. Still, how these changes in rates translates through ecosystem feed backs to the population level of top consumers are poorly understood. Here, we studied effects of temperature increase (+ 3 ̊C during ice free season) on fish population dynamics in a replicated large scale pond ecosystem experiment over 3 years. Increased temperature had no significant effect on whole ecosystem gross primary production while top down effects of warming on intermediate consumers changed from negative to positive due to negative effects of warming on fish population abundance. Total fish density and biomass and abundance of both mature and old fish decreased with warming, while proportion of young fish increased, with warming. The effects of warming on fish population demographics were likely due to that temperature increased cohort competition and fish energy requirements relative to resource production. Our results suggest that global warming may increase competition, favor young individuals and overall decrease fish population densities and biomass. 

  • 24.
    Byström, Pär
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nilsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Van Kooten, Tobias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ask, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Olofsson, Frans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Substitution of top predators: effects of pike invasion in a subarctic lake2007In: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 52, no 7, p. 1271–1280-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Invasions of top predators may have strong cascading effects in ecosystems affecting both prey species abundance and lower trophic levels. A recently discussed factor that may enhance species invasion is climate change and in this context, we studied the effects of an invasion of northern pike into a subarctic lake ecosystem formerly inhabited by the native top predator Arctic char and its prey fish, ninespined stickleback.

    2. Our study demonstrated a strong change in fish community composition from a system with Arctic char as top predator and high densities of sticklebacks to a system with northern pike as top predator and very low densities of sticklebacks. A combination of both predation and competition from pike is the likely cause of the extinction of char.

    3. The change in top predator species also cascaded down to primary consumers as both zooplankton and predator-sensitive macroinvertebrates increased in abundance.

    4. Although the pike invasion coincided with increasing summer temperatures in the study area we have no conclusive evidence that the temperature increase is the causal mechanism behind the pike invasion. But still, our study provides possible effects of future pike invasions in mountain lakes related to climate change. We suggest that future pike invasions will have strong effects in lake ecosystems, both by replacing native top consumers and through cascading effects on lower trophic levels.

  • 25.
    Capo, Eric
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Molecular Ecology Group, Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, SLU, Umeå, Sweden.
    Spong, Göran
    Molecular Ecology Group, Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, SLU, Umeå, Sweden; Fisheries, Wildlife and Conservation Biology Program, Department of Forestry and Environmental Resources, North Carolina State University, NC, Raleigh, United States.
    Koizumi, Shuntaro
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Puts, Isolde
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Olajos, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Königsson, Helena
    Molecular Ecology Group, Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, SLU, Umeå, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Byström, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Droplet digital PCR applied to environmental DNA, a promising method to estimate fish population abundance from humic-rich aquatic ecosystems2021In: Environmental DNA, E-ISSN 2637-4943, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 343-352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measures of environmental DNA (eDNA) concentrations in water samples have the potential to be both a cost-efficient and a nondestructive method to estimate fish population abundance. However, the inherent temporal and spatial variability in abiotic and biotic conditions in aquatic systems have been suggested to be a major obstacle to determine relationships between fish eDNA concentrations and fish population abundance. Moreover, once water samples are collected, methodological biases are common, which introduces additional sources of variation to potential relationships between eDNA concentrations and fish population abundance. Here, we evaluate the performance of applying the droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) method to estimate fish population abundance in experimental enclosures. Using large-scale enclosure ecosystems that contain populations of nine-spined stickleback (Pungitius pungitius), we compared the concentrations of fish eDNA (COI mitochondrial region, 134 bp) obtained with the ddPCR method with high precision estimates of fish population abundance (i.e., number of individuals) and biomass. To evaluate the effects of contrasted concentrations of humic substances (potential PCR inhibitors) on the performance of ddPCR assays, we manipulated natural dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations (range 4–11 mg/L) in the enclosures. Additionally, water temperature (+2°C) was manipulated in half of the enclosures. Results showed positive relationships between eDNA concentration and fish abundance and biomass estimates although unexplained variation remained. Still and importantly, fish eDNA estimates from high DOC enclosures were not lowered by potential inhibitory effects with our procedure. Finally, water temperature (although only 2°C difference) was neither detected as a significant factor influencing fish eDNA estimates. Altogether, our work highlights that ddPCR-based eDNA is a promising method for future quantification of fish population abundance in natural systems.

