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  • 1.
    Enarsson, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Åström, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Rasistiska brott mot utsatta grupper: särskilt om samer och romers möjlighet till individuell upprättelse2022In: Nordisk Tidsskrift for Kriminalvidenskab, ISSN 0029-1528, Vol. 109, no 2, p. 250-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article takes its starting point in Sami and Roma exposure to racism by studying preconditions within the criminal law for dealing with racism against individual victims of crime. The purpose is to identify whether and how individual victims can obtain remedy and reparation when exposed to racism. In this article, that means that the racist act must be criminalized, that the criminal interest of crim- inalization is the individual victim, and that the racist nature of the crime has legal implications for classification, sentencing and pun- ishment. Methodologically, the study focuses on identifying possible challenges in the application of so-called hate crimes legislation. Two challenges to the application of individual remedies and reparations were identified. First is the difficulty in identifying and establishing (racist) motive. Second is the lack of clear statements from the courts about how assessments have been made in the use of aggravating and mitigating circumstances in sentencing, and if or how they have affected sentencing and punishment. The results of this study show that the legal conditions for individual victims to obtain criminal justice when they have been subjected to racism are insufficient. Problems are primarily due to deficiencies in the formulation of the legislation, but are also seen in its application. Despite a strong contemporary political focus on work to combat racism, no legal changes have been proposed. Based on the results of this study, we suggest the appli- cation of a holistic approach to the legislation on hate crimes. This would enable individual redress for the racism to which Sami and Roma, among others, are exposed.

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    Rasistiska brott mot utsatta grupper
  • 2. Enkvist, Victoria
    et al.
    Åström, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Vem får mest rätt?: om konsten att beakta rättighetsskyddet i mål med flera rättighetshavare2022In: Europarättslig tidskrift, ISSN 1403-8722, E-ISSN 2002-3561, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 415-436Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Granström, Görel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Åström, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Lifecycle of a hate crime: country report for Sweden2017Report (Other academic)
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    Lifecycle of a Hate Crime Country Report for Sweden
  • 4.
    Åström, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Alla barns lika rätt till utbildning, utveckling och att bli hörda i skolan: om efterlevnad av barnkonventionens rättigheter och grundläggande principer2021In: Barnkonventionen och skolan / [ed] Victoria Enkvist; Sverker Scheutz, Uppsala: Iustus förlag, 2021, 1, p. 143-178Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Åström, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Föreställningar om offer för människohandel2016In: Brottsoffer: rättsliga perspektiv / [ed] Görel Granström, Ruth Mannelqvist, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2016, p. 93-108Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att utsättas för brott kan innebära en känsla av maktlöshet, rädsla och sårbarhet. Att drabbas av ett brott i ett främmande land kan förstärka dessa känslor och innebära en än större utsatthet. Handel med människor innebär ett utnyttjande av redan utsatta människor i ett för dem främmande land. Detta utnyttjande har förbjudits i de flesta länder och i Sverige har det införts ett särskilt brott, människohandel. Det har dock visat sig svårt att upptäcka människohandeln och att identifiera dem som utnyttjas som brottsoffer. Handel med människor är ingen ny företeelse, men har förändrats över tid i fråga om vilka som har köpts eller sålts, i vilket syfte och av vem den utförts. Det här kapitlet handlar om de brottsoffer som riskerar att osynliggöras för att de inte ses som legitima eller ideala offer.

  • 6.
    Åström, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Föreställningar om offer för människohandel2021In: Brottsoffer: rättsliga perspektiv / [ed] Görel Granström; Ruth Mannelqvist, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2021, 2, p. 119-146Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Åström, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Inkorporering av barnkonventionen: om olika typer av rättigheter och dess tillämpning inom skolan2021In: Barnkonventionen och skolan / [ed] Victoria Enkvist; Sverker Scheutz, Uppsala: Iustus förlag, 2021, 1, p. 13-42Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Åström, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Rättsliga åtgärder mot människohandel: Att skydda offer eller möta hot2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on legal protection of victims of human trafficking in Sweden. Human trafficking involves the exploitation of often already vulnerable individuals and is a violation of their human rights. Human trafficking is also a threat to state security as a component of transnational organized crime and illegal migration, and has therefore long been a subject of international cooperation.

         In this thesis international responses to human trafficking are categorized as being focused on two distinct and separately protected parties, namely the individual and the state. The implementation of these international responses have, in the case of Sweden, mainly led to new criminal regulation relating to human trafficking, and in this thesis international as well as Swedish legal measures against human trafficking are analyzed from a victimological perspective. The overall aim is to investigate and analyze whether victims of trafficking have received an enhanced legal protection through Swedish criminal law.

