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  • 1.
    Armelius, Kerstin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hakelind, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Interpersonal complementarity - self-rated behaviour by normal and antisocial adolescents with a liked and a disliked peer2007In: Interpersona: An International Journal on Personal Relationships, E-ISSN 1981-6472, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 99-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The principle of complementarity in interpersonal theory and the SASB model (Structural Analysis of Social Behavior) as developed by Benjamin (1974) were used to study how adolescents in a normal group of 60 adolescents and a group of 42 adolescents with severe behavioural problems rated that they usually behaved in relation to a liked and disliked peer. The peer’s behaviour varied in a systematic way on the dimensions of affiliation and dominance. Complementary behavior was defined as the same behaviour from peer and self and anticomplementarity was defined as opposite behaviour from self in relation the peer’s behavior. Consistent over the two groups complementarity and anticomplementarity were influenced by both the peer’s behaviour and type of relationship with the peer. Friendly behaviour from a liked peer evoked much more complementary friendly behaviour compared to a disliked peer who with the same behaviour evoked almost as much anticomplementary hostile behaviour as complementary friendly behaviour. Hostile behaviour from a disliked peer evoked much more complementary hostile behaviour compared to a liked peer with the same kind of behavior. Autonomy granting from a liked peer evoked more complementary autonomous behaviour compared to a disliked peer. Differences between the two groups were small and only in relation with a disliked peer. The results were discussed in terms of interpersonal theory and the principle of complementarity with focus on kind of relationship.

  • 2.
    Dennhag, Inga
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Hakelind, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Exploring gender stereotypes about interpersonal behavior and personality factors using digital matched-guise techniques2019In: Social behavior and personality, ISSN 0301-2212, E-ISSN 1179-6391, Vol. 47, no 8, article id e8150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study explores gender stereotypes among Swedish university students (n=101) studying a course in psychology, using a matched-guise experimental design. The gender identity of a speaker in a dialogue, manifested by voice, was digitally manipulated to sound male or female. Responses to the recordings indicated that an actor with a male voice was rated significantly less conscientious, agreeable, extraverted, and open to experience than the same actor with a female voice. On social behavior, there was a tendency for the actor with a male voice to be rated as more hostile than the same actor with a female voice. The study suggests that stereotype effects rather than real behavioral differences may have an impact on perceived gender differences.

  • 3.
    Hakelind, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Armelius, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Henningsson, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Relationship between self-concept and interpersonal problems in normal adolescentsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Hakelind, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Dennhag, Inga
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    School of humanities, education and Social Sciences, Örebro University.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Confronting students with their own stereotypes: Awareness-raising activities about gender stereotypes with match-guise techniques2017In: Universitetspedagogiska konferensen 2017: undervisning i praktiken – föreläsning, flexibelt eller mitt emellan?, Umeå: Universitetspedagogik och lärandestöd (UPL), Umeå universitet , 2017, p. 29-32Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Hakelind, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Henningsson, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Armelius, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Interpersonal problems, self-concept and depression in adolescents with conduct problemsManuscript (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Hakelind, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Henningsson, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Armelius, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Perceived parental rearing style and interpersonal problems in adolescentsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Hakelind, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Behöver vi verkligen arbeta med studenters arbetsmiljö?2019In: Universitetspedagogiska konferensen 2019: helhetssyn på undervisning - kropp, känsla och kognition i akademin, Umeå: Universitetspedagogik och lärandestöd (UPL), Umeå universitet , 2019, p. 10-10Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Hakelind, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    School of Humanities, Education and Social Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    The Power of Aha! On Stimulating and Guiding Students towards Self-Awareness and Critical Reflection while Teaching about Personality Psychology and Gender Stereotypes2022In: Psychology Learning & Teaching, ISSN 1475-7257, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 57-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This qualitative study introduces a pedagogic design which addresses the challenging task of teaching and learning self-awareness and critical reflection in the teaching of psychology. The context of the study was a course in personality psychology for first year students, and the topic of interest was how the perception of personality is affected by gender stereotypes. The pedagogic design included the recording of a mixed-sex dialogue, which was then digitally altered for pitch and timbre producing two gender-switched versions of one single recording. Students were divided into two groups who listened to one of the two different voice alterations, and were given the task to rate the personality traits of male or female sounding versions of the same character. In the subsequent debriefing seminar, students were presented with the data from their ratings. These results were then used as a reference point for inter-group discussion, and later students were also asked to reflect over the activity individually in writing. A thematic analysis of their written answers indicates that this pedagogic setup, in combination with guided reflection, can be helpful to challenge students' own assumptions, aiding self-awareness and critical reflection related to stereotyping.

