Umeå University's logo

umu.sePublications
Change search
Refine search result
1 - 10 of 10
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Larsson, Linn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Challis, Pontus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Späth, Cornelia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Stoltz Sjöström, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Domellöf, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Blood transfusions are not a risk factor for necrotizing enterocolitis in extremely preterm infants2014In: Archives of Disease in Childhood, ISSN 0003-9888, E-ISSN 1468-2044, Vol. 99, no Suppl 2, p. A177-A177, article id PS-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:  Transfusion practices are highly variable between hospitals and previous studies have suggested that blood transfusions may increase the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC).

    Aim: To explore the association between blood transfusions and incidence of NEC in extremely preterm infants.

    Methods: We used data from a Swedish population-based study including extremely preterm infants (<27 weeks) born between 2004–2007, (n = 602). All data on blood transfusions and haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations up to 28 days of age was collected for survivors. We performed a nested case-control study where two controls were chosen for each case of NEC (n = 21).

    Results: During the first 28 days of life, infants received a median (25th-75th percentile) of 6 (3–9) blood transfusions resulting in 75 (44–120) ml/kg of blood. Predictors for receiving a higher volume of blood transfusions were days on respiratory support (R = 0.345, p < 0.001), hospital (R = 0.339, p < 0.001), low birth weight (R = -0.236, p < 0.001) and total steroid dose (R = 0.209, p < 0.001). Hb was not a significant predictor.

    Overall NEC incidence was 5.8%. There was no significant difference between NEC cases and controls in number of blood transfusions (p = 0.420), volume of blood transfused from birth to NEC diagnosis (p = 0.274), or during the 48 h preceding NEC diagnosis (p = 0.459).

    Conclusions: Blood transfusions were given liberally in Sweden compared to other studied populations. Morbidity related variables, especially those related to respiratory illness, were significant predictors of blood transfusion. NEC incidence was comparable with other populations but no significant association was found between blood transfusions and NEC among these extremely preterm infants.

  • 2.
    Späth, Cornelia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    The impact of nutrition on growth, biomarkers, and health outcomes in preterm infants2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Nutrients play a crucial role for growth and brain development after preterm birth. Meeting the nutritional needs of preterm infants is challenging. Particularly, the most immature infants have a high risk of malnutrition and poor growth during hospital care. To meet recommended energy and nutrient intakes during early postnatal life, a concentrated parenteral nutrition (PN) regimen was implemented in clinical use in 2012 at the neonatal intensive care unit at Umeå University Hospital (Umeå, Sweden). However, electrolyte homeostasis is labile after preterm birth and infants require an electrolyte supply that corresponds to their energy and protein intakes to avoid electrolyte disturbances. Although sodium imbalances such as hyper- and hyponatremia are common in the most immature preterm infants, there is limited knowledge to what extent these imbalances are affected by fluid volume and sodium supply. Furthermore, it is unclear whether the early high sodium concentrations lead to any adverse effects, including intraventricular hemorrhage, or simply reflect immediate adaptive processes after preterm birth.

    Aim: This thesis investigates the impact of nutrition on growth, nutritional biomarkers, and health outcomes in preterm infants born with a birth weight below 1500 g.

    Methods: We used data from two study populations. First, we collected data for all very low birth weight infants (< 1500 g) born between 2010 and 2013 and treated at Umeå University Hospital (Umeå, Sweden; n = 134). Second, we used data from the EXtremly PREterm infants in Sweden Study (EXPRESS). We included all infants born before 27 gestational weeks in Sweden between 2004 and 2007 who survived the first 24 h (n = 602). Data collection for both study populations included a) intakes of all parenteral and enteral nutritional products and other fluids during the first 28 postnatal days, b) all anthropometric measurements during hospital stay, c) perinatal data, and d) neonatal morbidity.

