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  • 1.
    Harr, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Exploring the concept of group interaction through action in a mobile context2002In: Database and expert systems applications: 13th International Conference, DEXA 2002 Proceedings, London: Springer Verlag , 2002, p. 567-576Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the concept of interaction through action. The exploration is done empirically in the setting of bird hunting. Using qualitative research methods, we studied how a hunting group secure awareness in order to coordinate their actions and to collaborate. We analyzed the data using a modified CSCW-model and found that the methods for securing awareness and coordination are rather complex and that environmental constraints play important roles. Dealing with coordination and collaboration in a setting such as the one we study is not easy. Based on the empirical findings, we derive design implications to consider in the design of artifacts for supporting group activity grounded on the concept of interaction through action.

  • 2.
    Harr, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Not stronger than the weakest link: an empirical study of coordination work in an industrial context2010In: Industrial informatics design, use and innovation: perspectives and services / [ed] Jonny Holmström; Mikael Wiberg; Andreas Lund, Hershey, PA: IGI Global, 2010, p. 58-72Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter reports a field study of coordination work in an industrial warehouse. The warehousing process relies upon a chain-like structure of interdependent links for feeding the production line with components, a weak link jeopardizes the whole process as well as those that follow. The purpose of the study was to explore how an organization in the process industry structures their warehousing process for achieving a smooth and efficient flow of components, but also to identify factors that might jeopardize the process and how these are managed by the organization. The chapter provides a rich and detailed description of an intended coordination process, the involved actors, links, and dependence on IT. The chapter adds to the current body of research within coordination work and CSCW by offering a rich description of a case in which informal- as well as formal procedures are crucial for achieving a smooth and efficient process.

  • 3.
    Harr, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Striking a balance: Managing collaborative multitasking in computer-supported cooperation2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a collection of six papers and a cover paper reporting an exploration of how to strike a balance between individual task execution and work articulation in Computer-supported Cooperative Work (CSCW). The interest in this theme is motivated by an increased reliance of IT-supported cooperative work arrangements in modern organizations, the fragmented layout of work for multitasking individuals and reports on various forms of overload, increased level of stress and anxiety experienced by workers active in these organizations.

    Modern organizations are increasingly reliant on IT-supported cooperative work arrangements for doing work. Cooperators are not only expected to execute assigned tasks, but also to engage in work articulation. This is a term used to describe the process of rich and frequent interaction needed for securing that the contributions of cooperators are executed in such a way that the overall goal is reached. As cooperators typically are involved in several work formations in parallel, they need to find a balance between individual work and work articulation in relation to several work formations. The challenge of finding a balance in cooperative work has only to a limited extent been addressed in CSCW and there are few successful designs available for this purpose. The scope of this thesis is to develop an understanding of the challenges faced and strategies deployed by cooperators and work formations for striking a balance in work. The purpose is therefore to explore how multitasking individuals manage to find a balance between task execution and articulation work in computer-supported cooperative work, what challenges they face in the process, and how IT should be designed to support them. To reach this purpose several instances of cooperative work in different contexts have been closely studied.

    The main conclusions of this thesis are that cooperators are constantly struggling for a balance in work through making frequent switches between work formations, individual task execution and work articulation, sometimes through making switches in the technology that is used. Strategies for finding this balance are developed in relation to the specific context of a cooperative activity as cooperators ‘design’ their use of IT, structures, procedures and norms. It is further concluded that for avoiding overloads of interaction, cooperators show and estimate availability through reliance on various sources of shared information, that social (e.g. interpersonal relation) and contextual factors (e.g. location) are considered when establishing interaction, that cooperators when searching for interaction with others are influenced by their estimated availability, competence and willingness to assist, but also by network maintenance efforts (i.e. an ambition to avoid overloading and underutilizing other cooperators). Finally, it is concluded that norms are important for finding a balance in work as they reduce the interaction needed for work articulation.

