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  • 1.
    Bohn, Dorothee
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Carson, Doris A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Demiroglu, O. Cenk
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Public funding and destination evolution in sparsely populated Arctic regions2023In: Tourism Geographies, ISSN 1461-6688, E-ISSN 1470-1340, Vol. 25, no 8, p. 1833-1855Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the role of public funding in transforming tourism pathways in sparsely populated Arctic destinations, comparing Northern Sweden and Finnish Lapland. Our theoretical framework considers destination path plasticity and moments of change through the lens of geographical political economy to understand patterns of uneven development. This perspective helps explain how regional development funding driven by multi-scalar political priorities and global markets set structural conditions for tourism. We present a spatial analysis of public funding between 2007 and 2021 for private firms and public projects, complemented by document analysis and expert interviews. We find that public funding in Finnish Lapland has largely reinforced ‘Arctification’ and export-driven tourism in a few locations. In Northern Sweden, it has focused more on redistributing resources to micro-businesses and broader socio-economic development in lagging regions, yet with limited impacts on changing dominant tourism pathways. Public projects improved knowledge creation and networking among public and private actors but were largely unable to consolidate emerging pathways in the long run. Overall, regional development funding supported incremental change around existing pathways and had limited transformative effects in response to shocks or disruptive moments due to the rigid nature of funding programmes.

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  • 2.
    Carson, Dean B.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Brunet Johansson, Albert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Carson, Doris Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Who gives? Non-commercial distribution networks in domestic food production in the inland north of Sweden2024In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 16, no 6, article id 2300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the social context of “domestic food production” (dfp) in the inland North of Sweden, with a focus on understanding the contributions of non-commercial food distribution to local food security and sustainable rural community-building. We report on the findings of an exploratory pilot study that included an online survey of 305 people who engaged in at least one dfp activity (hunting, fishing, foraging, or farming). The aims were to uncover common social practices of dfp, as well as to identify key values attached to dfp, the extent of commercial and non-commercial distribution of home-produced food, and motivations to give away food. The main findings emphasize the social nature of dfp activities, with the vast majority of respondents undertaking dfp in groups or as part of formal clubs. Key values attached to dfp included social and community-related aspects, while commercial interests were limited. Respondents were more likely to engage in non-commercial distribution networks, usually involving close family and friends. Food givers mostly cited social factors as their main motivations rather than other food-related aspects (such as food security, health benefits, or food waste). Food givers were also likely to receive food from others, emphasizing the relatively narrow and reciprocal character of non-commercial food networks. We conclude that non-commercial dfp networks may be expanded to the broader community by exploiting the social nature of dfp and encouraging generalized reciprocity led by dfp clubs. This could potentially reduce the negative impacts of food deserts whilst also stimulating community interactions, learning and local dfp communities of practice.

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  • 3. Carson, Dean B.
    et al.
    Carson, Doris A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Disasters, market changes and 'The Big Smoke': understanding the decline of remote tourism in Katherine, Northern Territory Australia2019In: Perspectives on rural tourism geographies: case studies from developed nations on the exotic, the fringe and the boring bits in between / [ed] Rhonda L. Koster and Doris A. Carson, Cham: Springer, 2019, p. 93-114Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter examines the decline of tourism in Katherine, one of the Northern Territory's iconic remote destinations. While the decline coincided with severe floods damaging much of the town and its tourism infrastructure in 1998, other factors such as the overall decline of Outback tourism in Australia and changes in key markets such as backpackers and self-drive tourists contributed to the difficulty in reviving Katherine's tourism industry following the floods. Katherine tourism demonstrates characteristics consistent with the Beyond Peripherymodel of tourism development in remote or sparsely populated areas. The chapter argues that Katherine has become even more distant and disconnected from tourist markets, investors and policy makers since the floods. Key issues for future development include an increasingly uneven relationship between Katherine and the capital city of Darwin, and an inability to identify alternative markets and development paths independent of the dominant tourism structures in the Northern Territory. Katherine is an example of a remote destination which initially had substantial competitive advantages because of its location and levels of local investment in tourism, but has since lost those advantages due to a failure to respond to changing market forces. The chapter thus emphasises the fragile nature of tourism in remote locations, and its vulnerability to exogenous shocks and changing government priorities, reminding us of the broader challenges for economic development in remote resource peripheries.

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  • 4.
    Carson, Dean B
    et al.
    Flinders University Rural Clinical School, Flinders University, Burra, Australia ; The Northern Institute, Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Carson, Doris A
    Centre for Regional Engagement, University of South Australia, Whyalla, Australia.
    Local economies of mobility in sparsely populated areas: cases from Australia's spine2014In: Journal of Rural Studies, ISSN 0743-0167, E-ISSN 1873-1392, Vol. 36, p. 340-349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing contemporary body of literature about the 'new mobilities' – increasingly mobile populations and their impacts on local economies, particularly in more sparsely populated areas of developed nations. Much of the focus has been on the 'fly in/fly out' workforce associated with mining projects, but attention has also been paid to increasing numbers of 'fly in/fly out' workers in the health sector, the changing nature of tourist populations, the use of temporary contract labour for government administration, and the movement of Indigenous people from remote communities into urban centres. This paper uses five case examples in South Australia and the Northern Territory (Australia's 'spine') to examine the diversity of experiences of the new mobilities. The paper presents a framework for investigating new mobilities at the local settlement level through developing an understanding of macro and micro factors driving mobility and the consequences in terms of aspects of social and economic distance between mobile populations and host communities. The framework provides for useful insights to be drawn from secondary data sources including the Australian Census and tourist surveys. The paper concludes that the geographic characteristics of short term mobility observed in this research essentially conform to the 'Eight Ds' model of the human and economic geography of sparsely populated areas.

