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  • 1.
    Angelov, Angel G.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Ekström, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics. Department of Forest Resource Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Kriström, Bengt
    Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Mats E.
    Gösta Ekman Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Four-decision tests for stochastic dominance, with an application to environmental psychophysics2019In: Journal of mathematical psychology (Print), ISSN 0022-2496, E-ISSN 1096-0880, Vol. 93, article id 102281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    If the survival function of a random variable X lies to the right of the survival function of a random variable Y, then X is said to stochastically dominate Y. Inferring stochastic dominance is particularly complicated because comparing survival functions raises four possible hypotheses: identical survival functions, dominance of X over Y, dominance of Y over X, or crossing survival functions. In this paper, we suggest four-decision tests for stochastic dominance suitable for paired samples. The tests are permutation-based and do not rely on distributional assumptions. One-sided Cramér–von Mises and Kolmogorov–Smirnov statistics are employed but the general idea may be utilized with other test statistics. The power to detect dominance and the different types of wrong decisions are investigated in an extensive simulation study. The proposed tests are applied to data from an experiment concerning the individual’s willingness to pay for a given environmental improvement.

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  • 2.
    B. Krishnamurthy, Chandra Kiran
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kriström, Bengt
    Determinants of the Price-Premium for Green Energy: Evidence from an OECD Cross-Section2016In: Environmental and Resource Economics, ISSN 0924-6460, E-ISSN 1573-1502, Vol. 64, no 2, p. 173-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using data from a survey of households in 11 OECD countries, this paper investigates the determinants of preferences for a completely green residential electricity system. Three important questions are addressed: (i) how much are households willing to pay to use only renewable energy? (ii) does willingness-to-pay (WTP) vary significantly across household groups and countries? and (iii) what drives the decision to enter the (hypothetical) market for green energy and, given entry, what drives the level of WTP? The analysis here differs from previous studies on green energy in two ways: first, data and analyses are comparable across countries and second, a comprehensive attempt is made to understand 0 WTP, and to accommodate-using a censored quantile regression (CQR) framework-unobserved heterogeneity. The survey data indicate a low WTP, at 11-12 % of current electric bill. This study also addresses a key question: how important is income for understanding WTP, relative to more "attitudinal" determinants? The effect of income overall appears ambiguous, with Tobit-like models indicating that income is not significant while the CQR indicates that income exerts a significant effect near the center of the distribution of WTP. Across all frameworks used, a key determinant of WTP appears to be environmental attitudes, particularly membership in an environmental organization.

  • 3.
    Belyaev, Yu. K.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Kriström, Bengt
    Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE), Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Analysis of survey data containing rounded censoring intervals2015In: Informatika i ee primeneniâ, ISSN 1992-2264, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 2-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper makes a contribution towards the statistical analysis of data sets containing intervals, that naturally arises in survey contexts. The suggested approach is sufficiently general to cover most cases where interval data are used. Interval data appear in many contexts, such as in reliability studies and survival analysis, in medicine and economics, in opinion elicit surveys, etc. There are several reasons for the extensive use of interval data, perhaps, the most common being one of necessity; exact values of the underlying observations are censored. The nature of the intervals analyzed here is somewhat unusual. The self-selected intervals (SeSeI) are (freely) chosen by the subjects. A generalization of the influential approach has been suggested to the statistical analysis of general censoring introduced by B. W. Turnbull. A key independence assumption in Turnbull's analysis has been explained and generalized. A sampling stopping rule based on the coverage probability has been suggested and the properties of a two-step estimator, based on the idea of asking two questions, where the second involves a way of fine-graining the information, has been discussed. This paper provides several informatics methods for SeSeI, targeting the problem of partial nonparametric identification. The properties of the suggested statistical models are stated, including a recursion for easy numerical calculations. An extensive simulation study, displaying, inter alia, the usefulness of the proposed resampling methods for the situation under study, completes the paper.