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  • 9.
    Hakelind, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Examining skills and abilities during the pandemic: psychology students’ and examiners’ perceptions of a digital osce2022In: Psychology Learning and Teaching, ISSN 1475-7257, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 278-295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Finding valid and reliable ways to assess complex clinical skills within psychology is a challenge. Recently, there have been some examples of applying Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) in psychology for making such assessments. The aim of this study was to examine students’ and examiners’ perceptions of a digital OSCE in psychology regarding quality and students’ feelings about the OSCE. Participants were 51 students enrolled in the Programme for Master of Science in Clinical Psychology during two semesters and nine examiners assessing each OSCE occasion, at Umeå University, Sweden. Web-based questionnaires were used for data collection. Psychometric analyses indicated that the subscales in the student questionnaire had adequate or close to adequate levels of item and scale reliability. Both students and examiners felt that the digital OSCE was realistic, valid and well-aligned with professional practice. Although students perceived the digital OSCE as stressful, the results showed that they were focused and concentrated and found the OSCE to be a positive learning experience, implying that the stress did not affect performance to any significant extent. Based on the examiners’ experiences, it can be concluded that there are both advantages and disadvantages which need to be considered when planning future digital OSCEs.

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  • 10.
    Höglund, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hakelind, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Risk factors for insomnia and burnout: a longitudinal population-based cohort study2023In: Stress and Health, ISSN 1532-3005, E-ISSN 1532-2998, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 798-812Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Insomnia and burnout are highly prevalent in the general population, calling for understanding of its causes. Taking a broad approach, the aim of this study was to determine various mental and somatic risk factors for development of insomnia and burnout and stratifying for sex and age group. Questionnaire data were used from a Swedish population-based sample aged 18–79 years, from which cohorts without insomnia (= 1702) and without burnout (= 1972) at baseline were followed-up after 3 years. Self-reports of eight mental and somatic conditions at baseline were used as independent variables in logistic regression analyses to predict development of insomnia and burnout at 3-year follow-up. All eight studied conditions were significant risk factors for development of both insomnia (odds ratio, OR = 1.62–2.73) and burnout (OR = 2.20–3.21). Burnout and poor self-rated health had the highest ORs for insomnia, and poor self-rated health, anxiety and somatic symptoms had the highest ORs for burnout. The ORs were generally similar between men and women, whereas age groups tended to differ in some of the risk factors. The study highlights the importance of a broad assessment of both mental and somatic conditions in the prevention of insomnia and burnout.

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  • 11.
    Höglund, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hakelind, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Severity and prevalence of various types of mental ill-health in a general adult population: age and sex differences2020In: BMC Psychiatry, E-ISSN 1471-244X, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Taking a broad approach, the aim of this study was to better understand severity and prevalence of various types of mental ill-health across age and sex groups in the general adult population. A first objective was to determine symptom severity of anxiety, depression, insomnia, burnout and somatization in combinations of different age groups and sex. A second objective was to determine prevalence of caseness of these types of mental ill-health in both absolute and relative terms in the combinations of age groups and sex.

    Methods: Cross-sectional data based on validated questionnaire instruments were used from the Västerbotten Environmental Health Study in Sweden. In total, 3406 participants, aged 18 to 79 years, constituted a random sample stratified for age and sex.

    Results: Severity and prevalence of anxiety, insomnia and burnout were high in women, in particular young women, and lower in older age groups. The prevalence rates for insomnia, burnout and somatization were particularly high based on the used cut-off scores. Men aged 30–49 years had the highest prevalence of mental ill-health compared to other age groups among men. Men and women aged 60–69 years had generally the lowest symptom severity and caseness. The prevalence of depression was similar in men and women in all age groups, whereas sex-related differences in extent in general were largest in the youngest age group, and gradually decreased with age.

    Conclusion: The results suggest that focus in primary healthcare regarding mental ill-health should to be directed more towards insomnia, burnout and somatization, in particular in young women.

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  • 12.
    Höglund, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hakelind, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Impact of group interventions on stress and sleep problems in primary careManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The majority of patients who seek help for stress and sleep problems do so in primary health care in Sweden. However, the resources for psychological treatment are limited. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a low-intensity student-led group interventions, applying cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) with an indicated prevention approach in primary care for recovery and reducing symptoms of stress and sleep disturbance.

    Methods: Using a quasi-experimental design, interventions were conducted for stress (n=274, mean age=38 years, 75% women) and sleep (n=106, mean age=44 years, 56% women) problems in consecutively recruited primary care patients. These were compared with a control group (n=221, mean age=45 years, 91% women) recruited via social media. The interventions were CBT-based psychoeducative group interventions that consisted of four 90-min sessions and led by psychology students. Assessment was completed at pre- and post-intervention and at 3-month follow-up. Main outcome measures were the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale and the Shirom-Melamed Burnout Questionnaire for the stress intervention, and the Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire for the sleep intervention. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the 15-item Patient Health Questionnaire were used to assess anxiety, depression and somatization as secondary outcome measures for both interventions. Analysis of covariance (pre- vs post-intervention) and reliable change index (pre-intervention vs three-month follow-up) were applied.

