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  • 1.
    Bengtsson, Åsa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Lindegren, Malin
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Sjöberg, Staffan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Persson, Per
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Dissolution, adsorption and phase transformation in the fluorapatite–goethite system2007Ingår i: Applied Geochemistry, ISSN 0883-2927, E-ISSN 1872-9134, Vol. 22, nr 9, s. 2016-2028Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An aqueous system containing fluorapatite (Ca5(PO4)3F), (FAP) and varying amounts of goethite (α-FeOOH) has been investigated. Batch experiments and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy were used to monitor the dissolution products of FAP, as well as the adsorption, and phase transformation of phosphate at the goethite surface over a period of 129 days. The results show that the presence of goethite increases dissolution of FAP, mainly due to the high affinity of phosphate for the goethite surface: Besides monitoring the pH changes associated with this reaction, the concentrations of Ca2+ and fluoride were determined. Furthermore, the amount of phosphate adsorbed was quantified from ATR-FTIR spectra. In addition to adsorbed phosphate, phase transformations of goethite into a Fe phosphate phase (FePO4(s)) are seen in the samples with relatively high phosphate to goethite ratios (excess phosphate to available surface sites) equilibrated for 15–129 days.

    An equilibrium model that takes into account (i) FAP dissolution, (ii) solution complexation, (iii) surface complexation of phosphate species onto goethite and (iv) possible phase transformation Ca5(PO4)3F–CaF2 and FeOOH–FePO4 was designed. This model was found to be in very good agreement with experimental observations and could thus be used to give qualitative and quantitative information about goethite promoted dissolution of FAP under other pH conditions than those studied in the present work.

  • 2.
    Bengtsson, Åsa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Shchukarev, Andrey
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Persson, Per
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Sjöberg, Staffan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Phase Transformations, Ion-Exchange, Adsorption, and Dissolution Processes in Aquatic Fluorapatite Systems2009Ingår i: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 25, nr 4, s. 2355-2362Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A synthetic fluorapatite was prepared that undergoes a phase transformation generated during a dialysis step. A surface layer with the composition Ca9(HPO4)2(PO4)4F2 is formed, which is suggested to form as one calcium atom is replaced by two protons. A surface complexation model, based upon XPS measurements, potentiometric titration data, batch experiments, and zeta-potential measurements was presented. The CaOH and OPO3H2 sites were assumed to have similar protolytic properties as in a corresponding nonstoichiometric HAP (Ca8.4(HPO4)1.6(PO4)4.4(OH)0.4) system. Besides a determination of the solubility product of Ca9(HPO4)2(PO4)4F2, two additional surface complexation reactions were introduced; one that accounts for a F/OH ion exchange reaction, resulting in the release of quite high fluoride concentrations (∼1 mM) that turned out to be dependent on the surface area of the particles. Furthermore, to explain the lowering of pHiep from around 8 in nonstoichiometric HAP suspensions to about 5.7 in FAP suspensions, a reaction that lowers the surface charge due to the readsorption of fluoride ions to the positively charged Ca sites was introduced: ≡CaOH2+ + F− ⇋ ≡CaF + H2O. The resulting model also agrees with predictions based upon XPS and ATR-FTIR observations claiming the formation of CaF2(s) in the most acidic pH range.

  • 3.
    Bengtsson, Åsa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Shchukarev, Andrey
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Persson, Per
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Sjöberg, Staffan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    A solubility and surface complexation study of a non-stoichiometric hydroxyapatite2009Ingår i: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 73, nr 2, s. 257-267Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The dissolution and surface complexation of a non-stoichiometric hydroxyapatite (Ca8.4(HPO4)1.6(PO4)4.4(OH)0.4), (HAP) was studied in the pH range 3.5 – 10.5, at 25 ºC in 0.1 M Na(Cl). The results from well-equilibrated batch experiments, potentiometric titrations, and zeta-potential measurements were combined with information provided by Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The information from the analyses was used to design an equilibration model that takes in to account dissolution, surface potential, solution and surface complexation, as well as possible phase transformations. The results from the XPS measurements clearly show that the surface of the mineral has a different composition than the bulk and that the Ca/P ratio of the surface layer is 1.4 ± 0.1. This ratio was also found in solution in the batches equilibrated at low pH where the dominating reaction is dissolution. In the batches equilibrated at near neutral pH values, however, the Ca/P ratio in solution attains values as high as 25, which is due to re-adsorption of phosphate ions to the HAP surface. The total concentration of protons as well as the total concentration of dissolved calcium and phosphate in solution were used to calculate a model for the dissolution and surface complexation of HAP. The constant capacitance model was applied in designing the following surface complexation model.

  • 4.
    Bengtsson, Åsa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Sjöberg, Staffan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Surface complexation and proton-promoted dissolution in aqueous apatite systems2009Ingår i: Pure and Applied Chemistry, ISSN 0033-4545, E-ISSN 1365-3075, Vol. 81, nr 9, s. 1569-1584Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: The dissolution of hydroxyapatite (HAP) and fluorapatite (FAP) has been studied (25 °C, 0.1 M NaCl medium) within the pH ranges 2–11 (FAP) and 4–10 (HAP). A range of techniques has been utilized to achieve understanding in how these two abundant minerals may interact with their natural surroundings (e.g., body fluids and soil environments). Synthetic crystalline HAP and FAP were prepared, and both minerals were found to undergo a phase transformation generated during a dialysis step of the synthetic routes. Surface-deficient layers with the nonstoichiometric compositions Ca8.4(HPO4)1.6(PO4)4.4(OH)0.4 and Ca9(HPO4)2(PO4)4F2 were identified. The equilibrium analysis of experimental solubility data of the two apatite systems was based upon potentiometric titration data, batch experiments, and zeta-potential measurements in combination with information provided by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The analysis required, besides the two solubility equilibria, the formation of surface protonation/deprotonation reactions, re-adsorption processes involving phosphate and fluoride ions as well as an ion exchange reaction (≡F + H2O ⇋ ≡OH + H+ + F) to fully describe the dissolution characteristics of the two apatite systems. The resulting model also agrees with observations from XPS and solubility data, claiming the formation of CaF2(s) in the most acidic pH range of the FAP system. In addition, calculated isoelectric points (pHiep) are in agreement with values from surface charge measurements showing pHiep (HAP) = 8.1 and pHiep (FAP) = 5.7.

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