    Results: The concentrated PN regimen improved early energy and macronutrient intakes in very low birth weight infants. Furthermore, weight and length growth from postnatal week two to a postmenstrual age of 36 weeks improved in very low birth weight infants who received the concentrated PN regimen compared with infants who received the previous original PN regimen (Paper I). Increased parenteral energy and protein intakes provided by the concentrated PN regimen, did not induce a higher occurrence of electrolyte imbalances as electrolytes were supplied according to the current recommendations (Paper II). In the EXPRESS cohort, the majority of extremely preterm infants had hypernatremia during the first and hyponatremia during the second postnatal week. Gestational age and supply of sodium, rather than fluid volume, were the major factors determining the risks of hyper- and hyponatremia (Paper III). High total supply of sodium was significantly correlated with severe intraventricular hemorrhage if mostly mediated by blood product transfusions (Paper IV).

    Conclusions: Our results suggest that in very immature preterm infants a concentrated PN regimen improves early nutrient intakes and postnatal growth without causing electrolyte disturbances. Hyper- and hyponatremia are common and the supply of sodium is a major predictor. The impact of sodium on severe intraventricular hemorrhage needs further investigation.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (pdf)
    spikblad
    Download (png)
    presentationsbild
  • 3.
    Späth, Cornelia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences.
    Domellöf, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences.
    Stoltz Sjöström, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Effects of two different parenteral nutrition regimen on plasma electrolyte concentrations in very low birth weight infantsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Recent studies demonstrated an increased prevalence of electrolyte imbalances in preterm infants who received enhanced amounts of energy and protein within the first days after birth. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two parenteral nutritional (PN) regimen, which differ in energy and protein content, on intakes and plasma concentrations of electrolytes in very low birth weight (VLBW, < 1500 g) infants.

    Methods: We collected daily nutritional, growth, and nutritional biomarker data retrospectively from clinical charts for VLBW infants born before (n = 81) and after (n = 53) the implementation of a concentrated PN regimen at the neonatal intensive care unit at Umeå University Hospital (Umeå, Sweden).

    Results: During the first postnatal week, intakes of energy, protein, sodium, potassium, calcium, and phosphorous were significantly higher in infants who received the concentrated PN regimen compared with infants who received the original PN regimen. The prevalence of hypernatremia, hypophosphatemia, and hypercalcemia did not differ significantly between the groups. However, infants who received concentrated PN were less likely to develop hypokalaemia during the first postnatal week compared with infants who received original PN (30 vs. 76%, P < 0.001).

    Conclusion: A concentrated, energy- and protein-optimized, PN regimen requires careful adjustments of electrolytes in VLBW infants. During the first three postnatal days, a minimum potassium intake of 1 mmol/kg/d might be necessary to prevent early hypokalaemia. The risk of early hypernatremia was not affected by different sodium intakes.

  • 4.
    Späth, Cornelia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Stoltz Sjöström, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Ahlsson, Fredrik
    Uppsala universitet.
    Ågren, Johan
    Uppsala universitet.
    Domellöf, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Sodium supply influences plasma sodium concentration and the risks of hyper- and hyponatremia in extremely preterm infants2017In: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447, Vol. 81, p. 455-460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Hyper- and hyponatremia occur frequently in extremely preterm infants. Our purpose was to investigate plasma sodium (P-Na) concentrations, the incidence of hyper and hyponatremia, and the impact of possible predisposing factors in extremely preterm infants.

    Methods: In this observational study, we analyzed data from the EXtremely PREterm (< 27 wk.) infants in Sweden Study (EXPRESS, n = 707). Detailed nutritional, laboratory, and weight data were collected retrospectively from patient records.

    Results: Mean ± SD P-Na increased from 135.5 ± 3.0 at birth to 144.3 ± 6.1 mmol/l at a postnatal age of 3 d and decreased thereafter. Fifty percent of infants had hypernatremia (P-Na >145 mmol/l) during the first week of life while 79% displayed hyponatremia (P-Na < 135 mmol/l) during week 2. Initially, the main sodium sources were blood products and saline injections/infusions, gradually shifting to parenteral and enteral nutrition towards the end of the first week. The major determinant of P-Na and the risks of hyper- and hyponatremia was sodium supply. Fluid volume provision was associated with postnatal weight change but not with P-Na.