    The main contributions of this thesis are rich descriptions of four cooperative work formations, the challenges they face and the strategies they apply, redefined theoretical concepts (i.e. availability management, interruption, multitasking) and extended understanding of interaction search behavior and ways to achieve high levels of informal interaction across distance. This work also provides some practical contributions in the form of implications for designers of supportive IT and implications for cooperators active in modern organizations.

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  • 4.
    Harr, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    The survival of the social: social interaction foraging in highly distributed professional social networksManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an empirical study of social interaction in a highly distributed professional social network. It takes as point of departure, previous research into distributed work and information foraging theory to explore social interaction search behaviour. We look at how people locate relevant collaborators to execute shared work tasks in a distributed network of professionals in the area of logistics. From our empirical data we identify six characteristics of the explored processes. We identify “the survival of the social” as a cornerstone for efficient and long-term professional social networks and outline design implications arising from our findings. In particular we identified some characteristics related to the active nature of social agents, the need for negotiation and long-term maintenance of social networks. Rather than optimising based on task characteristics, efficiency and cost, we show that participants are oriented to logistics solutions that involve active social agents and social relations. These behaviours illustrate basic mechanisms of highly distributed effective professional social networks and motivate the need for social interaction foraging theory. Furthermore, our design recommendations suggest that personal (as opposed to public) open interaction channels could be beneficial for the effectiveness and strength of the whole professional social network.

  • 5.
    Harr, Rikard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Hedlund, Hugo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Johansson, Dan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Att utbilda framtida kollegor2019In: Universitetspedagogiska konferensen 2019: helhetssyn på undervisning - kropp, känsla och kognition i akademin, Umeå: Universitetspedagogik och lärandestöd (UPL), Umeå universitet , 2019, p. 38-38Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vår presentation kommer att behandla två nyligen framtagna projektkursmoment vid Institutionen för informatik, där vi skapar förutsättningar för lärande så lika som möjligt de som framtidens systemvetare och beteendevetare inom IT-området ställs inför. Kursmomenten (som vi valt att se som en helhet) baseras på tre huvudsakliga pedagogiska idéer:

    1. Integrera teori och praktik inom ramen för samma kurs, med ett moment som handlar om att planera ett projekt och ett moment som handlar om själva genomförandet av detta.

    Vi anser det vara väldigt viktigt för en individs kunskapsutveckling att praktiskt få prova på något som man tidigare endast lärt sig på en teoretisk nivå. Genom att se kursmomenten som en helhet kunde studenterna först planera vad man skulle göra (teori), och sedan genomföra detta (praktik). Erfarenheten var att vissa saker fungerade precis som man tänkt, medan andra saker krävde förändring. Detta är en värdefull insikt inför ett kommande arbetsliv.

    2. Skapa förutsättningar för lärande när det gäller gruppdynamik genom att samarbeta över programgränser och ställas inför föränderliga utmaningar.

    Projektgrupperna sattes samman av projektdeltagare från lika delar det Systemvetenskapliga programmet liksom det Beteendevetenskapliga programmet med inriktning mot IT-miljöer. Som yrkesverksam, med en utbildning från informatik, arbetar man med största sannolikhet ofta i projekt som relaterar till olika dimensioner av samhällets digitalisering. Något som utmärker projekt är att de består av deltagare med olika kompetenser, viljor och personligheter – omständigheter som ställer krav på förmågan att hantera gruppdynamik. Olika deltagare har olika egenskaper och karaktärer och det gäller för grupper att kunna hantera dessa på bästa möjliga sätt. Även för individen är detta en viktig process. Det handlar om att lära känns sig själv och sina egna styrkor och svagheter.

    3. Skapa förutsättningar för lärande när det gäller att arbeta mot riktiga klienter som upplever verkliga behov och även ställer krav.