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  • 26.
    Casas-Ruiz, Joan P.
    et al.
    Research Group on Ecology of Inland Waters (GRECO), Institute of Aquatic Ecology, University of Girona, Girona, Spain.
    Bodmer, Pascal
    Groupe de Recherche Interuniversitaire en Limnologie (GRIL), Département des sciences biologiques, Université du Québec à Montréal, QC, Montréal, Canada.
    Bona, Kelly Ann
    Environment and Climate Change Canada, QC, Gatineau, Canada.
    Butman, David
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Washington, WA, Seattle, United States.
    Couturier, Mathilde
    Groupe de Recherche Interuniversitaire en Limnologie (GRIL), Département des sciences biologiques, Université du Québec à Montréal, QC, Montréal, Canada.
    Emilson, Erik J. S.
    Natural Resources Canada, Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada.
    Finlay, Kerri
    University of Regina, SK, Regina, Canada.
    Genet, Hélène
    University of Alaska Fairbanks, AK, Fairbanks, United States.
    Hayes, Daniel
    University of Maine, ME, Orono, United States.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Paré, David
    Natural Resources Canada, QC, Québec, Canada.
    Peng, Changhui
    Groupe de Recherche Interuniversitaire en Limnologie (GRIL), Département des sciences biologiques, Université du Québec à Montréal, QC, Montréal, Canada.
    Striegl, Rob
    United States Geological Survey, CO, Boulder, United States.
    Webb, Jackie
    Centre for Regional and Rural Futures (CeRRF), Faculty of Science, Engineering and Built Environment, Deakin University, NSW, Griffith, Australia.
    Wei, Xinyuan
    University of Maine, ME, Orono, United States.
    Ziegler, Susan E.
    Memorial University of Newfoundland, NL, St. John’s, Canada.
    del Giorgio, Paul A.
    Groupe de Recherche Interuniversitaire en Limnologie (GRIL), Département des sciences biologiques, Université du Québec à Montréal, QC, Montréal, Canada.
    Integrating terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems to constrain estimates of land-atmosphere carbon exchange2023In: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 1571Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this Perspective, we put forward an integrative framework to improve estimates of land-atmosphere carbon exchange based on the accumulation of carbon in the landscape as constrained by its lateral export through rivers. The framework uses the watershed as the fundamental spatial unit and integrates all terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems as well as their hydrologic carbon exchanges. Application of the framework should help bridge the existing gap between land and atmosphere-based approaches and offers a platform to increase communication and synergy among the terrestrial, aquatic, and atmospheric research communities that is paramount to advance landscape carbon budget assessments.