  • 5.
    Carson, Dean B.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. CQUniversity, Australia.
    Carson, Doris A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Understanding the demographic future of small Arctic villages using agent-based modelling2022In: More than 'nature': research on infrastructure and settlements in the North / [ed] Doris Friedrich; Markus Hirnsperger; Stefan Bauer, Vienna: LIT Verlag, 2022, p. 263-281Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large parts of the Scandinavian Arctic and sub-Arctic are characterized by small settlements of just a few dozen or hundred inhabitants. Many of these villages have experienced loss of population and services. However, recent in-migration and new technologies facilitating ageing in place and e-commute work have seen some villages grow, some stabilize their population base, and many undergo dramatic demographic transformation. These local processes have largely been hidden from policy-makers and planners because standard statistical analyses and demographic modeling are either only applied at regional level, or are poorly suited to such small populations. This chapter introduces an agent-based demographic model (ABDM) applied to small villages in the north of Sweden. ABDMs provide a way to combine quantitative and qualitative data about demographic change processes and model the impacts of these on population size, structure, and dynamics over time. This chapter presents examples of how ABDMs provide insights into demographic change in the northern inland of Sweden and how they might facilitate truly local-level planning in a peripheral Arctic context. 

  • 6.
    Carson, Dean B.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Sweden's Centre for Rural Medicine.
    Carson, Doris A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Várdduo – Centre for Sámi Research.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Sköld, Gabriella
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Disruptions and diversions: the demographic consequences of natural disasters in sparsely populated areas2021In: The demography of disasters: impacts for population and place / [ed] Dávid Karácsonyi, Andrew Taylor & Deanne Bird, Cham: Springer, 2021, p. 81-99Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Eight Ds model (Carson and Carson 2014) explains the unique characteristics of human and economic geography for sparsely populated areas (SPAs) as disconnected, discontinuous, diverse, detailed, dynamic, distant, dependent and delicate. According to the model, SPAs are subject to dramatic changes in demographic characteristics that result from both identifiable black swan events and less apparent tipping points in longer-term processes of demographic change (Carson et al. 2011). The conceptual foundations for this assertion are clear. Populations in SPAs can experience large and long-term impacts on the overall demographic structureas a result of decisions by a relatively small number of people. High levels of migration and mobility cause constant shifts in the demographic profile and prime SPAs to adapt to many different demographic states (Carson and Carson 2014). The Northern Territory of Australia, for example, experienced previously unseen waves of pre-retirement aged migrants in the past decade or so (Martel et al. 2013) as evidence of detailed but important changes to past trends. However, while dramatic demographic changes are conceptually possible and occasionally observable, there have been few attempts to examine the conditions under which such changes are likely to occur or not to occur. This is an important question particularly in relation to black swan events such as natural disasters because effective disaster management policy and planning is at least partially dependent on understanding who is affected and in what ways (Bird et al. 2013). 

    The purpose of this chapter, therefore, is to begin the process of identifying the conditions under which dramatic demographic responses to natural disasters in SPAs might occur. In the process, we introduce two new 'Ds' with which to describe the nature of demographic change. We propose that natural disasters such as cyclones, floods, earthquakes, bushfires, landslides, avalanches and crop failures present the potential to disrupt or to divert demographic development.

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  • 7. Carson, Dean B.
    et al.
    Carson, Doris A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Eimermann, Marco
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Thompson, Michelle
    Hayes, Matthew
    Small villages and socio-economic change in resource peripheries: a view from Northern Sweden2020In: Dipping in to the North: living, working and traveling in sparsely populated areas / [ed] Linda Lundmark, Dean B. Carson, Marco Eimermann, Singapore: Palgrave Macmillan, 2020, p. 27-53Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many towns and villages in the inland north of Sweden were settled by independent farmers and foresters, with industry and company towns being relatively rare. In Canada and Australia industry and company towns were more common, and there is some evidence that those towns have found it more difficult to attract and retain population than what we term here as 'settler towns'. Development of alternative economic activities such as tourism has been difficult. In Sweden, however, there is no clear distinction between the recent demographic performance of industry and settler villages, and local economic activity has been relatively unimportant as most villages are well connected to regional labour markets.

  • 8.
    Carson, Dean B.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Carson, Doris A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Hurtig, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Resource deserts, village hierarchies and de-growth in sparsely populated areas: The case of Southern Lapland, Sweden2022In: Fennia, E-ISSN 1798-5617, Vol. 200, no 2, p. 210-227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small villages in northern Sweden have seen a continuing removal of key services, such as schools, shops and public transport, since the 1970s. Disinvestment in public services has not been strategically planned but has happened in response to population loss and increased costs on a case-by-case basis. More recently, there has been a shift in policy thinking to what might be termed a ‘de-growth’ approach where digitalisation and increased personal mobility are used to provide new ways of delivering services. The purpose of this paper is to examine the existence of ‘resource deserts’ in Southern Lapland and the emergence (or consolidation) of village hierarchies in allocating public services. We map out the distribution of neighbourhood services (grocery stores, pre-/schools and petrol pumps) among villages, and explore the lived experiences in accessing these resources in different villages. Our results show that resource deserts clearly exist in the south and east of the region, while villages in the more sparsely populated western mountain areas were generally in a better position to retain resources. We identify a lack of consistent and transparent service planning at the village level as a key shortcoming in municipal and regional service strategies. There appear to be unofficial settlement hierarchies in the differential treatment of villages that are otherwise similar in population size, population change and distance to central places. We find that political decisions on service allocations are likely influenced by several factors. These include legacy effects relating to historic settlement status, the location of villages in relation to key transport or mobility corridors, as well as ideological factors favouring villages with more ‘exotic’ features and development potential in line with the municipalities’ economic, social and political priorities. We finally argue that a shift to de-growth needs to be more strategically planned if it is to eliminate resource deserts and promote equity of service access across all villages.

