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  • 1.
    Sharma, Atin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Omer Aden, Ruqiya
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Puhar, Andrea
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Cisneros, David A.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    CRISPR-cas-guided mutagenesis of chromosome and virulence plasmid in Shigella flexneri by cytosine base editing2023Ingår i: mSystems, E-ISSN 2379-5077, Vol. 8, nr 1, artikel-id e01045-22Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Shigella is a Gram-negative bacterium that invades the human gut epithelium. The resulting infection, shigellosis, is the deadliest bacterial diarrheal disease. Much of the information about the genes dictating the pathophysiology of Shigella, both on the chromosome and the virulence plasmid, was obtained by classical reverse genetics. However, technical limitations of the prevalent mutagenesis techniques restrict the generation of mutants in a single reaction to a small number, preventing large-scale targeted mutagenesis of Shigella and the subsequent assessment of phenotype. We adopted a CRISPR-Cas-dependent approach, where a nickase Cas9 and cytidine deaminase fusion is guided by single guide RNA (sgRNA) to introduce targeted C→T transitions, resulting in internal stop codons and premature termination of translation. In proof-of-principle experiments using an mCherry fluorescent reporter, we were able to generate loss-of-function mutants in both Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri with up to 100% efficacy. Using a modified fluctuation assay, we determined that under optimized conditions, the frequency of untargeted mutations introduced by the Cas9-deaminase fusion was in the same range as spontaneous mutations, making our method a safe choice for bacterial mutagenesis. Furthermore, we programmed the method to mutate well-characterized chromosomal and plasmid-borne Shigella flexneri genes and found the mutant phenotype to be similar to those of the reported gene deletion mutants, with no apparent polar effects at the phenotype level. This method can be used in a 96-well-plate format to increase the throughput and generate an array of targeted loss-of-function mutants in a few days.

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  • 2.
    Sharma, Atin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Puhar, Andrea
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Gentamicin Protection Assay to Determine the Number of Intracellular Bacteria during Infection of Human TC7 Intestinal Epithelial Cells by Shigella flexneri2019Ingår i: Bio-protocol, E-ISSN 2331-8325, Vol. 9, nr 13, artikel-id e3292Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Shigella flexneri is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that gains access to the gut epithelium using a specialized Type III Secretion System (T3SS). Various determinants mediating this invasive infection have been experimentally verified using the classical gentamicin protection assay presented here. In this assay epithelial cell lines are infected by bacteria in vitro and the extracellular bacteria are killed by gentamicin. The internalized bacteria, which are protected from the bactericidal action of gentamicin, are recovered by lysing the epithelial cells and enumerated by determining the colonies formed on solid medium. Various techniques based on light microscopy, such as immunofluorescence and bacteria expressing fluorescent proteins, are also used for studying intracellular bacteria. However, these techniques are not only labor intensive and require sophisticated equipment, but mostly are also not quantitative. Despite being an easy quantitative method to study invasiveness of bacteria, the gentamicin protection assay cannot distinguish between the survival and multiplication of the internalized bacteria over longer incubation periods. To alleviate the complications created by multiplication and dissemination of internalized bacteria, complementary assays like plaque formation assays are required. This protocol presents an easy and cost-effective method to determine the invasiveness and the capacity to establish an infection of Shigella under different conditions.

  • 3.
    Sharma, Atin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Puhar, Andrea
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Plaque Assay to Determine Invasion and Intercellular Dissemination of Shigella flexneri in TC7 Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells2019Ingår i: Bio-protocol, E-ISSN 2331-8325, Vol. 9, nr 13, artikel-id e3293Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Shigella flexneri invades the epithelial cells lining the gut lumen and replicates intracellularly. The specialized Type III Secretion System (T3SS) and its effector proteins, encoded on a large virulence plasmid, assist the bacterium to gain access to the cytosol. Thereafter Shigella disseminates to neighboring cells in an epithelial layer without further extracellular steps. Host cell lysis occurs when these bacteria have extensively replicated in the target cell cytosol. Here we describe a simple method to qualitatively as well as quantitatively study the capacity of Shigella to invade and disseminate within an epithelium by assessing the number and size of plaques representing the dead cells in a monolayer of TC7 cells. This classical protocol follows a simple approach of infecting the monolayers of epithelial cell lines with Shigella and visualizing the dead cells as plaques formed against a stained background.

