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  • 1. Rosvall, Ola
    et al.
    Bradshaw, Richard H. W.
    Egertsdotter, Ulrika
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish Agricultural University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ingvarsson, Par K.
    Wu, Harry
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Using Norway spruce clones in Swedish forestry: introduction2019Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 34, nr 5, s. 333-335Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this introductory paper, we briefly review the history of using clones in Swedish forestry. The different approaches of using clones are defined as: (1) "clonal forestry", the deployment of tested selected clones, and (2) "family forestry" with vegetative multiplication of crosses between elite parents. Clones of Norway spruce may be deployed as rooted cuttings or as propagules produced via somatic embryogenesis (SE). The speed and flexibility of using clones is compared with the traditional deployment of reforestation stock raised from seed orchard seed. The key questions addressed in this special issue are presented: (1) what are the benefits and risks of using clones in forestry, (2) what physiological and genetic effects are introduced by the SE propagation technology, (3) what are the long-term genetic consequences of changing genetic diversity by using clones, (4) what are the environmental consequences of using clones, and (5) what are the management implications from vegetatively propagated nursery stock?

  • 2. Rosvall, Ola
    et al.
    Bradshaw, Richard H. W.
    Egertsdotter, Ulrika
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish Agricultural University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Ingvarsson, Pär K.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mullin, Tim J.
    Wu, Harry
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Using Norway spruce clones in Swedish forestry: implications of clones for management2019Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 34, nr 5, s. 390-404Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This final paper of the series discusses implications of various aspects of using clones in forestry. Benefits from using clones are considerable. A large benefit arises from the ability to deploy genetic gain much sooner than is possible through conventional seed orchards. This benefit applies even to the use of clones to implement family forestry, even though the clones themselves are not tested. The requirement for genetic diversity at both the stand and landscape levels requires active management to ensure that diversity is conserved. This is achieved partly through the management of breeding populations, as well as by managing the genetic diversity and number of genotypes deployed in clone mixtures. A numerical example is given comparing diversity of clone and seed orchard deployment over time. Many aspects of managing concerns about using clones are about communication to clarify public perceptions and establishing a code of practice.

  • 3.
    Wu, Harry X.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Department Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Benefits and risks of using clones in forestry - a review2019Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 34, nr 5, s. 352-359Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of vegetative propagation in forestry has a long history. In this chapter of special issue, the genetic gain from clonal forestry relative to family forestry is reviewed. Both theoretical studies and experimental data from progeny and clonal trials indicate that extra genetic gain (5-25%) is possible in conifer from clone testing and deployment relative to deployment of family forestry, effectively doubling that achievable from family forestry within the same generation. There are three perceived risks from using clones in forestry: (1) risk of plantation failure, (2) risk of diversity loss at the forest and landscape levels, and (3) risk associated with success rate of vegetative (or SE) propagation. Three theoretical models are reviewed and described to assess risk and to determine the number of clones required to mitigate these risks. All studies support that a "safe" number of clones is between 5 and 30. Genetic gains and experiences are reported for individual species, particularly in conifers, as well as in Eucalypts. The combination of genomic selection with somatic embryogenesis has the potential to accelerate the development of clonal forestry by shortening clonal testing or omitting long-term clonal testing completely.

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