    På kursen arbetar vi med riktiga beställare och skarpa case, vilket ger ett flertal fördelar. Dels skapar det en spänning som ofta leder till ökat engagemang och lärande hos studenterna. Dels får studenterna lära sig att hantera en extern klient, en klient som de inte känner, som inte besitter deras kunskap och som kan ha väldigt annorlunda förväntningar på samarbetet. Som yrkesverksamma är detta vanligt förekommande och vi hade svårligen kunnat uppnå samma effekt med fiktiva case. Ett skarpt case har dessutom alltid en överlägsen nivå av komplexitet, och därmed även överraskningar, i jämförelse med ett påhittat case.

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  • 6.
    Harr, Rikard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Kaptelinin, Victor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Being virtually everywhere: An exploration of teachers' multitasking in a hybrid ecology of collaboration2009In: Designing beyond the product: Understanding activity and user experience in ubiquitous environments, Helsinki: Edita Prima Oy , 2009, p. 307-314Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Collaboration mediated by digital technologies is typically considered an alternative to face-to-face collaboration. However, in real-life settings “virtual” and “physical” collaboration are often complementary, rather than mutually exclusive. This paper reports an empirical study of a hybrid physical/virtual ecology of collaboration at a senior high school in Sweden, a massively collaborative environment featuring different concurrently used groupware. The study focused on teachers’ collaborative multitasking, that is, management of multiple collaborative activities. The findings indicate that the use of groupware in the setting presented a significant challenge for the teachers, who experienced collaboration overload. To keep themselves updated on current developments in their teams and projects, the teachers developed a variety of strategies for monitoring several collaboration spaces and switching between different technologies. The identified problems and strategies of collaborative physical/virtual multitasking are discussed in relation to existing research and design of supportive technology.

  • 7.
    Harr, Rikard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Kaptelinin, Victor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Interrupting or not: exploring the effect of social context on interrupters' decision making2012In: Proceedings of the 7th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: Making Sense Through Design / [ed] Lone Malmborg, IT University of Copenhagen, och Thomas Pederson, IT University of Copenhage, New York: ACM Press, 2012, p. 707-710Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades technology-induced interruptions emerged as a key object of study in HCI and CSCW research, but until recently the social dimension of interruptions has been relatively neglected. The focus of existing research on interruptions has been mostly on their direct effects on the persons whose activities are interrupted. Arguably, however, it is also necessary to take into account the “ripple effect” of interruptions, that is, indirect consequences of interruptions within the social context of an activity, to properly understand interrupting behavior and provide advanced technological support for handling interruptions. This paper reports an empirical study, in which we examine a set of facets of the social context of interruptions, which we identified in a previous conceptual analysis. The results suggest that people do take into account various facets of the social context when making decisions about whether or not it is appropriate to interrupt another person.

  • 8.
    Harr, Rikard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Kaptelinin, Victor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Unpacking the Social Dimension of External Interruptions2007In: GROUP'07: Proceedings of the 2007 International ACM Conference on Supporting Group Work, New York: ACM Press , 2007, p. 399-408Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper systematically explores the social dimension of external interruptions of human activities. Interruptions and interruption handling are key issues in human-computer interaction (HCI) and computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW) research. However, existing research has almost exclusively dealt with effects of interruptions on individual tasks. In this paper we call for expanding the scope of analysis by including the effect of interruptions on the social context. We identify four facets of the social “ripple effect” of interruptions: location, communication, collaboration, and interpersonal relation. We discuss the advantages of extending the notion of interruptions and its implications for future research.