    Conclusion: The supply of sodium, rather than fluid volume, is the major factor determining P-Na concentrations and the risks of hyper- and hyponatremia.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 5.
    Späth, Cornelia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences.
    Stoltz Sjöström, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Domellöf, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Effects Of Early Sodium And Fluid Intakes On Sodium Levels And Weight Change In Extremely Preterm Infants2014In: Archives of Disease in Childhood, ISSN 0003-9888, E-ISSN 1468-2044, Vol. 99, no Suppl 2, p. A38-A38, article id 0-046Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Hypernatremia is common in extremely preterm infants but it is unclear to what extent it is affected by sodium (Na) and fluid intakes. It is assumed that infants normally lose 5–10% of birth weight during the first postnatal days.

    Aim: To explore associations between early intakes of Na and fluids and biochemical levels of Na as well as weight change during early postnatal life.

    Method: We investigated a population-based cohort of Swedish extremely preterm infants (<27 gestational weeks). Detailed data of Na intakes, biochemical levels of Na and anthropometric measurements were retrospectively obtained from hospital records. Data are expressed as mean±SD.

    Results: Preliminary analyses of 547 infants (gestational age 25.3 ± 1.1, birth weight 762 ± 170g) showed that highest Na levels occurred at day 3 of life (144.3 ± 6.2mmol/L) and were associated with Na intake during the first 2 days of life (R=+0.25), gestational age (R=-0.23) and birth weight (R=-0.18) (p < 0.001 for all).

    Of included infants 32% lost more than 10% of birth weight during the first 3 days. There was a strong correlation between fluid intake within the first two days of life and weight change between birth and day 3 (R=+0.56, p < 0.001). Among those (27%) who lost between 5–10% in weight, fluid intakes were on average 103 mL/kg/d.

    Conclusion: Early Na levels were significantly correlated with early Na intake, low gestational age as well as low birth weight. In order to avoid hypernatremia and excessive weight loss, fluid and Na intakes during the first 2 days need to be strictly regulated.

  • 6.
    Späth, Cornelia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Stoltz Sjöström, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Culinary Science.
    Domellöf, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Higher Parenteral Electrolyte Intakes in Preterm Infants During First Week of Life: Effects on Electrolyte Imbalances2022In: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - JPGN, ISSN 0277-2116, E-ISSN 1536-4801, Vol. 75, no 3, p. E53-E59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effects of a higher intake of electrolytes from parenteral nutrition (PN) on plasma electrolyte concentrations in very low birth weight (VLBW, <1500 g) infants.

    Methods: This was a single-center cohort study including all VLBW infants born before (n = 81) and after (n = 53) the implementation of a concentrated PN regimen. Daily nutritional intakes and plasma concentrations of sodium, chloride, potassium, phosphate, and calcium were collected from clinical charts.

    Results: During the first postnatal week, electrolyte intakes were higher in infants who received concentrated PN compared with infants who received original PN. Infants who received concentrated PN had a lower incidence of hypokalemia (<3.5 mmol/L; 30% vs 76%, P < 0.001) and severe hypophosphatemia (<1.0 mmol/L; 2.2% vs 17%, P = 0.02). While the relatively high prevalence of severe hypophosphatemia in infants who received original PN can be explained by a phosphorus intake below the recommendation, the potassium intake during the first 3 postnatal days (mean ± SD: 0.7 ± 0.2 mmol/kg/d) was within the recommendation. The prevalence of early hypernatremia was not affected by the different sodium intake in the 2 groups.