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  • 27.
    Corman, Jessica R.
    et al.
    School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska–Lincoln, NE, Lincoln, United States.
    Zwart, Jacob A.
    Integrated Information Dissemination Division, U.S. Geological Survey, CA, San Francisco, United States.
    Klug, Jennifer
    Biology Department, Fairfield University, CT, Fairfield, United States.
    Bruesewitz, Denise A.
    Environmental Studies Department, Colby College, ME, Waterville, United States.
    de Eyto, Elvira
    Fisheries Ecosystems Advisory Service, Marine Institute, Newport, Co. Mayo, Ireland.
    Klaus, Marcus
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Knoll, Lesley B.
    Department of Biology, Miami University, OH, Oxford, United States.
    Rusak, James A.
    Dorset Environmental Science Centre, Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Conservation and Parks, ON, Dorset, Canada; Biology Department, Queen's University, ON, Kingston, Canada.
    Vanni, Michael J.
    Department of Biology, Miami University, OH, Oxford, United States.
    Alfonso, María Belén
    Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka Prefecture, Kasuga, Japan.
    Fernandez, Rocio Luz
    National Scientific and Technical Research Council (CONICET), Santa Fe, Argentina.
    Yao, Huaxia
    Inland Waters Unit, Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Conservation and Parks, ON, Dorset, Canada.
    Austnes, Kari
    Section for Catchment Biogeochemistry, Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Oslo, Norway.
    Couture, Raoul-Marie
    Department of Chemistry, Centre d'Études Nordiques, Université Laval, QC, Quebec, Canada.
    de Wit, Heleen A.
    Section for Catchment Biogeochemistry, Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Oslo, Norway.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Laas, Alo
    Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Tartu, Estonia.
    Response of lake metabolism to catchment inputs inferred using high-frequency lake and stream data from across the northern hemisphere2023In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 68, no 12, p. 2617-2631Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In lakes, the rates of gross primary production (GPP), ecosystem respiration (R), and net ecosystem production (NEP) are often controlled by resource availability. Herein, we explore how catchment vs. within lake predictors of metabolism compare using data from 16 lakes spanning 39°N to 64°N, a range of inflowing streams, and trophic status. For each lake, we combined stream loads of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) with lake DOC, TN, and TP concentrations and high frequency in situ monitoring of dissolved oxygen. We found that stream load stoichiometry indicated lake stoichiometry for C : N and C : P (r2 = 0.74 and r2 = 0.84, respectively), but not for N : P (r2 = 0.04). As we found a strong positive correlation between TN and TP, we only used TP in our statistical models. For the catchment model, GPP and R were best predicted by DOC load, TP load, and load N : P (R2 = 0.85 and R2 = 0.82, respectively). For the lake model, GPP and R were best predicted by TP concentrations (R2 = 0.86 and R2 = 0.67, respectively). The inclusion of N : P in the catchment model, but not the lake model, suggests that both N and P regulate metabolism and that organisms may be responding more strongly to catchment inputs than lake resources. Our models predicted NEP poorly, though it is unclear why. Overall, our work stresses the importance of characterizing lake catchment loads to predict metabolic rates, a result that may be particularly important in catchments experiencing changing hydrologic regimes related to global environmental change.

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  • 28. Creed, Irena F.
    et al.
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Trick, Charles G.
    Grimm, Nancy B.
    Hessen, Dag O.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Kidd, Karen A.
    Kritzberg, Emma
    McKnight, Diane M.
    Freeman, Erika C.
    Senar, Oscar E.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ask, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Berggren, Martin
    Cherif, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Giesler, Reiner
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Hotchkiss, Erin R.
    Kortelainen, Pirkko
    Palta, Monica M.
    Vrede, Tobias
    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.
    Global change-driven effects on dissolved organic matter composition: Implications for food webs of northern lakes2018In: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 24, no 8, p. 3692-3714Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Northern ecosystems are experiencing some of the most dramatic impacts of global change on Earth. Rising temperatures, hydrological intensification, changes in atmospheric acid deposition and associated acidification recovery, and changes in vegetative cover are resulting in fundamental changes in terrestrial-aquatic biogeochemical linkages. The effects of global change are readily observed in alterations in the supply of dissolved organic matter (DOM)-the messenger between terrestrial and lake ecosystems-with potentially profound effects on the structure and function of lakes. Northern terrestrial ecosystems contain substantial stores of organic matter and filter or funnel DOM, affecting the timing and magnitude of DOM delivery to surface waters. This terrestrial DOM is processed in streams, rivers, and lakes, ultimately shifting its composition, stoichiometry, and bioavailability. Here, we explore the potential consequences of these global change-driven effects for lake food webs at northern latitudes. Notably, we provide evidence that increased allochthonous DOM supply to lakes is overwhelming increased autochthonous DOM supply that potentially results from earlier ice-out and a longer growing season. Furthermore, we assess the potential implications of this shift for the nutritional quality of autotrophs in terms of their stoichiometry, fatty acid composition, toxin production, and methylmercury concentration, and therefore, contaminant transfer through the food web. We conclude that global change in northern regions leads not only to reduced primary productivity but also to nutritionally poorer lake food webs, with discernible consequences for the trophic web to fish and humans.