  • 4.
    Tadala, Lalitha
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Langenbach, Dorothee
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS).
    Dannborg, Mirjam
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Cervantes-Rivera, Ramón
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Sharma, Atin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Vieth, Kevin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Rieckmann, Lisa M.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS).
    Wanders, Alkwin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Cisneros, David A.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    Puhar, Andrea
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Infection-induced membrane ruffling initiates danger and immune signaling via the mechanosensor PIEZO12022Ingår i: Cell Reports, E-ISSN 2211-1247, Vol. 40, nr 6, artikel-id 111173Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Microorganisms are generally sensed by receptors recognizing microbial molecules, which evoke changes in cellular activities and gene expression. Bacterial pathogens induce secretion of the danger signal ATP as an early alert response of intestinal epithelial cells, initiating overt inflammation. However, what triggers ATP secretion during infection is unclear. Here we show that the inherently mechanosensitive plasma membrane channel PIEZO1 acts as a sensor for bacterial entry. PIEZO1 is mechanically activated by invasion-induced membrane ruffles upstream of Ca2+ influx and ATP secretion. Mimicking mechanical stimuli of pathogen uptake with sterile beads equally elicits ATP secretion. Chemical or genetic PIEZO1 inactivation inhibits mechanically induced ATP secretion. Moreover, chemical or mechanical PIEZO1 activation evokes gene expression in immune and barrier pathways. Thus, mechanosensation of invasion-induced plasma membrane distortion initiates immune signaling upon infection, independently of detection of microbial molecules. Hence, PIEZO1-dependent detection of infection is driven by physical signals instead of chemical ligands.

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  • 5.
    Wigren, Julia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi. Xerum AB, Umeå, Sweden.
    Vikström, Linnea
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Rosendal, Ebba
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS).
    Gröning, Remigius
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Gwon, Yong-Dae
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Nilsson, Emma
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS).
    Sharma, Atin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Espaillat, Akbar
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Hanke, Leo
    Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    McInerney, Gerald
    Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Puhar, Andrea
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Cava, Felipe
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylärbiologi (Medicinska fakulteten).
    Karlsson Hedestam, Gunilla B.
    Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Thunberg, Therese
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Monsen, Tor
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Elgh, Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Evander, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Johansson, Anders F.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Överby, Anna K.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Molekylär Infektionsmedicin, Sverige (MIMS).
    Ahlm, Clas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Normark, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Forsell, Mattias N. E.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi.
    At-home sampling to meet geographical challenges for serological assessment of SARS-CoV-2 exposure in a rural region of northern Sweden, March to May 2021: a retrospective cohort study2023Ingår i: Eurosurveillance, ISSN 1025-496X, E-ISSN 1560-7917, Vol. 28, nr 13, artikel-id 2200432Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has highlighted a need for easy and safe blood sampling in combination with accurate serological methodology. Venipuncture for testing is usually performed by trained staff at healthcare centres. Long travel distances to healthcare centres in rural regions may introduce a bias of testing towards relatively large communities with closer access. Rural regions are therefore often not represented in population-based data.

    Aim: The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to develop and implement a strategy for at-home testing in a rural region of Sweden during spring 2021, and to evaluate its role to provide equal health care for its inhabitants.

    Methods: We developed a sensitive method to measure antibodies to the S-protein of SARS-CoV-2 and optimised this assay for clinical use together with a strategy of at-home capillary blood sampling.

    Results: We demonstrated that our ELISA gave comparable results after analysis of capillary blood or serum from SARS-CoV-2-experienced individuals. We demonstrated stability of the assay under conditions that reflected temperature and humidity during winter or summer. By assessment of capillary blood samples from 4,122 individuals, we could show both feasibility of the strategy and that implementation shifted the geographical spread of testing in favour of rural areas.

    Conclusion: Implementation of at-home sampling enabled citizens living in remote rural areas access to centralised and sensitive laboratory antibody tests. The strategy for testing used here could therefore enable disease control authorities to get rapid access to information concerning immunity to infectious diseases, even across vast geographical distance.

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