    Conclusions: In VLBW infants, a sodium-containing PN solution (about 2.7 mmol/100 mL) does not cause hypernatremia during the first days of life. Furthermore, providing at least 1 mmol potassium/kg/d during the first 3 postnatal days might be necessary to prevent early hypokalemia.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 7.
    Späth, Cornelia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences.
    Stoltz Sjöström, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Ågren, Johan
    Ahlsson, Fredrik
    Domellöf, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences.
    Associations between sodium supply, sodium imbalances and severe intraventricular haemorrhage in extremely preterm infants: A nested case-control studyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Severe intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) is a serious neonatal morbidity among extremely preterm infants that has been associated with adverse neurodevelopmental consequences. We aimed to explore the associations between sodium supply, sodium imbalances and severe IVH.

    Methods: We used data from the EXtremely PREterm Infants in Sweden Study (EXPRESS) including all extremely preterm infants (< 27 weeks) born during 2004 and 2007 in Sweden (n = 707) and conducted a nested case-control study. For every infant with severe IVH (grades 3 to 4, n = 70) one control infant with a normal cranial ultrasound, a birthday closest to the case infant, and matched for hospital, sex, gestational age, and birth weight was selected.

    Results: Sodium supply was higher in infants with severe IVH compared with controls [Daily sodium supply until postnatal day 2: Mean ± SD (mmol/kg/d): 5.49 ± 2.53 vs. 3.95 ± 1.91, P = 0.009]. This association did not remain significant when we excluded the amount of sodium delivered from transfused blood products from total sodium supply. High concentrations of or large fluctuations in plasma sodium were not related to severe IVH.

    Conclusion: Although our results suggest a relationship between sodium supply and severe IVH via blood product transfusions, it is unclear whether this represents an effect of solute or volume load.

  • 8.
    Späth, Cornelia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Stoltz Sjöström, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Culinary Science.
    Ågren, Johan
    Department of Women's and Children's Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ahlsson, Fredrik
    Department of Women's and Children's Health, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Domellöf, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Sodium supply from administered blood products was associated with severe intraventricular haemorrhage in extremely preterm infants2022In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 111, no 9, p. 1701-1708Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between sodium supply, fluid volume, sodium imbalances and severe intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) in extremely preterm (EPT) infants.

    Methods: We used data from the EXtremely PREterm infants in Sweden Study (EXPRESS) cohort consisting of all infants born at 22 to 26 gestational weeks from 2004 to 2007 and conducted a nested case–control study. For every infant with severe IVH (grade 3 or peri-ventricular haemorrhagic infarction), one IVH-free control infant with the birthday closest to the case infant and matched for hospital, sex, gestational age and birth weight was selected (n = 70 case–control pairs).

    Results: Total sodium supply and fluid volume were higher in infants with severe IVH compared with controls [daily total sodium supply until postnatal Day 2: mean ± SD (mmol/kg/day): 5.49 ± 2.53 vs. 3.95 ± 1.91, p = 0.009]. These differences were accounted for by sodium and fluid from transfused blood products. High plasma sodium concentrations or large sodium fluctuations were not associated with severe IVH.

    Conclusion: Our results suggest a relationship between sodium-rich transfusions of blood products and severe IVH in EPT infants. It is unclear whether this is an effect of sodium load, volume load or some other transfusion-related factor.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 9.
    Späth, Cornelia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Zamir, Itay
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Stoltz Sjöström, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Domellöf, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Use of concentrated parenteral nutrition solutions is associated with improved nutrient intakes and postnatal growth in very low-birth-weight infants2020In: JPEN - Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, ISSN 0148-6071, E-ISSN 1941-2444, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 327-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Evidence showing the beneficial effects of enhanced parenteral nutrition (PN) to very low-birth-weight (VLBW,<1500 g) infants is accumulating. However, PN composition and its impact on growth outcomes are questioned. This study aimed to investigate the associations between administration of a concentrated PN regime and intakes of energy and macronutrients as well as postnatal growth in VLBW infants. 

    Methods: We compared 2 cohorts of VLBW infants born before (n = 74) and after (n =44) a concentrated PN regime was introduced into clinical use. Daily nutrition and fluid intake during the first 28 postnatal days and all available growth measurements during hospitalization were retrospectively collected from clinical charts. 