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  • 9.
    Carson, Dean B.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Carson, Doris A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Nordin, Gabriella
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Lessons from the Arctic past: The resource cycle, hydro energy development, and the human geography of Jokkmokk, Sweden2016In: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, E-ISSN 2214-6326, Vol. 16, p. 13-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research has identified a series of human geography impacts of natural resource developments in sparsely populated areas like the Arctic. These impacts can be mapped to the 'resource cycle', and arise from periods of population growth and decline, changing patterns of human migration and mobility, changing patterns of settlement, and changes in the demographic 'balance' between males and females, young and old, Indigenous and non-Indigenous. This paper examines the applicability of the resource cycle model in the case of hydro energy development in the Jokkmokk municipality of Sweden. Using quantitative demographic data, media reports, and contemporary accounts of hydro development, the paper describes the human geography of Jokkmokk since the late 19th century. The paper concludes that changes in human geography in Jokkmokk mirror what has been observed in regions dependent on non-renewable resources, although it is difficult to distinguish many impacts from those that might have occurred under alternative development scenarios. The paper identifies a 'settlement cycle' with phases of integrated and separated habitation for populations specifically associated with the development. Settlement dynamics, and the impacts of hydro on Sami geography are areas for further research.

  • 10.
    Carson, Dean B.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Carson, Doris A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Porter, Rob
    Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Yoshida Ahlin, Celia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Decline, Adaptation or Transformation: New Perspectives on Demographic Change in Resource Peripheries in Australia and Sweden2016In: Comparative Population Studies, ISSN 1869-8980, E-ISSN 1869-8999, Vol. 41, no 3-4, p. 1-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many sparsely populated resource peripheries in developed countries are perceived to suffer from periods of demographic decline due to loss of employment opportunities and services, youth out-migration and population ageing. While these trends tend to apply at broad regional scales and for particular time periods, diverse patterns of demographic change may be apparent if different spatial, temporal and social scales of analysis are taken into consideration. Comparing the experiences of two case study regions in northern Sweden and inland South Australia, this paper proposes an alternative conceptual framework to the ‘discourse of decline’, which could be used to examine the nuances of demographic change within resource peripheries. The framework includes spatial scale considerations that contrast broader regional demographic patterns with the experiences of sub-regions and individual settlements. It also includes temporal scale aspects, examining demographic change over different time periods to understand the pace, duration and frequency of population growth and decline. The framework finally includes social unit considerations, emphasising that demographic change affects different social groups in different ways. The results of the case studies suggest that considering demographic change as adaptation or transformation rather than decline may be more useful for identifying new – and qualitatively different – demographic pathways that emerge over time. 

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  • 11.
    Carson, Dean B.
    et al.
    Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Carson, Doris A.
    University of South Australia, Australia.
    Taylor, Andrew
    Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Indigenous Long Grassers: Itinerants or Problem Tourists?2013In: Annals of Tourism Research, ISSN 0160-7383, E-ISSN 1873-7722, Vol. 42, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper proposes a model explaining how ‘problem tourists’ emerge at tourism destinations. Problem tourists are incompatible with the accepted dominant status of tourism and emerge from social distance between tourists and hosts, or between different groups of tourists. A case study of long grassers in Darwin, the capital of Australia’s Northern Territory, is presented to illustrate the model. Long grassers are popularly understood as Indigenous people from remote communities who camp in public places during their visits to Darwin and engage in anti-social behaviours. Surveys were conducted on travel patterns of long grassers to better understand their behaviours and interactions with the destination. This paper discusses whether conceptualising long grassers as problem tourists might help reveal new management strategies.

  • 12.
    Carson, Dean B.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Northern Institute of Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Govan, Jeanie
    Northern Institute of Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Carson, Doris A.
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. Northern Institute of Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Indigenous experiences of the mining resource cycle in Australia’s northern territory: Benefits, burdens and bridges?2018In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, E-ISSN 2004-4658, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 11-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a model of how Indigenous communities may engage with the mining sector to better manage local development impacts and influence governance processes. The model uses a resource lifecycle perspective to identify the various development opportunities and challenges that remote Indigenous communities and stakeholders may face at different stages of the mining project. The model is applied to two case studies located in the Northern Territory of Australia (Gove Peninsula and Ngukurr) which involved different types and scales of mining and provided different opportunities for development and governance engagement for surrounding Indigenous communities. Both cases emphasise how the benefits and burdens associated with mining, as well as the bridges between Indigenous and outsider approaches to development and governance, can change very quickly due to the volatile nature of remote mining operations. There is thus a need for more flexible agreements and more dynamic relationships between Indigenous, mining and other governance stakeholders that can be adjusted and renegotiated as the conditions for mining change. The final discussion reflects on how the model may be applied in the context mining governance and Indigenous stakeholder engagement in the Fennoscandian north.