  • 9.
    Harr, Rikard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Nyberg, Annakarin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Att få saker gjorda: studenterfarenheter från en kurs med ett onlinebaserat tidshanteringsstöd2013In: Reformation, revolution, evolution: universitetslärandet ur ett tidsperspektiv : konferensrapport / [ed] Erik Lindenius, Umeå: Universitetspedagogiskt centrum (UPC), Umeå universitet , 2013, , p. 24p. 27-50Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    En trend bland dagens studenter är att dela sitt engagemang, inte bara mellan ett rikt fritidsliv och heltidsstudier utan också mellan deltidsarbete och extrakurser. Detta är en omständighet som kan medföra problem för studentens studieresultat då en fragmentering av vardagen uppstår. Inom arbetskontexter har det sedan en tid florerat en mängd system ämnade att stödja tidshantering i vardagen. Avsikten med dessa Getting Things Done (GTD) tillämpningar är att hjälpa individer att bättre hantera sin tid, hinna med de uppgifter man åtagit sig och att reducera stress. Den studie som denna artikel rapporterar genomfördes i syfte att utvärdera i vilken omfattning en studentgrupp av idag finner värde och stöd i att använda ett GTD-system under en campuskurs. Den programvara som de 50 studenterna använde sig av under en period av fyra veckor kallas Plancake, är gratis och internetbaserad. Användandet säkerställdes genom att en examination infördes i slutet av kursen där besvarandet av ett antal frågor förutsatte en viss tids användning. Resultaten av försöket visar att Plancake i dess nuvarande form inte upplevdes som ett särskilt värdefullt stöd för studenterna och att en rad förändringar vad gäller applikationens funktionalitet och introduktion får anses som nödvändig.

  • 10.
    Harr, Rikard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Nyberg, Annakarin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics. eXpressions Umeå.
    "It depends upon whether it’s true or not": Entrepreneurs’ Perspective on Dark Design Patterns2021In: What Can CHI Do About Dark Patterns? CHI Workshop - May 8, 2021: Position Papers, 2021Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper outlines the perspective of entrepreneurs on dark design patterns and their use. The phenomena of persuasive design and dark design patterns have up to this point primarily focused on categorization efforts, the occurrence of these patterns and to some extent on end-user perspectives. Limited focus has been placed on the actors making the actual decision to use them. This paper reports an initial analysis of the perspective of entrepreneurs on dark design patterns. Initial insights are provided regarding entrepreneurs’ perspective and the rationale behind it. 

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  • 11.
    Harr, Rikard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Nyberg, Annakarin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Berggren, Marcus
    Carlsson, Richard
    Källstedt, Sebastian
    Friend or foe: exploring master suppression techniques on Facebook2016In: Information research, E-ISSN 1368-1613, Vol. 21, no 2, article id SM4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction. This paper focuses on the unexplored area of master suppression techniques on Facebook. A lot is known about these techniques in offline contexts, but very little is known about their application in the online context in general or their use and nature on social media in particular. This paper therefore explores the use of master suppression techniques on a social media platform. Method. We used a netnographic approach based on passive and unobtrusive observations of 30 open forums on Facebook. Approximately 1000 threads and posts were observed. Analysis. We analyzed the gathered data using qualitative content analysis techniques based on the concepts of meaning units, condensed meaning units, codes, subcategories, categories and themes. Results. People apply a range of master suppression techniques on Facebook, some of which have been imported from offline contexts while others have not. Conclusions. We were able to determine which master suppression techniques people apply on Facebook and show that they appear to be harsher than we initially expected. A categorisation model for master suppression techniques used on Facebook was developed using these findings.

  • 12.
    Harr, Rikard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Nyberg, Annakarin Harr
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Enhancing and Inhibiting: artifact ecologies and human experience2015In: Workshop at CHI2015, At Seoul, Korea, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper outlines the rationale for, and plans to, conduct a study addressing the paradoxical nature of IT-use in relation to everyday activities. While the area of User Experience Design (UXD) focus on immediate use of an IT-artifact, the focus of the proposed empirical study is how individuals use, or restrict their use, of these artifacts to enhance and avoid inhibiting an experience. We expect the outcome to be an improved understanding of individual strategies for ITuse for enhancing the experience of everyday activities as well as the rationale behind them.