  • 4.
    Belyaev, Yuri K
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Håkansson, C
    Kriström, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Rounding it up! Interval and open ended valuation questions.2009Report (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Belyaev, Yuri K
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Kriström, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Approach to analysis of self-selected interval data2010Report (Other academic)
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  • 6.
    Belyaev, Yuri K
    et al.
    Department of forest economics, SLU.
    Kriström, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. CERE, Centre for environmental and resource economics, SLU.
    Two-step approach to self-selected interval data in elicitation surveys2012Report (Other academic)
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  • 7. Boman, Mattias
    et al.
    Mattsson, Leif
    Ericsson, Göran
    Kriström, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, CERE, S-90183 Umea, Sweden.
    Moose Hunting Values in Sweden Now and Two Decades Ago: The Swedish Hunters Revisited2011In: Environmental and Resource Economics, ISSN 0924-6460, E-ISSN 1573-1502, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 515-530Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is based on two national contingent valuation studies dealing with the extent and economic values of hunting in Sweden. The first valuation study was conducted in 1987 and the second in 2006. Both the game resource and the hunter community have undergone changes in the two decades covered by the surveys. An important purpose of the latter survey was to repeat relevant parts of the former one, which created a rare opportunity to compare valuations covering a very long time span. Moose hunting value and its determinants were compared between the two studies, showing that significant changes have taken place. Our analysis suggests caution in using results from old contingent valuation studies for e.g. benefits transfer exercises.

  • 8. Heal, Geoffrey
    et al.
    Kriström, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Distribution, sustainability and environmental policy2007In: Handbook Of Sustainable Development / [ed] Giles Atkinson , Simon Dietz , Eric Neumayer, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2007, p. 155-170Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Johansson, Per-Olov
    et al.
    Economics, Stockholm School of Economics.
    Kriström, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. CERE, SLU.
    A blueprint for a cost-benefit analysis of a water use conflict: hydroelectricity versus other uses2011In: Modern Cost-benefit Analysis of Hydropower Conflicts / [ed] Per-Olov Johansson and Bengt Kriström, CHELTENHAM: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2011, p. 35-64Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Johansson, Per-Olov
    et al.
    Economics, Stockholm School of Economics.
    Kriström, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. CERE, SLU.
    Introduction2011In: Modern Cost-benefit Analysis of Hydropower Conflicts / [ed] Per-Olov Johansson and Bengt Kriström, CHELTENHAM: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2011, p. 1-5Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Johansson, Per-Olov
    et al.
    Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kriström, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    On the Social Cost of Water-Related Disasters2015In: Water Economics and Policy, ISSN 2382-624X, E-ISSN 2382-6258, Vol. 1, no 3, article id 71550015Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is devoted to some important welfare economic issues related to natural disasters, in particular those connected with floods and storms. Our analysis of the social cost of a natural disaster is different from (most) existing analyses, in that we focus sharply on the welfare effects of a disaster. We derive a simple dynamic general equilibrium cost-benefit rule, which captures loss in production of private and public goods, as well as the value of (statistical) lives lost; it also clarifies the role played by changes in stocks and flows, respectively. Standard analysis of losses typically only includes damages to market-priced stocks and flows, thus our model paints a different picture of social cost. This difference is particularly striking for disaster that results in many deaths, but has relatively low (reported) costs. We take our model to the data by using EM-DAT, one of the several prominent databases in this literature, focusing on water-related disasters in the US.

  • 12.
    Johansson, Per-Olov
    et al.
    Stockholm School of Economics, CERE, Sweden.
    Kriström, Bengt
    Umeå University. Swedish Uiversity of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Swapping forests to preserve valuable sites: A sketch of a framework for economic evaluation2021In: Journal of Forest Economics, ISSN 1104-6899, E-ISSN 1618-1530, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 183-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2012 the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency was provided with 100,000 ha of productive forest land. The Agency swapped the land to obtain conservation-worthy forests, and these were turned into natural reserves. Conservation without reference to both benefits and cost typically results in inefficient solutions. In this paper we discuss how to select the forest stands to preserve in a cost-effective manner. We also discuss how to design a cost-benefit analysis of the swapping program. We provide several new results regarding the economics of preservation, when land swaps is a viable instrument.

  • 13.
    Johansson, Per-Olov
    et al.
    Stockholm School of Economics, Department of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kriström, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    The economics of evaluating water projects: hydroelectricity versus other uses2012Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book presents research on a kind of water use conflicts that is becoming more and more common and important: How to best manage moving water in times of increasing demand for electricity as well as environmental services. How should decisions be made between water use for electricity generation or for environmental and recreational benefits? The authors develop a simple general equilibrium model of a small open economy which is used to derive a cost-benefit rule that can be used to assess projects that divert water from electricity generation to recreational and other uses (or vice versa). The cost-benefit rule is then applied to the specific case of a proposed change at a Swedish hydropower plant. The book provides a manual for the evaluation of river regulations which can easily be replicated in other studies.