  • 29.
    Deininger, Anne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Faithfull, Carolyn L.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Oceanography, University of Hawai'i, Honolulu, USA.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Klaus, Marcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Bergström, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Pelagic food web response to whole lake N fertilization2017In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 62, no 4, p. 1498-1511Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic activities are increasing inorganic nitrogen (N) loadings to unproductive boreal lakes. In many of these lakes phytoplankton are N limited, consequently N fertilization may affect ecosystem productivity and consumer resource use. Here, we conducted whole lake inorganic N fertilization experiments with six small N limited unproductive boreal lakes (three control and three N enriched) in an area receiving low N deposition with one reference and two impact years. Our aim was to assess the effects of N fertilization on pelagic biomass production and consumer resource use. We found that phytoplankton primary production (PP) and biomass, and the PP: bacterioplankton production ratio increased after fertilization. As expected, the relative contribution of phytoplankton derived resources (autochthony) that supported the crustacean zooplankton community increased. Yet, the response in the consumer community was modest with autochthony only increasing in one of the three major zooplankton groups and with no effect on zooplankton biomass. In conclusion, our findings imply that newly available phytoplankton energy derived from N fertilization was not efficiently transferred up to zooplankton, indicating a mismatch between producer energy supply and consumer energy use with potential accumulation of phytoplankton biomass as the result.

  • 30.
    Denfeld, Blaize A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Baulch, Helen M.
    del Giorgio, Paul A.
    Hampton, Stephanie E.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Climate Impacts Research Centre, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    A synthesis of carbon dioxide and methane dynamics during the ice-covered period of northern lakes2018In: Limnology and Oceanography Letters, E-ISSN 2378-2242, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 117-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ice‐covered period on lakes in the northern hemisphere has often been neglected or assumed to have less importance relative to the open water season. However, recent studies challenge this convention, suggesting that the winter period is more dynamic than previously thought. In this review, we synthesize the current understanding of under‐ice carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) dynamics, highlighting the annual importance of CO2 and CH4 emissions from lakes at ice‐melt. We compiled data from 25 studies that showed that the ice‐melt period represents 17% and 27% of the annual CO2 and CH4 emissions, respectively. We also found evidence that the magnitude and type of emission (i.e., CO2 and CH4) varies with characteristics of lakes including geographic location, lake morphometry, and physicochemical conditions. The scarcity of winter and spring carbon data from northern lakes represents a major gap in our understanding of annual budgets in these lakes and calls for future research during this key period.

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  • 31.
    Denfeld, Blaize A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Klaus, Marcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Sponseller, Ryan A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Carbon Dioxide and Methane Dynamics in a Small Boreal Lake During Winter and Spring Melt Events2018In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences, ISSN 2169-8953, E-ISSN 2169-8961, Vol. 123, no 8, p. 2527-2540Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In seasonally ice‐covered lakes, carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emission at ice‐off can account for a significant fraction of the annual budget. Yet knowledge of the mechanisms controlling below lake‐ice carbon (C) dynamics and subsequent CO2 and CH4 emissions at ice‐off is limited. To understand the control of below ice C dynamics, and C emissions in spring, we measured spatial variation in CO2, CH4, and dissolved inorganic and organic carbon from ice‐on to ice‐off, in a small boreal lake during a winter with sporadic melting events. Winter melt events were associated with decreased surface water DOC in the forest‐dominated basin and increased surface water CH4 in the mire‐dominated basin. At the whole‐lake scale, CH4 accumulated below ice throughout the winter, whereas CO2 accumulation was greatest in early winter. Mass‐balance estimates suggest that, in addition to the CO2 and CH4 accumulated during winter, external inputs of CO2 and CH4 and internal processing during ice‐melt could represent significant sources of C gas emissions during ice‐off. Moreover, internal processing of CO2 and CH4 worked in opposition, with production of CO2 and oxidation of CH4 dominating at ice‐off. These findings have important implications for how small boreal lakes will respond to warmer winters in the future; increased winter melt events will likely increase external inputs below ice and thus alter the extent and timing of CO2 and CH4 emissions to the atmosphere at ice‐off.