  • 13.
    Harr, Rikard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Westergren, Ulrika H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Med små steg mot en jämställd grundutbildning2008In: Utsikter, insikter, avsikter: universitetspedagogisk konferens i Umeå 27 – 28 februari 2007 : konferensrapport / [ed] Mohammad Fazlhashemi; Thomas Fritz, Umeå: Universitetspedagogiskt Centrum, Umeå universitet , 2008, p. 123-135Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att försöka åstadkomma en jämställd grundutbildning på en institution är ett oerhört krävande arbete och i denna artikel beskriver vi hur de första stegen i denna strävan togs på institutionen för informatik hösten/våren 2006-2007. Att bedriva en utbildning som ger alla studentgrupper lika möjligheter till ett framgångsrikt deltagande borde vara en självklarhet på dagens universitet, likväl strandar ofta dessa strävanden på grund av resursbrist, avsaknad av engagemang eller okunskap. Istället för att söka efter den ultimata och kanske mer kostsamma lösningen på jämställdhetsfrågan initierades ett jämställdhetsarbete på institutionen för informatik där en jämställdhetsplan beskrivandes små, realistiska, uppföljningsbara mål stod i centrum. Ett av målen var att arrangera en seminarieserie där jämställdhetsfrågor skulle behandlas och som ett resultat av denna serie skapades en lista med fyra genomförbara åtgärder som också antogs vid ett efterföljande personalmöte. Arbetet med att realisera dessa åtgärder visade sig trots inledande framgångar vara mer komplicerat än förväntat. Den lärdom som man kan dra från detta arbete är att man med små steg kan åstadkomma förändring, men det lutar snett uppför och vikten av eldsjälar och stöd från ledningen på institutionen kan inte nog betonas.

  • 14.
    Harr, Rikard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Wiberg, Charlotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Sports IT: Digital media and technology for encouraging physical activity2016In: International Journal of Emerging Technology and Innovative Engineering, ISSN 2394-6598, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 24-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sport IT is an emerging global movement. Many research efforts have addressed the potential of IT for promoting physical activity, a countermeasure against the factors that cause welfare problems such as diabetes, high blood pressure, and heart disease. This paper presents an overview of research related to IT and physical activity and identifies three reoccurring themes; 1) Measurement and latforms, 2) Support for opportunistic individual training and finally, 3) Encouragement through Toys and Games. These themes or chategories of Sports IT, are furher explored in a detailed and systematic way. This is wrapped up in a discussion of what could be seen as impotant further research addressing the issues found in this body of research.

  • 15.
    Harr, Rikard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Wiberg, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Lost in translation: investigating the ambiguity of availability cues in an online media space2007In: Behavior and Information Technology, ISSN 0144-929X, E-ISSN 1362-3001, Behaviour & Information Technology: An international journal on the human aspects of computing, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 243-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a longitudinal study of an online media space addressing the question of how availability is managed in an interaction-intensive organization. We relied on three different data collection techniques and analysed our data in relation to three different work modes. During this study we participated in an online media space, for approximately six months making spot checks and observing the population from which ten subjects were selected for interviews. Our results show how techniques and strategies for availability management are developed and continuously adapted to a shared common ground. Further, our results show how having the communication channel open, and regulating availability on a social level instead of on a solely technical level, has the advantage of better coping with the ever-changing dynamics in group works. Finally, we show that there exists an ambiguity of availability cues in online media spaces that is smoothly handled by individuals.

  • 16.
    Harr, Rikard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Wiberg, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Whittaker, Steve
    UCSC.
    Understanding search behavior in professional social networks2011In: Human Technology, E-ISSN 1795-6889, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 194-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an empirical study of social interaction in a professional social network. As the point of departure, we take previous research into distributed work and information foraging theory to explore interaction search behavior of individuals active in professional networks, examining how social factors govern their behavior. For this exploration, we focused on the process through which relevant collaborators are chosen to execute shared work tasks in the area of logistics, and identified six characteristics of the explored processes. We recognized the “survival of the social” as a cornerstone for efficient and long-term professional networks and outlined design implications arising from our findings. More specifically, we found that participants are oriented to solutions that involve active social agents and social relations, rather than optimizing based on task characteristics, efficiency, and cost. These behaviors motivate the need for the concept of social interaction foraging.