  • 14.
    Johansson, Per-Olov
    et al.
    Department of Economics, Stockholm School of Economics.
    Kriström, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Centre for Environmental & Resource Economics (CERE), SLU.
    The New Economics of Evaluating Water Projects2011In: Annual Review of Resource Economics, Vol 3, Annual Reviews , 2011, p. 231-254Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We review key developments in the cost-benefit analysis of water projects, including conceptual and empirical issues. We emphasize general equilibrium and dynamics, in particular the links between economic and ecological systems.

  • 15.
    Johansson, Per-Olov
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
    Kriström, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration. SLU-Umeå, Sweden.
    Welfare evaluation of subsidies to renewable energy in general equilibrium: Theory and application2019In: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 83, p. 144-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While support schemes to renewable energy are ubiquitous around the world today, there are few systematic welfare evaluations of their social benefits and costs in an economy-wide setting. We develop a general equilibrium cost–benefit rule to assess changes in quantity based subsidy schemes, “green” certificates, that support renewable electricity generation. An advantage to large-scale numerical models of the same issue is that we can go “into the black box” and uncover key economic mechanisms. We study a second-best economy with distorting taxes and pollution, so that a perturbation of the certificate scheme causes both benefits and costs; these items can be uncovered and estimated using our framework. To this end, we provide a user-friendly approximation for empirical implementation, which means that data requirement is modest relative to a typical computable general equilibrium model. We apply the theory to a currently existing scheme in Sweden taking into account “trickle-down” effects, including e.g. a loss of value-added tax income in the rest of the economy and environmental costs (i.e. externalities from electricity generation not currently internalized). We first present an ex post estimate, i.e. the welfare consequences of having scrapped the existing system 2003–2017 and then an ex ante analysis of extending the system to 2045. The latter includes a systematic sensitivity analysis based on Monte-Carlo simulation. Overall, we find net present value gains from removing the subsidy scheme, taking into account externalities, “trickle-down” and public finance repercussions.

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  • 16.
    Krishnamurthy, Chandra Kiran B
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Kriström, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    How large is the owner-renter divide in energy efficient technology? Evidence from an OECD cross-section.2015In: Energy Journal, ISSN 0195-6574, E-ISSN 1944-9089, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 85-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When the agent making an investment decision is different from the one bearing the costs of the decision, the outcome (energy usage, here) is socially sub-optimal, a scenario known in the energy efficient technology case as "split incentive" effect. Using a sample of households (from a survey conducted in 2011) from 11 OECD countries, this paper investigates the magnitude of the "split incentive" effect between home occupants who are owners and those who are renters. A wide variety of energy-related "technologies" are considered: appliances, energy efficient bulbs, insulation, heat thermostat, solar panels, ground source heat pumps and wind turbines. Mean difference in patterns of access to these technologies are consistent with the "split incentives" hypothesis. Regression results suggest that, even after controlling for the sizeable differences in observed characteristics, owners are substantially more likely to have access to energy efficient appliances and to better insulation as well as to heat thermostats. For relatively immobile investments such as wind turbines and ground source heat pumps, we find no differences between owners and renters.

  • 17.
    Kriström, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Valuing environmental benefits using the contingent valuation method: an econometric analysis1990Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate methods for assessing the value people place on preserving our natural environments and resources. It focuses on the contingent valuation method, which is a method for directly asking people about their preferences. In particular, the study focuses on the use of discrete response data in contingent valuation experiments.The first part of the study explores the economic theory of the total value of a natural resource, where the principal components of total value are analyzed; use values and non-use values. Our application is a study of the value Swedes' attach to the preservation of eleven forest areas that contain high recreational values and contain unique environmental qualities. Six forests were selected on the basis of an official investigation which includes virgin forests and other areas with unique environmental qualities. In addition, five virgin forests were selected.Two types of valuation questions are analyzed, the continuous and the discrete. The first type of question asks directly about willingness to pay, while the second type suggests a price that the respondent may reject or accept. The results of the continuous question suggest an average willingness to pay of about 1,000 SEK per household for preservation of the areas. Further analysis of the data suggests that this value depends on severi characteristics of the respondent: such as the respondent's income and whether or not the respondent is an altruist.Two econometric approaches are used to analyze the discrete responses; a flexible parametric approach and a non-parametric approach. In addition, a Bayesian approach is described. It is shown that the results of a contingent valuation experiment may depend to some extent on the choice of the probability model. A re-sampling approach and a Monte-Carlo approach is used to shed light on the design of a contingent valuation experiment with discrete responses. The econometric analysis ends with an analysis of the often observed disparity between discrete and continuous valuation questions.A cost-benefit analysis is performed in the final chapter. The purpose of this analysis is to illustrate how the contingent valuation approach may be combined with opportunity cost data to improve the decision-basis in the environmental policy domain. This analysis does not give strong support for a cutting alternative. Finally, the results of this investigation are compared with evidence from other studies.The main conclusion of this study is that assessment of peoples' sentiments towards changes of our natural environments and resources can be a useful supplement to decisions about the proper husbandry of our natural environments and resources. It also highlights the importance of careful statistical analysis of data gained from contingent valuation experiments.