  • 32.
    Denfeld, Blaize A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Lupon, Anna
    Sponseller, Ryan A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Heterogeneous CO2 and CH4 patterns across space and time in a small boreal lake2020In: Inland Waters, ISSN 2044-2041, E-ISSN 2044-205X, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 348-359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small boreal lakes emit large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) to the atmosphere. Yet emissions of these greenhouse gases are variable in space and time, in part due to variable within-lake CO2 and CH4 concentrations. To determine the extent and the underlying drivers of this variation, we measured lake water CO2 and CH4 concentrations and estimated associated emissions using spatially discrete water samples collected every 2 weeks from a small boreal lake. On select dates, we also collected groundwater samples from the surrounding catchment. On average, groundwater draining a connected peat mire complex had significantly higher CO2 and CH4 concentrations compared to waters draining forest on mineral soils. However, within the lake, only CH4 concentrations nearshore from the mire complex were significantly elevated. We observed little spatial variability in surface water CO2; however, bottom water CO2 in the pelagic zone was significantly higher than bottom waters at nearshore locations. Overall, temperature, precipitation, and thermal stratification explained temporal patterns of CO2 concentration, whereas hydrology (discharge and precipitation) best predicted the variation in CH4 concentration. Consistent with these different controls, the highest CO2 emission was related to lake turnover at the end of August while the highest CH4 emission was associated with precipitation events at the end of June. These results suggest that annual carbon emissions from small boreal lakes are influenced by temporal variation in weather conditions that regulate thermal stratification and trigger hydrologic land-water connections that supply gases from catchment soils to the lake.

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  • 33.
    Diehl, Sebastian
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Integrated Science Lab (IceLab), Umeå University, Sweden.
    Thomsson, Gustaf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Kahlert, Maria
    Guo, Junwen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Liess, Antonia
    Inverse relationship of epilithic algae and pelagic phosphorus in unproductive lakes: Roles of N-2 fixers and light2018In: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 63, no 7, p. 662-675Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phosphorus (P) often limits the biomass of primary producers in freshwater lakes. However, in unproductive northern lakes, where anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition is low, N instead of P can limit primary producers. In addition, light can be limiting to primary producers at high concentrations of coloured dissolved organic matter (cDOM), as cDOM is the major determinant of light penetration in these lakes.

    To address resource limitation of epilithic algal biomass, we repeatedly sampled epilithon (periphyton on stony substrata) in 20 lakes covering a large, correlated cDOM and N‐deposition gradient across boreal and subarctic Sweden. Across these lakes, pelagic total N (TN) and total P (TP) were positively correlated, and benthic light supply was negatively correlated, with cDOM. Microscopically determined algal biovolume and epilithic carbon (C), N and P were subsequently regressed against benthic light supply and pelagic TN and TP.

    Patterns in epilithic biovolume were driven by N2‐fixing cyanobacteria, which accounted for 2%–90% of total epilithic biovolume. Averaged over the growing season, epilithic algal biovolume, C and N were negatively related to TP and positively to TN, and were highest in the clearest, most phosphorus‐poor lakes, where epilithon was heavily dominated by potentially N2‐fixing cyanobacteria.

    A structural equation model supports the hypothesis that cDOM had two counteracting effects on total epilithic algal biovolume: a positive one by providing N to algae that depend on dissolved N for growth, and a negative one by shading N2‐fixing cyanobacteria, with the negative effect being somewhat stronger.

    Together, these findings suggest that (1) light and N are the main resources limiting epilithic algal biomass in boreal to subarctic Swedish lakes, (2) epilithic cyanobacteria are more competitive in high‐light and low‐nitrogen environments, where their N2‐fixing ability allows them to reach high biomass, and (3) epilithic N increases with N2 fixer biomass and is—seemingly paradoxically—highest in the most oligotrophic lakes.

  • 34.
    Diehl, Sebastian