  • 17.
    Harr, Rikard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Informatics.
    Wiklund, Örjan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Informatics.
    Letting commercial habits create a filter for commercial SMS2002In: Proceedings of IRIS 25 working conference, 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a proposal for a dynamic filtering of SMS through the commercial habits of individuals. The exploration is done empirically. Using qualitative research methods, we studied which patterns of behaviour that individuals act on when they are in the town centre. We analysed the data gathered, through the model ”communication problem” (Ljungberg 1996; Ljungberg and Sörensen 1996). The study shows that individuals act differently depending on the object of the town visit. For an analytic purpose three different modes were created, The Stroller, The Planer and The Seeker. These modes serve as a proposal to be used in the creation for filters for commercial SMS services. The modes differentiate in many ways, and the way that we are most interested in is the way that they consider different communication as appropriate or inappropriate, i.e. receiving or not receiving SMS. Our conclusion from the study suggests that it is possible to filter commercial SMS through the use of commercial habits of individuals.

  • 18.
    Harr, Rikard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Öhlund, Linnea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Congratulations! you are severely underweight: exploring negative consequences of persuasive system design2023In: Frontiers in Computer Science, E-ISSN 2624-9898, Vol. 5, article id 1215588Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Personal health and wellbeing have grown as an object of study within HCI research and many individuals undergoing weight loss journeys use persuasive systems, such as weight loss apps, to guide them. These systems rely on various principles to persuade users toward their health goal and have in much research been considered having positive effects. There are however also parallel findings indicating unwanted effects. To explore the effects of persuasive system design, we conduct a longitudinal exploratory expert evaluation of 10 free weight loss tracking apps by emulating drastic weight loss for an extended period of time. The objective of the exploration is to unravel potential negative effects of using such systems. Our findings highlight risks of negative effects as some apps take a passive stance toward drastic weight loss, while others actively encourage it through design. We contribute to a growing strand of health related HCI research by mapping out the relation between design and negative consequences of persuasive system use.

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  • 19.
    Kaptelinin, Victor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Informatics.
    Harr, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Informatics.
    The ripple effect of interruptions: Unpacking the social dimension of external disruptions2007Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 20.
    Kaptelinin, Victor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Harr, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    The ripple effect of interruptions: Unpacking the social dimensions of external disruptions2007Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 21.
    Maier, Maximilian
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Harr, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Dark Design Patterns: An End-user Perspective2020In: Human Technology, E-ISSN 1795-6889, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 170-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of websites and mobile applications available is growing continually, as are the persuasive approaches to influence human behavior and decision making. Although designing for persuasion offers several potential benefits, recent developments expose various deceptive designs, that is, dark patterns, that utilize psychological factors to nudge people toward, from someone else’s perspective, desired directions. This paper contributes to an increased awareness of the phenomenon of dark patterns through our exploring how users perceive and experience these patterns. Hence, we chose a qualitative research approach, with focus groups and interviews, for our exploration. Our analysis shows that participants were moderately aware of these deceptive techniques, several of which were perceived as sneaky and dishonest. Respondents further expressed a resigned attitude toward such techniques and primarily blamed businesses for their occurrence. Users considered their dependency on services employing these practices, thus making it difficult to avoid fully dark patterns.