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    Valuing environmental benefits using the contingent valuation method: an econometric analysis
  • 18.
    Kriström, Bengt
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). SLU, Umeå, Sweden.
    Johansson, Per-Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The Infinitely Worried Forest Owner Key Biotopes and Forest Certification in a Faustmann Model2020In: Journal of Forest Economics, ISSN 1104-6899, E-ISSN 1618-1530, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 69-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this note, we consider a case when a forestry property may lose its market value through "political risk", illustrated here by it being classified as containing a key biotope. If a key biotope is found on a forest property in Sweden, the wood is almost impossible to sell. We show how the Faustmann formula is modified in this case and identify a "balance sheet" effect and a shortened rotation period. The theory seems to have some empirical support, given observed changes in bank lending contracts and alleged changes in forester's behavior to reduce the "political risk".

  • 19. Mahieu, Pierre-Alexandre
    et al.
    Riere, Pere
    Kriström, Bengt
    Brännlund, Runar
    Department of Forest Economics, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 90183 Umeå, Sweden.
    Giergiczny, Marek
    Exploring the determinants of uncertainty in contingent valuation surveys2014In: Journal of Environmental Economics and Policy, ISSN 2160-6544, E-ISSN 2160-6552, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 186-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses the interval data model to explore the determinants of uncertainty in two-way payment ladder and in multiple-bounded uncertainty choice surveys. It estimates the uncertainty function that relates the size of the willingness-to-pay range to explanatory variables, where one of them is a proxy of the actual willingness-to-pay. The combination of the interval data model and the inclusion of the proxy variable present some advantages over the ordinary least square estimations currently used in the literature. In particular, it reduces the risk of the omitted variable bias and it takes into account that the dependent variable is not fully observed.

  • 20.
    Riera, Pere
    et al.
    Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona.
    García, Dolores
    Kriström, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Manual de economía ambiental y de los recursos naturales2016 (ed. 3)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [es]

    Difícilmente pueden entenderse muchos de los impactos que infringimos al medio ambiente, así como sus soluciones, sin comprender la relación entre economía y medio ambiente. Cómo usamos y cómo podríamos utilizar mejor los recursos, sean estos renovables o no renovables. En cuánto valoramos las personas la protección de determinados espacios naturales o hasta cuánto estamos dispuestos a invertir para gozar de agua de mejor calidad. Cuándo vale la pena construir una carretera a pesar de sus impactos ambientales o cuándo renunciar a ella. Qué consecuencias tiene el que unos países adopten leyes ambientales más estrictas y otros más laxas. En cuánto deberíamos penalizar a aquellas industrias que dañan nuestro entorno. Cómo podemos lograr que se emitan menos gases de efecto invernadero en todo el mundo sin que nos cueste demasiado. Estas son algunas cuestiones que nos pueden preocupar y a las que este manual de economía ambiental y de los recursos naturales puede ayudar a dar respuesta. Los autores, todos ellos doctores de economía y profesores de universidad especialistas en economía del medio ambiente, han trasladado a este libro su experiencia docente y de investigación para que los lectores puedan introducirse a la economía ambiental y de los recursos naturales sin requerir de conocimientos específi cos previos. El libro se dirige no sólo a economistas o estudiantes de economía interesados en el medio ambiente, sino también, y especialmente, a otros estudiantes, profesionales y personas con preocupación ambiental y deseo de conocer lo que la economía puede aportar.

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