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  • 13.
    Carson, Dean B.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Sweden Centre for Rural Medicine (GMC), Storuman, Sweden.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Carson, Doris A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    The continuing advance and retreat of rural settlement in the northern inland of Sweden2019In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, E-ISSN 2004-4658, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 7-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1960, a range of leading rural geographers started a debate about population development and the “advance and retreat” of human settlement in sparsely populated rural areas, including in the inland north of Sweden. In what came to be known as the “Siljan Symposium,” they identified a number of key themes in relation to migration and human mobility that were thought to determine settlement patterns in the inland north, including: internal migration and urbanisation of populations; the role of simultaneous in- and out-migration in re-shaping settlement patterns; redistribution of rural populations through return migration and international migration; and changing preferences for settlement in different northern “zones” based on the methods for exploiting natural resources for agriculture, forestry, mining and energy production. This paper re-visits the main themes from the 1960 Siljan Symposium and examines Swedish register data to identify how migration patterns and the resulting “advance and retreat” of human settlement have changed across the inland of Västerbotten and Norrbotten. The results suggest that, while general urban-rural and regional- local settlement patterns appear to have been relatively consistent, new forms of migration (including internal, return and international) with different preferences for rural settlement emerging in different localities as a result of both persistent (mining, forestry, energy) and changing (tourism, lifestyle) values of natural resources. We also observe substantial differences in migration and urbanisation rates between Norrbotten and Västerbotten. The paper then discusses how the persistence and discontinuity of experiences over the past decades may provide insights into the potential future patterns of northern settlement.

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  • 14.
    Carson, Dean B.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Centre for Tourism and Regional Opportunities, Central Queensland University, Cairns, Australia.
    Nilsson, Lena Maria
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Várdduo – Centre for Sámi Research.
    Carson, Doris A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    The mining resource cycle and settlement demography in Malå, Northern Sweden2020In: Polar Record, ISSN 0032-2474, E-ISSN 1475-3057, Vol. 56, article id e10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on the demographic impacts of mining in sparsely populated areas has focused primarily on relatively large towns. Less attention has been paid to smaller villages, which may experience different impacts because of their highly concentrated economies and their small populations, making them more vulnerable to demographic “boom and bust” effects. This paper examines demographic change in four small villages in northern Sweden, which are located close to several mining projects but have evolved through different degrees of integration with or separation from mining. Using a longitudinal “resource cycle” perspective, the demographic trajectories of the villages are compared to understand how different types of settlement and engagement with mining have led to different demographic outcomes in the long term. While the four villages experienced similar trajectories in terms of overall population growth and decline, their experiences in relation to more nuanced indicators, including age and gender distributions and population mobilities, were different, and potential reasons for this are discussed. Due to data limitations, however, the long-term demographic consequences of mining for local Sami people remain unclear. The paper problematises this research gap in light of general concerns about mining impacts on traditional Sami livelihoods.

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  • 15.
    Carson, Dean B.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Carson, Doris A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Nilsson, Lena Maria
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    The local demography of resource economies: long term implications of natural resource industries for demographic development in sparsely populated areas2016In: Settlements at the edge: remote human settlements in developed nations / [ed] Andrew Taylor, Dean B. Carson, Prescott C. Ensign, Lee Huskey, Rasmus Ole Rasmussen, Gertrude Saxinger, Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2016, p. 357-378Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Settlements at the Edge examines the evolution, characteristics, functions and shifting economic basis of settlements in sparsely populated areas of developed nations. With a focus on demographic change, the book features theoretical and applied cases which explore the interface between demography, economy, well-being and the environment. This book offers a comprehensive and insightful knowledge base for understanding the role of population in shaping the development and histories of northern sparsely populated areas of developed nations including Alaska (USA), Australia, Canada, Greenland, Norway, Russia, Sweden, Finland and other nations with territories within the Arctic Circle.

  • 16. Carson, Dean Bradley
    et al.
    Carson, Doris Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Demographic instability as a barrier to remote economic development in the north: Are cities the answer?2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 15, article id 8566Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Remote and sparsely populated northern peripheries in Australia, Europe and North America experience high rates of population turnover and struggle to recruit and retain popula-tions. There has been discussion about the extent to which their larger urban centres may be key to navigating common ‘boom and bust’ cycles, thus contributing to more stable and resilient demographic and economic development in their jurisdictions. This paper examines the population development in twelve remote northern jurisdictions dominated by a large city, comparing urban and regional growth patterns around periods of economic boom and bust since 1990. It was expected that periods of high population growth would be initially led by regional areas where resource projects are commonly located, but that the cities would ultimately benefit more from high growth periods and suffer less from periods of low population growth. It was also expected that cities would retain key populations better than regions because of a growing global urban preference. Results suggest that regional areas did grow more at the start of high growth periods, but there was no universal experience of higher city growth throughout the two boom and bust cycles. Rather, each city and region had unique growth pattern properties. Cities must not be assumed a priori to be the drivers of demographic development, but attention needs to be paid to what types of cities promote less volatile growth and development potential in the regions.

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  • 17.
    Carson, Dean
    et al.
    Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Schmallegger, Doris
    James Cook University, Australia.
    Drive tourism: a view from the road2011In: Drive tourism: trends and emerging markets / [ed] Bruce Prideaux and Dean Carson, Abingdon: Routledge , 2011, p. 358-368Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Carson, Dean
    et al.
    Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Schmallegger, Doris
    James Cook University, Australia.
    Harwood, Sharon
    Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    A City for the Temporary?: Political Economy and Urban Planning in Darwin, Australia2010In: Urban Policy and Research, ISSN 0811-1146, E-ISSN 1476-7244, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 293-310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Darwin, in Australia’s Northern Territory, faces urban planning challenges consistent with those reported in ‘resource peripheries’ around the world. The city has recently experienced strong population growth associated with resources and construction projects, and an increase in public sector workers sent to address the challenges faced by remote (particularly Indigenous) populations. The Northern Territory Government is determined to foster further growth, and promotes ‘major projects’ in urban development as the key. Analysis of the public debates about two recent major projects (the Waterfront Development and the Lyons residential development) reveal a planning process consistent with the clientelism observed by Rayner and Howlett (2009) in resource peripheries in Canada. The risks of clientelism are both the marginalisation of important internal publics and the institutionalisation of ‘temporariness’ as the driver of growth. Shifting to a more consultative planning process might help stimulate internal development, but could also put at risk the relationships that the Northern Territory Government has established with external investors.