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  • 22.
    Nyberg, Annakarin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Harr, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Let the right one in: Boundary management of social media among senior Facebook users2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ubiquitous nature of online access, reduced prices on consumer electronics and the increased number of connected everyday artifacts, have created a situation where internet use and social networking participation are spreading to user groups not touched upon before. One of many consequence of this change is how we in the last couple of years and in many countries have been witnessing a radical increase in online presence of seniors (La Rose, 2008, Zickuhr and Madden, 2012, Findahl 2012). In the US, for instance, more than every second senior aged 65 or above have found their way online (Zickuhr and Madden, 2012). As for other groups of Internet users, social networking sites such as Facebook, MySpace and LinkedIn are becoming increasingly popular among seniors. From 2009 to 2011 usage levels of social networking sites within this group in the US climbed from 13% to 33%, an increase with 150%.

     The place for internet and social networking in the lives of seniors is by many researchers considered to be as a tool to avoid loneliness, unhappiness and isolation during their senescence (Fiori et al. 2007, Gibson et al. 2010, Lewis and Ariyachandrat 2010, Sundar et al. 2011, Taylor 2011). Some of the ways to achieve that is through enabling an easy way to maintain contact with family and friends (Selwyn 2004, Lewis and Ariyachandrat 2010, Sundar et al. 2011), potentially causing increased health (Berkman, 1995, Gibson et al. 2010), access to health and societal related information (Selwyn 2004) and a chance to live at home as long as possible (Sundar et al. 2011).  

     Even if more and more seniors are becoming internet and SNS users there are still many that are not. Many older adults and seniors are reported as being cautious regarding social networking sites in specific and internet use in general (Lehtinen et al. 2009). Some of the fears that have previously been documented are related to a view on internet as a dangerous place (Lehtinen et al. 2009), SNS as an arena for socially unacceptable behavior (Lehtinen et al. 2009). Lehtinen et al. (2009, p. 51) even state that: “From this it follows that SNSs do not seem to fit the everyday communication of older adults well”. Overcoming obstacles for inclusion in the information society, of which social media in undeniably an important part, is an important challenge emphasized by a number of national and international efforts (e.g. UNECE 2007, CEC 2007).

     Michael Arnold (2003) used the two-faced god Janus as a metaphor to describe how a certain kind of technology functioning in one way in one context may have consequences or implications of one kind, and a contrary set of consequences or implications in another. While Arnold used the mobile phone as an example for describing this characteristic of technology, he could just as well, due to ubiquitous internet access and widely spread computer literacy, have used social networking sites.

     Even if previous research have addressed and characterized early use of social networking services among seniors, there are still a lot left to be done. While we have come to know a great deal about reasons, benefits and consequences of online presence and reasons for resistance, we know very little about the process through which seniors manage their personal boundaries in relation to SNS. This is what this paper addresses, the way that seniors let, or do not let, aspects of SNS become a part of their lives. This is a fundamental question in strive towards inclusion of all segments of citizens to be part of the information society.

     Empirically, the paper is based on a three yearlong qualitative study of senior’s use of internet and social media (AGNES – ageing in an networked society). We have conducted focus group interviews as well as individual interviews and the seniors have also kept diaries. The diaries contain their reflections on the processes through which they have come to involve Facebook in their everyday life. Apart from capturing the dynamics of the ways that seniors start using social media, the paper does as well contribute to knowledge about how to methodologically explore senior’s IT-use.

  • 23.
    Scholl, Jeremiah
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology & Norwegian Centre for Telemedicine .
    McCarthy, John
    University College London.
    Harr, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    A comparison of chat and audio in media rich environments2006In: CSCW'06: Proceedings of the 2006 20th anniversary conference on computer supported cooperative work, New York: Association for Computing Machinery Press , 2006, p. 323-332Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents two case studies of informal group communication using multimedia conferencing that supports various media including video, audio and chat. The studies provide a comparison of audio and chat as communication medium and present data on usage patterns, user preferences and attitudes. The quantitative and qualitative data collected suggest that chat does have advantages in some situations when used for informal communication along with video. The results provide evidence against the hypothesis that chat is a low bandwidth alternative only used when audio communication is unavailable. This suggests that video mediated chat deserves further attention from designers and the research community, since it is often ignored as a "useful" scenario.

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