         The thesis shows that human trafficking is not considered a problem in the Swedish legislative context, and that the international measures to protect victims of trafficking have not been regarded to any great extent. Few victims of trafficking in Sweden are even identified as victims, and measures against human trafficking have largely been associated with measures against prostitution. To legally connect human trafficking with prostitution is, however, problematic because these crimes have different primary protective interests and the victims have different roles in the investigation and litigation process. From a victim's perspective, the categorization of the crime is crucial because the status of plaintiff, as is required for the possibility for financial redress and other legal rights, is assessed in Sweden by how the offense is classified. It is therefore important for the victims of human trafficking to be identified and categorized correctly in order to be defined as plaintiffs and obtain protection under criminal law. As a result of all these factors, the intended enhanced legal protection for victims of trafficking in Sweden is lost.

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    fulltext
  • 9.
    Åström, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Skyddet för utnyttjade tiggare är statens ansvar2015In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 92, no 3, p. 286-295Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Begging has become a problem in Swedish society. It is, however, no real problem for us who live and work in Sweden, but for the people who come here in the absence of other possibilities to make a living. People traveling to Sweden to beg derives from exposed environments and becomes easy prey to those who want to make money by exploiting others. Some of the beggars, which today can be seen in the Swedish cities are likely exposed to trafficking, but they are rarely regarded as victims. Measures against begging has not focused on beggars vulnerability. There are shortcomings in the legislation or its application that makes it difficult for these potential victims to obtain protection.

  • 10.
    Åström, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    The Freedom of Religion in Relation to Other Human Rights2020In: Freedom of Religion: an ambiguous Right an the Contemporary European Legal Order / [ed] Hedvig Bernitz and Victoria Enkvist, Oxford: Hart Publishing Ltd, 2020, p. 75-98Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, the relationship between freedom of religion and other fundamental freedoms and human rights will be explored and discussed. The backdrop is a completed EU project on hate crime, in which it was discovered that the freedom of religion come in conflict with other human rights or is used as an argument for exemption of criminal responsibility in hate crime cases.

  • 11.
    Åström, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    The importance of human rights for the protection of victims of human trafficking2009In: Lagstiftning i teori och praktik: Rapport från 2009 års forskningsinternat / [ed] Görel Granström och Mattias Hjertstedt, Umeå: Juridiska institutionen, Umeå universitet , 2009, p. 107-116Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Åström, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Vulnerable groups and access to justice: A human rights imperative for international engagement2009In: Rule of law promotion: Global perspectives, local applications / [ed] Per Bergling, Jenny Ederlöf and Veronica L. Taylor, Uppsala: Iustus Förlag AB , 2009, p. 231-242Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Åström, Karin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Eklund Wimelius, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Religionsfrihetens rättsliga ramverk och polisens arbete2020In: Religion, migration och polisiärt arbete / [ed] Göran Larsson, Simon Sorgenfrei, Tanja Viklund, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2020, p. 47-66Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Åström, Karin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Granström, Görel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Den svenska regleringen av hatmotiverade brott: i linje med internationella normer?2017In: Jubileumsskrift till Juridiska institutionen 40 år / [ed] Örjan Edström, Johan Lindholm & Ruth Mannelqvist, Umeå: Juridiska institutionen, Umeå universitet , 2017, p. 285-301Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 15.
    Åström, Karin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Marmo, Marinella
    Department of Law, Flinders University, South Australia.
    Aird, Elyse
    Department of Law, Flinders University, South Australia.
    Victims of Labor Trafficking: A Comparative Study between Sweden and Australia2013In: International Perspectives in Victimology, ISSN 2156-6194, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 25-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of actions to combat human trafficking has been mainly directed towards sexual exploitation, whilst other types of human trafficking have been given little attention. This comparative paper highlights victim characteristics, based on court cases, as potential factors leading to their exploitation in Australia and Sweden. Both countries have only recently adopted criminal legislation prohibiting labor trafficking, and there have only been a few court cases of labor trafficking in either country. The low number of court cases may be the result of focus on trafficking for sexual exploitation, and also to labor trafficking victims being socially constructed as fragile and naïve, setting an unrealistic ‘benchmark’ for their identification and successful prosecution. This study identifies patterns that emerge from the comparison, highlighting that labor trafficking victims who are considered ‘a strong case to be presented in court’ are viewed as ‘ideal’ victims, and that traffickers are not from organized crime groups that can be monitored at a transnational level. It is argued that the current trafficking legislation has a focus which reduces the likelihood of a conviction for labor trafficking, but also that its limitations are bound to broader socio-political understanding of victims in this area.

1 - 15 of 15
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  • nn-NO
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