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  • 1.
    de Man Lapidoth, Julia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Hultdin, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Klinisk kemi.
    Jonsson, Andreas P.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Eriksson Svensson, Maria
    Renal Medicine, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wennberg, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Zeller, Tanja
    Clinic for General and Interventional Cardiology, University of Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany; German Center of Cardiovascular Research (DZHK), Partner Seite, Hamburg, Germany.
    Söderberg, Stefan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Trends in renal function in Northern Sweden 1986-2014: data from the seven cross-sectional surveys within the Northern Sweden MONICA study2023Ingår i: BMJ Open, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 13, nr 8, artikel-id e072664Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing globally, and CKD is closely related to cardiovascular disease (CVD). CKD and CVD share several risk factors (RF), such as diabetes, hypertension, obesity and smoking, and the prevalence of these RF has changed during the last decades, and we aimed to study the effect on renal function over time.

    Design: Repeated cross-sectional population-based studies.

    Setting: The two Northern counties (Norr- and Västerbotten) in Sweden.

    Participants: Within the MONitoring Trends and Determinants of CArdiovascular Disease (MONICA) study, seven surveys were performed between 1986 and 2014, including participants aged 25-64 years (n=10 185).

    Interventions: None.

    Measures: Information on anthropometry, blood pressure and cardiovascular risk factors was collected. Creatinine and cystatin C were analysed in stored blood samples and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) calculated using the creatinine-based Lund-Malmö revised and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (eGFR crea) equations as well as the cystatin C-based Caucasian, Asian, Paediatric and Adult cohort (CAPA) equation (eGFR cysC). Renal function over time was analysed using univariable and multivariable linear regression models.

    Results: Renal function, both eGFR crea and eGFR cysC, decreased over time (both p<0.001) and differed between counties and sexes. In a multivariable analysis, study year remained inversely associated with both eGFR crea and eGFR cysC (both p<0.001) after adjustment for classical cardiovascular RF.

    Conclusion: Renal function has deteriorated in Northern Sweden between 1986 and 2014.

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  • 2.
    Fransson, Filip
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för medicin.
    Werneke, Ursula
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Harju, Vesa
    Medical Clinic, Kalix Hospital, Kalix, Sweden.
    Öhlund, Louise
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    de Man Lapidoth, Julia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för medicin.
    Jonsson, Andreas P.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för medicin.
    Stegmayr, Bernd
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för medicin.
    Salander Renberg, Ellinor
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Ott, Michael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för medicin.
    Kidney function in patients with bipolar disorder with and without lithium treatment compared with the general population in northern Sweden: results from the LiSIE and MONICA cohorts2022Ingår i: Lancet psychiatry, ISSN 2215-0374, E-ISSN 2215-0366, Vol. 9, nr 10, s. 804-814Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The clinical relevance of lithium nephropathy is subject to debate. Kidney function decreases with age and comorbidities, and this decline might lead to attribution bias when erroneously ascribed to lithium. We aimed to investigate whether patients with bipolar or schizoaffective disorder had faster decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) compared with the general population, whether observed differences in the steepness of the decline were attributable to lithium, and whether such changes depended on the length of lithium exposure.

    Methods: In this cross-sectional cohort study, we used clinical data from the Lithium–Study into Effects and Side-effects (LiSIE) retrospective cohort study, which included patients with bipolar disorder or schizoaffective disorder whose medical records were reviewed up to Dec 31, 2017, and the WHO Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease (MONICA) study, covering a representative sample of the general population in northern Sweden aged 25–74 years. The primary outcome was the age-associated decline of creatinine-based eGFR, assessed using linear regression. We adjusted for sex and grouped for different lengths of lithium exposure (never or <1 year, 1–5 years, >5–10 years, and >10 years). For patients with moderate-to-severe kidney disease we identified the underlying nephropathy in the case records.

    Findings: From LiSIE, we included 785 patients (498 [63%] female and 287 [37%] male), with a mean age of 49·8 years (SD 13·2; range 25–74). From MONICA, we included 1549 individuals (800 [52%] female and 749 [48%] male), with a mean age of 51·9 years (13·8; 25–74). No ethnicity data were collected. Adjusted for duration of lithium exposure, eGFR declined by 0·57 mL/min/1·73 m2/year (95% CI 0·50–0·63) in patients with bipolar disorder or schizoaffective disorder and by 0·57 mL/min/1·73 m2/year (0·53–0·61) in the reference population. Lithium added 0·54 mL/min/1·73 m2 (0·43–0·64) per year of treatment (p<0·0001). After more than 10 years on lithium, decline was significantly steeper than in all other groups including the reference population (p<0·0001). Lithium nephropathy was judged to be the commonest cause of moderate-to-severe chronic kidney disease, but comorbidities played a role. The effect of lithium on eGFR showed a high degree of inter-individual variation.

    Interpretation: Steeper eGFR decline in patients with bipolar disorder or schizoaffective disorder can be attributed to lithium, but the trajectory of kidney function decline varies widely. Comorbidities affecting kidneys should be treated assertively as one possible means to affect the trajectory. In patients with a fast trajectory, a trade-off is required between continuing lithium to treat mental health problems and discontinuing lithium for the sake of renal health.

    Funding: Norrbotten County Research and Learning Fund Sweden, Visare Norr (Northern County Councils Regional Federation Fund), Swedish Kidney Foundation (Njurfonden), Swedish Kidney Association (Njurförbundet), Norrbotten section.

    Translation: For the Swedish translation of the Summary see Supplementary Materials section.

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