  • 19.
    Carson, Doris A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Challenges and opportunities for rural tourism geographies: A view from the 'boring' peripheries2018In: Tourism Geographies, ISSN 1461-6688, E-ISSN 1470-1340, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 738-742Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Carson, Doris A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Brouder, Patrick
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. School of Tourism & Hospitality, University of Johannesburg, South Africa.
    de la Barre, Suzanne
    Vancouver Island University.
    Editorial: Communities and New Development Paths in the Sparsely Populated North2017In: Journal of Rural and Community Development, E-ISSN 1712-8277, Vol. 12, no 2-3, p. i-xiArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Carson, Doris A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. The Northern Institute, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia.
    Carson, Dean B.
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. The Northern Institute, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia.
    International lifestyle immigrants and their contributions to rural tourism innovation: Experiences from Sweden's far north2018In: Journal of Rural Studies, ISSN 0743-0167, E-ISSN 1873-1392, Vol. 64, p. 230-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the contributions of international lifestyle immigrants to new tourism development and innovation in the sparsely populated north of Sweden. Based on a qualitative case study, the paper examines how lifestyle immigrants contributed as tourism entrepreneurs to the formation of local capital in tourism, and stimulated local learning and innovation spillover through networks of interaction and collaboration. The theoretical framework integrates concepts from rural lifestyle migration, local community development, and local tourism innovation systems. The results document how immigrants emerged as important drivers of new tourism products, processes and markets, and introduced a range of new ideas, skills and external networks to the region. Yet, an in-depth social network analysis reveals that immigrants made more limited contributions to networks, collaborations and knowledge exchange with local tourism stakeholders, thus limiting learning outcomes and innovation spillover at a broader local system level. Reasons for this lack of systemic interaction included socio-cultural distance between immigrants and locals, limited levels of trust and reciprocity, diverging development and lifestyle priorities, and issues around exclusive immigrant networking. Finally, the relevance of the theoretical framework is discussed in relation to its applicability to other immigrant mobilities in sparsely populated rural areas.

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  • 22.
    Carson, Doris A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Carson, Dean B.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Opportunities and barriers for degrowth in remote tourism destinations: overcoming regional inequalities?2021In: Degrowth and tourism: new perspectives on tourism entrepreneurship, destinations and policy / [ed] C. Michael Hall, Linda Lundmark, Jundan Jasmine Zhang, Milton Park: Routledge, 2021, p. 100-115Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter examines the opportunities and barriers for de-growth to be used in future tourism development strategies for remote or peripheral destinations, illustrated by the case of the Top End region in the Northern Territory of Australia. In such remote contexts, tourism has often evolved around an entrenched boosterist growth paradigm, a dependence on export markets and external investors, a susceptibility to 'boom and bust' cycles, and increasing spatial and social inequalities between the dominant urban growth centre and a declining sparsely populated hinterland. The chapter discusses how de-growth may help in reducing the city-hinterland development gap by directing attention to the benefits of alternative niche markets, the regional dispersal of tourists, smaller-scale and dispersed infrastructure and product investment, a re-positioning of tourism as part of broader community development agendas, and renewed efforts to encourage local involvement in decision-making. The chapter also considers the institutional barriers to such an approach, and considers why it may remain an unrealistic concept for remote political economies that are increasingly confronted with recurring periods of economic crisis and highly volatile industries and populations.

  • 23.
    Carson, Doris A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Carson, Dean B.
    Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Path Dependence in Remote Area Tourism Development: Why institutional legacies matter2017In: Tourism Destination Evolution / [ed] Patrick Brouder, Salvador Anton Clavé, Allison Gill, Dimitri Ioannides, Milton Park: Routledge, 2017, p. 103-122Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Carson, Doris A.
    et al.
    University of South Australia, Australia.
    Carson, Dean B.
    Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Why tourism may not be everybody’s business: the challenge of tradition in resource peripheries2011In: The Rangeland journal, ISSN 1036-9872, E-ISSN 1834-7541, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 373-383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism is commonly promoted as a tool for economic diversification in peripheral regions that have traditionally relied on exporting natural resources (the 'staples'). However, developing tourism in these regions has often proven immensely difficult. Part of the reason for this is that tourism seems to require different institutional arrangements to those common in traditional staples economies. This paper analyses the case of the Flinders Ranges in South Australia to examine how the conflicting institutional requirements of tourism and staples industries impacted on the capacity of theregional economic system to innovate and diversify its staples-based economy to include tourism. The paper further documents how conflicts in the diversification process have been mitigated. The research concludes that harnessing tourism for successful economic diversification in peripheral regions requires fundamental changes to previous ways of operating,including new approaches to business creation, capacity building, education and knowledge exchange, networking and public–private interactions.

  • 25.
    Carson, Doris A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Carson, Dean B.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. School of Business and Law, CQUniversity, Australia.
    Argent, Neil
    University of New England.
    Cities, hinterlands and disconnected urban-rural development: Perspectives from sparsely populated areas2022In: Journal of Rural Studies, ISSN 0743-0167, E-ISSN 1873-1392, Vol. 93, p. 104-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article introduces the special issue ‘Rural hinterland development in sparsely populated areas (SPAs): new challenges and opportunities arising from urbanisation within the periphery’. It problematises the relationships between growing cities and hinterland areas in SPAs, such as those commonly found in Arctic, Outback and similar remote resource peripheries of developed countries. Many SPAs are rapidly urbanising, with polarised development becoming an ever-increasing concern for regional planners and policy-makers. This special issue contributes to debates about the impact that urban growth and city-centric development strategies in SPAs might have on the development prospects for small and distant settlements in the hinterland. We first discuss why SPAs are different from other rural contexts when it comes to urban-rural interactions and introduce the idea of regional disconnectedness as a defining feature of SPAs. We then review the papers in this collection, which include perspectives from northern Sweden, Iceland, Finland, Scotland, Alaska, and Australia, and position them according to their contributions to theory, policy and practice. The special issue challenges assumptions that city-centric regional development in SPAs will automatically generate spillover or backwash effects for the hinterland. It emphasises the need to consider diverse mobility flows within SPAs as part of urban-rural interactions. It also raises attention to micro-scale urbanisation within the hinterland, with housing, services, and amenities increasingly concentrating in a few small towns. The final discussion outlines important areas for research into more effective urban-rural partnership building in SPAs and on how to embrace regional disconnectedness for more targeted hinterland development.

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  • 26.
    Carson, Doris A
    et al.
    University of South Australia, Australia.
    Carson, Dean B
    Flinders University, Australia.
    Hodge, Heidi
    Flinders University, Australia.
    Understanding Local Innovation Systems in Peripheral Tourism Destinations2014In: Tourism Geographies, ISSN 1461-6688, E-ISSN 1470-1340, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 457-473Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tourism destinations in peripheral areas are often large regions established by centralised government agencies to encourage collaboration between dispersed communities and foster innovation. Relatively little research attention has been paid to the impact that centrally defined destination boundaries have on whether and how small communities contribute to innovation at a regional level. This paper examines the case of Burra, a small town in rural South Australia. It analyses the networking, collaboration and knowledge exchange behaviour of tourism stakeholders in the context of the state-government-defined 'Clare Valley' tourism region. Data were drawn from a web-based social network analysis, in-depth interviews, historic document analysis and field observations. The study found that the local tourism system had limited aspirations and capabilities to collaborate with other towns in the region. Lack of regional engagement was only partially due to intra-regional competition and resistance to regional boundaries. More significant barriers included a local culture of operating in isolation, an embedded reliance on public sector leadership to manage systemic interactions, an aging system with limited ambition to change and an inability to harness in-migrants and externally based stakeholders to stimulate knowledge transfer. Changing the imposed destination boundaries would have limited impact on the operation of the local system. The paper concludes that effective regional destination development in peripheral areas needs to be better informed by more detailed understandings of local tourism systems and their capacities to engage.

  • 27.
    Carson, Doris A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Carson, Dean B.
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. School of Business and Law, CQUniversity, QLD, Cairns, Australia.
    Lundström, Linus
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Northern cities and urban–rural migration of university-qualified labour in Australia and Sweden: Spillovers, sponges, or disconnected city–hinterland geographies?2021In: Geographical Research, ISSN 1745-5863, E-ISSN 1745-5871, Vol. 59, no 3, p. 424-438Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the migration flows of university-qualified labour (UQL) between cities and hinterland regions in the sparsely populated north of both Australia and Sweden. These peripheries have become increasingly urbanised in recent decades and have received substantial investment in urban higher education hubs that are expected to generate skills for their regions. Whether these skills remain within the few urban centres or are redistributed internally to benefit rural and remote locations is not known. The article identifies the extent to which there have been urban–rural ‘spillover’ or ‘sponge’ effects in UQL migration flows within the north and establishes whether there has been a ‘disconnect’ in the regional exchange of UQL. Drawing on recent Australian census and Swedish register data, the results suggest that ‘spillover’ and ‘sponging’ of UQL have been limited, particularly in Northern Australia where cities appeared quite disconnected from their hinterlands. Spillover was more common in Northern Sweden, but cities with universities targeting regional skill needs did not necessarily generate more net-migration gains for their hinterland. The discussion illustrates why urban–rural human capital relationships in northern peripheries may be more diverse and complex than assumed and flags what policy lessons can be drawn from comparing different northern peripheries.

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  • 28.
    Carson, Doris A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Cleary, Jen
    University of Adelaide, Australia.
    de la Barre, Suzanne
    Vancouver Island University, Canada.
    Eimermann, Marco
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Marjavaara, Roger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    New mobilities - new economies?: temporary populations and local innovation capacity in sparsely populated areas2016In: Settlements at the edge: remote human settlements in developed nations / [ed] Andrew Taylor, Dean B. Carson, Prescott C. Ensign, Lee Huskey, Rasmus O. Rasmussen, Gertrude Saxinger, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2016, p. 178-206Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Temporary population mobilities – including short-term labour, residential and recreational mobilities – have long been a prominent feature of human geography in sparsely populated areas. Such mobilities are often considered from a problem-centric perspective, with both academic and public discourses focusing extensively on the negative impacts that temporary populations have on local communities. Yet, temporary mobilities may also have a range of positive impacts, as they bring new people, ideas, skills, knowledge and network connections to remote communities, and thus potentially contribute to processes of local innovation. This chapter examines how different types of temporary populations contribute to local innovation capacity and new socio-economic development in remote communities. We propose a framework for analysing how different mobile populations with their particular temporal, spatial, motivational and interactional mobility characteristics impact on various forms of community capital, and subsequent innovation outcomes through the mobilisation of such capital. We then apply the framework to review five common examples of temporary mobilities in northern Scandinavia and Outback Australia, ranging from voluntary international lifestyle migrants to displaced refugee migrants, from seasonal second home-owners to short-term transit tourists, and from service to leisure-oriented Indigenous travellers. The review suggests that temporary populations offer substantial potential to boost innovation and new socio-economic development in remote communities, but that communities and institutional structures often fail to recognise and capitalise on such potential.

  • 29.
    Carson, Doris A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Koster, Rhonda L.
    Lakehead University, Canada.
    The ‘Boring Bits in Between’ Synthesis2019In: Perspectives on Rural Tourism Geographies: Case Studies from Developed Nations on the Exotic, the Fringe and the Boring Bits in Between / [ed] Rhonda L. Koster & Doris A. Carson, Cham: Springer, 2019, p. 243-251Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Carson, Doris A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Koster, Rhonda L.
    Lakehead University, Canada.
    Theoretical perspectives on rural tourism development2015In: Demystifying theories in tourism research / [ed] Kelly S. Bricker; Holly Donohoe, Wallingford: CABI Publishing, 2015, p. 46-63Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Carson, Doris A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Prideaux, Bruce
    Central Queensland University.
    Porter, Rob
    Charles Darwin University.
    Vuin, Ana
    Charles Darwin University.
    Transitioning from a local railway hub to a regional tourism system: the story of Peterborough, South Australia2019In: Perspectives on rural tourism geographies: case studies from developed nations on the exotic, the fringe and the boring bits in between / [ed] Rhonda L. Koster and Doris A. Carson, Cham: Springer, 2019, p. 173-196Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter examines the tourism development path of Peterborough, a former single-industry railway town in rural South Australia. Drawing on theoretical perspectives from evolutionary, institutional and relational economic geography, the aim of the chapter is to identify how issues around path dependence influence the abilities of peripheral single-industry towns to operate as part of interactive and collaborative regional tourism innovation systems. The case study documents the difficult transition of Peterborough from a relatively independent major railway hub to a minor tourist transit stopover requiring stronger partnerships within a broader regional tourism destination. The findings identify a range of challenges for local tourism that point to issues around single-industry path dependence and 'lock-in', including: an entrenched dependence on government leadership and investment; a lack of home-grown entrepreneurship willing to address gaps in the homogeneous product portfolio; limited local acceptance and understanding of tourism; resistance to outsiders as new knowledge brokers; and truncated network capabilities within the local system. The chapter also shows how the unique spatial and socio-economic contexts of peripheral 'low-amenity' areas may reinforce path dependence by limiting opportunities to diversify incoming (tourist and migrant) mobilities. Some of the weaknesses within the local tourism system may be bridged by proactive local government and public sector leadership, yet we question the long-term sustainability of such approaches.

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  • 32.
    Carson, Doris A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Åberg, Kajsa G.
    Region Västerbotten, Umeå, Sweden.
    Prideaux, Bruce
    Central Queensland University, Australia.
    Cities of the North: gateways, competitors or regional markets for hinterland tourism destinations?2020In: Dipping in to the North: living, working and traveling in sparsely populated areas / [ed] Linda Lundmark, Dean B. Carson, Marco Eimermann, Singapore: Palgrave Macmillan, 2020, p. 285-310Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter discusses how urbanisation in the north is affecting the prospects for tourism development in rural hinterland destinations. Using examples from northern Sweden, Australia and Iceland, this chapter identifies how destination hierarchies may change as a result of urban growth in the north. While northern cities function as 'gateways' to the hinterland, they may also emerge as competitors to rural destinations, limiting regional visitor dispersal to day excursions or 'crowding out' tourists from rural areas. The cases finally emphasise the importance of northern cities as generating markets for hinterland destinations. This relationship may offer more stable development opportunities in the longer term, thus requiring more attention in northern tourism planning.

  • 33.
    Carson, Doris Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. University of South Australia, Australia.
    Carson, Dean Bradley
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Charles Darwin University, Australia; Flinders University, Australia.
    Mobilities and path dependence: challenges for tourism and "attractive" industry development in a remote company town2016In: Tourism, mobilities and development in sparsely populated areas / [ed] Doris Carson, Dean B. Carson, Linda Lundmark, Routledge, 2016, p. 108-127Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Carson, Doris Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. Centre for Regional Engagement, University of South Australia, Australia.
    Carson, Dean Bradley
    The Northern Institute, Charles Darwin University, Australia ; Flinders University Rural Clinical School, Flinders University, Australia.
    Mobilities and path dependence: challenges for tourism and "attractive" industry development in a remote company town2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 460-479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the impacts of resource-based path dependence on alternative development scenarios in remote company towns, with a particular focus on understanding the prospects for new path creation in tourism and other "attractive" industries, such as retirement and lifestyle migration. The paper applies a mobilities perspective to the idea of path dependence in remote resource frontiers to analyse how the flows of people, skills and capital can become locked in by a range of factors, such as investments in infrastructure and transport technologies, established network connections for labour and knowledge provision, traditional economic development policies, and entrenched mobility cultures. The research examines the case of Nhulunbuy, a remote mining town in northern Australia, which currently faces severe socio-economic decline due to the closure of its alumina refinery. Using a range of secondary data sources, including population statistics and public documents, the case study traces Nhulunbuy's development path since the 1970s and identifies a number of exogenous and endogenous causes for the potential lock-in of its mobilities trajectory. The implications for alternative pathways in tourism and other "attractive" industries are discussed, focusing on identifying the institutional and infrastructural changes required to unlock mobility flows.

  • 35.
    Carson, Doris Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. The Northern Institute, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia.
    Carson, Dean Bradley
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. The Northern Institute, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia.
    Eimermann, Marco
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    International winter tourism entrepreneurs in northern Sweden: understanding migration, lifestyle, and business motivations2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 183-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the migration, lifestyle and business motivations of international winter tourism entrepreneurs who have moved to a “low-amenity” rural area in northern Sweden. Low-amenity areas are characterised by economic decline, outmigration and limited tourism development. Based on qualitative interviews, the research applied a multi-dimensional framework to the study of migrant tourism entrepreneurship, considering personal migration drivers, the value of location-specific amenities, desired consumptive experiences, previous familiarity with the destination, business-related goals, as well as temporal and technological dimensions of mobility and self-employment. The findings suggest that the northern winter and the undeveloped low-amenity character of the place were key factors in migration choices. Consumptive lifestyle interests around counter-urban living and winter outdoor hobbies were prominent, yet there was diversity in terms of business aspirations and considerable seasonal lifestyle-business balancing. Despite noticeable contributions to winter tourism development in the low-amenity north, the study also identified a sense of temporariness and expected onward migration among migrants, raising questions about the longevity of this development.

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  • 36.
    Carson, Doris Anna
    et al.
    Centre for Regional Engagement, University of South Australia, Whyalla, Australia.
    Carson, Dean Bradley
    Flinders University Rural Clinical School, Burra, Australia.
    Hodge, Heidi
    Understanding local innovation systems in peripheral tourism destinations2015In: Managing and adapting to global change in tourism places / [ed] Alan A. Lew, New York: Routledge, 2015, p. 115-131Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Carson, Doris Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. Centre for Regional Engagement, University of South Australia, Whyalla, Australia.
    Carson, Dean Bradley
    The Northern Institute, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia ; Flinders University Rural Clinical School, Flinders University, Burra, Australia.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Tourism and mobilities in sparsely populated areas: towards a framework and research agenda2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 353-366Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Carson, Doris Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. University of South Australia, Australia.
    Carson, Dean Bradley
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia; Flinders University, Burra, Australia.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Tourism and mobilities in sparsely populated areas: towards a framework and research agenda2016In: Tourism, mobilities and development in sparsely populated areas / [ed] Doris Carson, Dean B. Carson, Linda Lundmark, Routledge, 2016, p. 1-12Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Eimermann, Marco
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Carson, Doris A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    European lifestyle migrant entrepreneurs and their business networks in Swedish sparsely populated areas2018In: Processes of immigration in rural Europe: the status quo, implications and development strategies / [ed] Stefan Kordel, Tobias Weidinger and Igor Jelen, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2018, p. 243-269Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From the perspective of declining rural areas, active lifestyle migrants are expected to contribute to demographic rejuvenation and new economic development via their networks and access to novel knowledge, markets and capital. [...] this chapter studies local and transnational social networks as critical resources mainly for enabling or constraining migrant entrepreneurs' developing business practices.

  • 40.
    Eimermann, Marco
    et al.
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Carson, Doris A.
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Towards a cordial dialogue between lifestyle migration/mobilities and rural tourism geographies2023In: Geografiska Annaler. Series B, Human Geography, ISSN 0435-3684, E-ISSN 1468-0467, Vol. 105, no 4, p. 341-355Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article introduces the special issue Changing dimensions of lifestyle mobilities in turbulent times: impacts of COVID-19 outbreaks and multiple crises. It aims not just to understand the individual drivers and consequences of mobility but their interactions with local manifestations of spatial (in)justice in various meaningful places. This editorial synthesizes the four studies of population flows in proximate and remote rural areas in Europe, and puts their contributions to the fields of lifestyle migration and mobilities in context. We introduce the lifestyle migration hub meeting that inspired this special issue and a mobility spectrum around which the article revolves. We then indicate common interests of lifestyle migration and rural tourism geographies, focusing on the contributors’ use of human geographic perspectives and aided by observations from ongoing ethnographic work about the demographic future of small villages in northern Sweden. A discussion of multiple disruptions, precarity and vulnerability is linked with a review of the papers before elaborating on destinations and communities as meaningful but vulnerable places. The conclusion outlines how concerns with people’s and place’s vulnerability and precarity in multiple disruptions to mobility flows can be further explored in cordial dialogue between scholars of lifestyle migration/mobility and tourism geography.

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  • 41.
    Eimermann, Marco
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Carson, Doris A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Transforming a dogsledding community: the 'Gafsele Open' and lifestyle migrants in sparsely populated northern Sweden2023In: Handbook on tourism and rural community development / [ed] Heather Mair, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2023, p. 386-402Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter increases our understanding of how intra-European lifestyle migrants may transform communities in sparsely populated areas (SPAs) through their engagements in civil society, using the example of a dogsledding community in Arctic Sweden. In-depth narrative analysis of interviews with international migrant dogsledders and longer-term residents shows the heterogeneity of communities in sparsely populated settings and their diverse perspectives on community transformation and renewal in response to challenges of demographic shrinkage (Eimermann et al., 2022). The case study village of Gafsele in Åsele municipality provides an interesting study context as it is home to a relatively large group of international migrants, many of whom were attracted by exceptional opportunities for dogsledding and an internationally renowned trail network. The local dogsledding club organizes an annual dogsledding event (the Gafsele Open) attracting Swedish and international participants. Balancing their incomes and lifestyles around dogsledding activities, migrants are engaging in the club and co-organizing the event as individuals and through their businesses (D.A. Carson et al., 2018; Eimermann & Singleton, 2021). This area is thus exploring its potential for local rural development through community- and nature-based tourism.

  • 42.
    Eimermann, Marco
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Tillberg Mattsson, Karin
    Centre for Research and Development,Uppsala University/Region Gävleborg, Gävle,Sweden.
    Carson, Doris A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    International tourism entrepreneurs in Swedish peripheries: compliance and collision with public tourism strategies2019In: Regional Science Policy & Practice, E-ISSN 1757-7802, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 479-492Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]