    Results: Statistically significant, but small effects of improved health in comparison to the control group were found on stress and burnout (η2=.021-.030) in the stress intervention, and on sleep (η2=.017) in the sleep intervention. The proportion of patients in the stress intervention with a reliable improvement at three-month follow-up was 28% for stress and 59% for burnout, and 0% and 33%, respectively, for the control group. Among those with a reliable improvement in burnout, 31% also met a recovery criterion (<4.0). In the sleep intervention, 25% of the patients showed a reliable improvement in sleep and 61% in burnout, and 6% and 33%, respectively, for the control group. The effects of the stress intervention were statistically significant, but small on anxiety and depression (η2=.021-.047), as were the effects of the sleep intervention on stress and burnout (η2=.017-.026). 

    Conclusion: The results suggest that psychology students can effectively provide a low-intensity group-delivered CBT intervention for patients exhibiting symptoms of stress, burnout and sleep disturbance in routine general medical practice, offering promising opportunities for scalability expansion. Although the average treatment effects were small, a substantial proportion of the patients showed reliable improvement or recovery at 3-month follow-up. This suggests that the interventions decrease the prevalence of burnout and sleep disturbance or improve the well-being of individuals experiencing mental distress. 

  • 13.
    Kubik, Veit
    et al.
    Bielefeld University, Germany.
    Harris, Richard
    University of Leeds, United Kingdom.
    Hakelind, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Teaching and Learning Psychology in Times of COVID and Beyond: Special Issue of the ESPLAT Conference 20212022In: Psychology Learning and Teaching, ISSN 1475-7257, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 190-192Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Sundström, Anna E.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hakelind, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Examining clinical skills and abilities in psychology – implementation and evaluation of an objective structured clinical examination in psychology2023In: Journal of Mental Health Training, Education and Practice, ISSN 1755-6228, E-ISSN 2042-8707, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 97-110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Assessment of complex clinical skills and abilities is a challenge in mental health education. In the present study, an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) was adapted to psychology and implemented in a Master in Psychology program. The purpose of the present study was to examine aspects of validity of this OSCE.

    Design/methodology/approach: A total of 55 students enrolled in the Master in the Psychology program at Umeå University, Sweden, participated in two OSCE occasions. In addition to OSCE data, questionnaires were administered immediately after the OSCE to students (n = 18) and examiners (n = 13) to examine their perceptions of the OSCE.

    Findings: The results provided support for different aspects of validity. The level of internal consistency was close to acceptable, and there was a good correspondence between global ratings and checklist scores for many stations. However, adding an additional category to the global rating scale and reviewing some of the station checklists might improve the assessment further. The present cut-score of the OSCE was comparable to a cut-score set by the borderline regression model. In general, students and examiners perceived the OSCE as a high-quality examination, although examiners raised some issues that could improve the OSCE further.

    Originality/value: In conclusion, OSCE is a promising assessment in psychology, both from a psychometric perspective and from a test-taker and examiner perspective. The present study is an important contribution to the field as there are only a few examples where OSCE has been used in clinical psychology, and to the best of the authors’ knowledge, this paper is the first to evaluate the validity of such an assessment.

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  • 15.
    Vishwanatha, Kalyani
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hakelind, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Steinvall, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Svensson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Deutschmann, Mats
    School of Humanities, Education, and Social Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Interpersonal complementarity and gender: Contextual influences on perception of personality2021In: Social behavior and personality, ISSN 0301-2212, E-ISSN 1179-6391, Vol. 49, no 6, article id e9812Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contextual influences have long been recognized as an important factor explaining individual differences in perception of personality traits. In this study we investigated whether interpersonal complementarity creates a context for the perception of personality traits, and whether gender stereotypes play a role in the process. Participants were 205 students taking a personality psychology course. They evaluated personality traits in the context of observing an interpersonal exchange that reflected complementarity. Among the respondents, 103 made the evaluation based on a gender stereotypical exchange (dominant male-submissive female) and 102 based their evaluation on a gender counterstereotypical exchange (dominant female-submissive male). Results reveal that interpersonal context had a stronger influence on ratings of conscientiousness, openness, and emotional stability traits than it did on extraversion and agreeableness trait ratings. Furthermore, openness and conscientiousness were particularly susceptible to gender-based stereotypes in the context of interpersonal complementarity. These results suggest that both interpersonal complementarity and gender stereotypes influence the perception of personality traits, but that they do so in a way that is unique to each trait.

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