    Results: Infants who received concentrated PN compared with original PN had higher parenteral intakes of energy (56 vs 45 kcal/kg/d, P < 0.001), protein (2.6 vs 2.2 g/kg/d, P = 0.008), and fat (1.5 vs 0.7 g/kg/d, P < 0.001) during the first postnatal week. Changes in standard deviation scores for weight and length from birth to postnatal day 28 were more positive in the concentrated PN group (mean [95% CI]; weight change: –0.77 [–1.02 to –0.52] vs –1.29 [–1.33 to –1.05], P = 0.005; length change: –1.01 [–1.36 to –0.65] vs –1.60 [–1.95 to –1.25], P = 0.025). There were no significant differences in fluid intake and infant morbidity between the groups. 

    Conclusion: Our results suggest that concentrated PN is useful and seems to be safe for improving early nutrition and growth in VLBW infants.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 10.
    Svensson, Ludwig
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Chmielewski, Grzegorz
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynecology.
    Czyżewska, Emilia
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Central Laboratory of Central Teaching Hospital, University Clinical Center of Medical, University of Warsaw, Poland.
    Domellöf, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Konarska, Zofia
    Department of Paediatrics, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.
    Pieścik-Lech, Małgorzata
    Department of Paediatrics, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.
    Späth, Cornelia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics. SAHMRI Women and Kids, South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, SA, Adelaide, Australia.
    Szajewska, Hania
    Department of Paediatrics, Medical University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland.
    Chmielewska, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Effect of low-dose iron supplementation on early development in breastfed infants: a randomized clinical trial2024In: JAMA pediatrics, ISSN 2168-6203, E-ISSN 2168-6211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Importance: Breastfed infants are at risk of iron deficiency, which is associated with suboptimal development. There is a paucity of evidence on the effects of iron supplementation on child development, and current guidelines are divergent.

    Objective: To assess whether daily iron supplementation, 1 mg/kg, between 4 and 9 months in exclusively or predominantly breastfed infants improves psychomotor development at 12 months.

    Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted between December 2015 and May 2020 with follow-up through May 2023 in an outpatient setting in Poland and Sweden. Participants were healthy singleton infants born at term with birth weight greater than 2500 g who were exclusively or predominantly breastfed (>50%) and did not have anemia (hemoglobin >10.5 g/dL) at age 4 months. Exclusion criteria included major illness, congenital anomaly, food allergy, and difficulty communicating with caregivers.

    Interventions: Iron (micronized microencapsulated ferric pyrophosphate), 1 mg/kg, or placebo (maltodextrin) once daily from age 4 to 9 months.

    Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was psychomotor development assessed by motor score of Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development III at 12 months, adjusted for gestational age, sex, and maternal education. Secondary outcomes included cognitive and language scores at 12 months; motor, cognitive, and language scores at 24 and 36 months; iron deficiency (serum ferritin <12 ng/mL), and iron deficiency anemia (iron deficiency and hemoglobin <10.5 g/dL) at 12 months.

    Results: Of 221 randomized infants (111 female), 200 (90%) were included in the intention-to-treat analysis (mean [SD] age, 12.4 [0.8] months). Iron supplementation (n = 104) compared to placebo (n = 96) had no effect on psychomotor development (mean difference [MD] for motor score, -1.07 points; 95% CI, -4.69 to 2.55), cognitive score (MD, -1.14; 95% CI, -4.26 to 1.99), or language score (MD, 0.75; 95% CI, -2.31 to 3.82) at 12 months. There were no significant differences at 24 and 36 months. The intervention did not reduce the risk for iron deficiency (relative risk [RR], 0.46; 95% CI, 0.16 to 1.30) or iron deficiency anemia (RR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.05 to 12.46) at 12 months.

    Conclusion and Relevance: No benefit was found with daily low-dose iron supplementation between 4 and 9 months with respect to psychomotor development, risk of iron deficiency, or iron deficiency anemia among breastfed infants in a setting of low risk of anemia.

1 - 10 of 10
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf