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  • 1.
    Awad, Amar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Grill, Filip
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Blomstedt, Patric
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Neurovetenskaper.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Deep brain stimulation does not modulate fMRI resting- state functional connectivity in essential tremorManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 2.
    Awad, Amar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Grill, Filip
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Blomstedt, Patric
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Neurovetenskaper.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Deep brain stimulation does not modulate resting-state functional connectivity in essential tremor2024Ingår i: Brain Communications, E-ISSN 2632-1297, Vol. 6, nr 2, artikel-id fcae012Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    While the effectiveness of deep brain stimulation in alleviating essential tremor is well-established, the underlying mechanisms of the treatment are unclear. Essential tremor, as characterized by tremor during action, is proposed to be driven by a dysfunction in the cerebello-thalamo-cerebral circuit that is evident not only during motor actions but also during rest. Stimulation effects on resting-state functional connectivity were investigated by functional MRI in 16 essential tremor patients with fully implanted deep brain stimulation in the caudal zona incerta during On-and-Off therapeutic stimulation, in a counterbalanced design. Functional connectivity was calculated between different constellations of sensorimotor as well as non-sensorimotor regions (as derived from seed-based and data-driven approaches), and compared between On and Off stimulation. We found that deep brain stimulation did not modulate resting-state functional connectivity. The lack of modulation by deep brain stimulation during resting-state, in combination with previously demonstrated effects on the cerebello-thalamo-cerebral circuit during motor tasks, suggests an action-dependent modulation of the stimulation in essential tremor.

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  • 3.
    Grill, Filip
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Dopamine and the affective-cognitive gradient in the human striatum studied with multimodal brain imaging2022Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Both dopamine and the dopamine rich brain area, striatum, have been linked to behaviors related to incentives, motor action, and associative processing. Most of the cortex sends projections to the striatum, these connections have been described as a gradient organization representing a repertoire of functional behaviors. Although considerable research efforts have been made on the functions of dopamine, it is still unclear how and when it is released in the striatum in humans and what role it has for everyday behavior.

    The overarching aim of this thesis is to contribute to our understanding of the role of striatal dopamine release during human behaviors relating to incentive, motor, and associative processing. Using a combination of multimodal brain imaging (positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging) as well as cognitive modelling this thesis investigates: how a reproducible striatal response to incentives can be divided into behaviorally relevant components relating to affective and cognitive processes, how striatal dopamine release during motor action represent several component processes of behavior, and also provides evidence that striatal dopamine is released during reward prediction errors in humans. The results are consistent with an affective-cognitive gradient in the striatum and suggest that dopamine release into the striatal gradient might facilitate the integration of component processes into complex representations of behavior. The results of this thesis are based on healthy young individuals, however, aberrant dopamine signaling is a hallmark of several psychiatric and neurological diseases making it crucial to further understand the healthy dopamine system.

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  • 4.
    Grill, Filip
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi.
    Guitart-Masip, Marc
    Aging Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Center for Psychiatry Research, Region Stockholm, Stockholm, Sweden; Center for Cognitive and Computational Neuropsychiatry (CCNP), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Max Planck UCL Centre for Computational Psychiatry and Ageing Research, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Johansson, Jarkko
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi.
    Stiernman, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Axelsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Radiofysik.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi.
    Rieckmann, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Institute for Psychology, University of the Bundeswehr Munich, Neubiberg, Germany.
    Dopamine release in human associative striatum during reversal learning2024Ingår i: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 15, nr 1, artikel-id 59Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The dopaminergic system is firmly implicated in reversal learning but human measurements of dopamine release as a correlate of reversal learning success are lacking. Dopamine release and hemodynamic brain activity in response to unexpected changes in action-outcome probabilities are here explored using simultaneous dynamic [11C]Raclopride PET-fMRI and computational modelling of behavior. When participants encounter reversed reward probabilities during a card guessing game, dopamine release is observed in associative striatum. Individual differences in absolute reward prediction error and sensitivity to errors are associated with peak dopamine receptor occupancy. The fMRI response to perseverance errors at the onset of a reversal spatially overlap with the site of dopamine release. Trial-by-trial fMRI correlates of absolute prediction errors show a response in striatum and association cortices, closely overlapping with the location of dopamine release, and separable from a valence signal in ventral striatum. The results converge to implicate striatal dopamine release in associative striatum as a central component of reversal learning, possibly signifying the need for increased cognitive control when new stimuli-responses should be learned.

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  • 5.
    Grill, Filip
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Guitart-Massip, Marc
    Johansson, Jarkko
    Stiernman, Lars
    Axelsson, Jan
    Nyberg, Lars
    Rieckmann, Anna
    Human in vivo evidence for striatal dopamine release in response to reward-prediction errors during reversal learningManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 6.
    Grill, Filip
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Johansson, Jarkko
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Axelsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Radiofysik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Brynolfsson, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Radiofysik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Rieckmann, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). The Munich Center for the Economics of Aging, Max-Planck-Institute for Social Law and Social Policy, Munich, Germany.
    Dissecting Motor and Cognitive Component Processes of a Finger-Tapping Task With Hybrid Dopamine Positron Emission Tomography and Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging2021Ingår i: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, E-ISSN 1662-5161, Vol. 15, artikel-id 733091Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Striatal dopamine is involved in facilitation of motor action as well as various cognitive and emotional functions. Positron emission tomography (PET) is the primary imaging method used to investigate dopamine function in humans. Previous PET studies have shown striatal dopamine release during simple finger tapping in both the putamen and the caudate. It is likely that dopamine release in the putamen is related to motor processes while dopamine release in the caudate could signal sustained cognitive component processes of the task, but the poor temporal resolution of PET has hindered firm conclusions. In this study we simultaneously collected [11C]Raclopride PET and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data while participants performed finger tapping, with fMRI being able to isolate activations related to individual tapping events. The results revealed fMRI-PET overlap in the bilateral putamen, which is consistent with a motor component process. Selective PET responses in the caudate, ventral striatum, and right posterior putamen, were also observed but did not overlap with fMRI responses to tapping events, suggesting that these reflect non-motor component processes of finger tapping. Our findings suggest an interplay between motor and non-motor-related dopamine release during simple finger tapping and illustrate the potential of hybrid PET-fMRI in revealing distinct component processes of cognitive functions.

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  • 7.
    Grill, Filip
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Rieckmann, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Neural correlates of reward processing: Functional dissociation of two components within the ventral striatum2021Ingår i: Brain and Behavior, ISSN 2162-3279, E-ISSN 2162-3279, Vol. 11, nr 2, artikel-id e01987Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Rewarding and punishing stimuli elicit BOLD responses in the affective division of the striatum. The responses typically traverse from the affective to the associative division of the striatum, suggesting an involvement of associative processes during the modulation of stimuli valance. In this study, we hypothesized that fMRI responses to rewards versus punishments in a guessing card game can be disassociated into two functional component processes that reflect the convergence of limbic and associative functional networks in the ventral striatum.

    Methods: We used fMRI data of 175 (92 female) subjects from the human connectome project ' s gambling task, working memory task, and resting-state scans. A reward > punish contrast identified a ventral striatum cluster from which voxelwise GLM parameter estimates were entered into a k-means clustering algorithm. The k-means analysis supported separating the cluster into two spatially distinct components. These components were used as seeds to investigate their functional connectivity profile. GLM parameter estimates were extracted and compared from the task contrasts reward > punish and 2-back > 0-back from two ROIs in the ventral striatum and one ROI in hippocampus.

    Results: The analyses converged to show that a superior striatal component, coupled with the ventral attention and frontal control networks, was responsive to both a modulation of cognitive control in working memory and to rewards, whereas the most inferior part of the ventral striatum, coupled with the limbic and default mode networks including the hippocampus, was selectively responsive to rewards.

    Conclusion: We show that the fMRI response to rewards in the ventral striatum reflects a mixture of component processes of reward. An inferior ventral striatal component and hippocampus are part of an intrinsically coupled network that responds to reward-based processing during gambling. The more superior ventral striatal component is intrinsically coupled to networks involved with executive functioning and responded to both reward and cognitive control demands.

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  • 8.
    Jonasson Stiernman, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Grill, Filip
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi.
    Hahn, Andreas
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Rischka, Lucas
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Lanzenberger, Rupert
    Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
    Panes Lundmark, Vania
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi.
    Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi.
    Axelsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Radiofysik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Rieckmann, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi. The Munich Center for the Economics of Aging, Max Planck Institute for Social Law and Social Policy, Munich, Germany.
    Dissociations between glucose metabolism and blood oxygenation in the human default mode network revealed by simultaneous PET-fMRI2021Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 118, nr 27, artikel-id e2021913118Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The finding of reduced functional MRI (fMRI) activity in the default mode network (DMN) during externally focused cognitive control has been highly influential to our understanding of human brain function. However, these negative fMRI responses, measured as relative decreases in the blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) response between rest and task, have also prompted major questions of interpretation. Using hybrid functional positron emission tomography (PET)-MRI, this study shows that task-positive and -negative BOLD responses do not reflect antagonistic patterns of synaptic metabolism. Task-positive BOLD responses in attention and control networks were accompanied by concomitant increases in glucose metabolism during cognitive control, but metabolism in widespread DMN remained high during rest and task despite negative BOLD responses. Dissociations between glucose metabolism and the BOLD response specific to the DMN reveal functional heterogeneity in this network and demonstrate that negative BOLD responses during cognitive control should not be interpreted to reflect relative increases in metabolic activity during rest. Rather, neurovascular coupling underlying BOLD response patterns during rest and task in DMN appears fundamentally different from BOLD responses in other association networks during cognitive control.

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  • 9.
    Pedale, Tiziana
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Fontan, Aurelie
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Grill, Filip
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi.
    Bergström, Fredrik
    CINEICC, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Nonconscious information can be identified as task-relevant but not prioritized in working memory2023Ingår i: Cerebral Cortex, ISSN 1047-3211, E-ISSN 1460-2199, Vol. 33, nr 5, s. 2287-2301Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Two critical features of working memory are the identification and appropriate use of task-relevant information while avoiding distraction. Here, in 3 experiments, we explored if these features can be achieved also for nonconscious stimuli. Participants performed a delayed match-to-sample task in which task relevance of 2 competing stimuli was indicated by a cue, and continuous flash suppression was used to manipulate the conscious/nonconscious visual experience. Experiment 1 revealed better-than-chance performance with nonconscious stimuli, demonstrating goal-directed use of nonconscious task-relevant information. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the cue that defined task relevance must be conscious to allow such goal-directed use. In Experiment 3, multi-voxel pattern analyses of brain activity revealed that only the target was prioritized and maintained during conscious trials. Conversely, during nonconscious trials, both target and distractor were maintained. However, decoding of task relevance during the probe/test phase demonstrated identification of both target and distractor information. These results show that identification of task-relevant information can operate also on nonconscious material. However, they do not support the prioritization of nonconscious task-relevant information, thus suggesting a mismatch in the attentional mechanisms involved during conscious and nonconscious working memory.

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  • 10.
    Stiernman, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Grill, Filip
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    McNulty, Charlotte
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Bahrd, Philip
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Panes Lundmark, Vania
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Axelsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper.
    Salami, Alireza
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Wallenberg centrum för molekylär medicin vid Umeå universitet (WCMM). Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm University, Solna, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rieckmann, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper. Munich Center for the Economics of Aging, Max Planck Institute for Social Law and Social Policy, Munich, München, Germany.
    Widespread fMRI BOLD signal overactivations during cognitive control in older adults are not matched by corresponding increases in fPET glucose metabolism2023Ingår i: Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0270-6474, E-ISSN 1529-2401, Vol. 43, nr 14, s. 2527-2536Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A common observation in fMRI studies using the BOLD signal is that older adults, compared with young adults, show overactivations, particularly during less demanding tasks. The neuronal underpinnings of such overactivations are not known, but a dominant view is that they are compensatory in nature and involve recruitment of additional neural resources. We scanned 23 young (20-37 years) and 34 older (65-86 years) healthy human adults of both sexes with hybrid positron emission tomography/MRI. The radioligand [18F]fluoro-deoxyglucose was used to assess dynamic changes in glucose metabolism as a marker of task-dependent synaptic activity, along with simultaneous fMRI BOLD imaging. Participants performed two verbal working memory (WM) tasks: one involving maintenance (easy) and one requiring manipulation (difficult) of information in WM. Converging activations to the WM tasks versus rest were observed for both imaging modalities and age groups in attentional, control, and sensorimotor networks. Upregulation of activity to WM-demand, comparing the more difficult to the easier task, also converged between both modalities and age groups. For regions in which older adults showed task-dependent BOLD overactivations compared with the young adults, no corresponding increases in glucose metabolism were found. To conclude, findings from the current study show that task-induced changes in the BOLD signal and synaptic activity as measured by glucose metabolism generally converge, but overactivations observed with fMRI in older adults are not coupled with increased synaptic activity, which suggests that these overactivations are not neuronal in origin.

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