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  • 1. Lindberg, Emma
    et al.
    Jonsson, Lena
    Sommer, Marius
    Idrottsprestationer hos unga snowboard- och freeskiåkare: Samband med autonom motivation, målsättning och självreglerat lärande2014Ingår i: Årsbok 2014: Svensk idrottspsykologisk förening / [ed] A Stenling, R Wallin-Tornber, A Ivarsson & M Sommer, Stockholm: Normy Stockholm AB , 2014Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka relationer mellan moti­vation, målsättning och självreglerat lärande, samt hur dessa variabler samverkar med idrottsrelaterad prestation och utveckling. I studien ingick 43 snowboard- och freeskiåkare mellan 15-23 år (M= 17.5, SD = 1,8)[AI[1] , vilka besvarade självskattningsenkäter avseende motivation, mål­sättning och självreglerat lärande vid tre tillfällen. Lärare skattade åkarnas prestation utifrån åkfär­dig­heter samt utveckling under säsongen avseende teknisk-, strategisk/ taktisk-, mental- och fysisk förmåga inom idrotten. Resultatet av regress­ions­analyser visade ett samband mellan autonom motivation och självreglerat lärande samt utveckling. Målsättning var inte relaterat till någon övrig variabel som ingick i analysen. En enkel medierings­analys visade inga statistiskt signifikanta indirekta effek­ter av autonom motivation på prestation eller ut­veckl­ing via självreglerat lärande som medierande vari­abel. Slutsatser är att autonom moti­vation kan vara en viktig komponent för utveckling och SRL bland snowboard- och freeskiåkare. Graden av självreglerat lärande predicerade inte vilka åkare som ut­veck­lats mest under säsongen. En förklaring kan vara att det tar tid för åkarna att tillämpa självreglerat lärande

  • 2.
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    McDonald, Rachel
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sommer, Marius
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Influences of Synchronized Metronome Training on Soccer Players’ Timing Ability, Performance Accuracy, and Lower-Limb Kinematics2018Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, s. 1-16, artikel-id 2469Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Planning and performance of all complex movement requires timing, integration, and coordination between sensory-perception and motor production to be successful. Despite this, there is limited research into “if” and “how” timing training may influence movement performance in athletes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of synchronized metronome training (SMT) on sensorimotor timing ability, and in view of that, if improved timing may be transferred to lower-limb movement planning, precision performance, and kinematics. The sample consisted of 24 female elite- and semi-elite soccer players, randomly assigned to receive SMT and a control group. The SMT group received 12 sessions of Interactive Metronome® (IM) training over 4 weeks. At pre- and post-test, timing-precision was assessed through hand and feet movement synchronization with rhythmic sound; and leg-movements performance accuracy, duration, and kinematics were recorded during embodied high cognitive-load stepping task (6 trials×20 s) by use of a optoelectronic motion capture system. Pre- to post-test comparisons showed significant timing improvements as an effect of the IM training. Significant pre- to post-test improvements on the stepping task performance were seen in an increasing number of accurate foot taps during the stepping task sequence and by shorter duration for the SMT-group only. No evident pre- to post-test effects of SMT on the kinematic parameters investigated were found. These findings signify that the guided attention and working-memory functioning may be positively affected by SMT training; thereby, resulting in better motor planning, performance, and movement precision. Still, independent of group and test-occasion, significant correlations were found between the participants’ outcome performance differences and the kinematic parameters. It was found that a decreasing 3D movement distance and less segmented movements correlating negatively, and increasing velocity (speed) positively, with accuracy and performance duration, respectively. These findings are likely associated with inter-individual variations in the nature of higher-order cognitive processing capacity due to the highly cognitive demanding stepping task.

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  • 3.
    Sommer, Marius
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Dominera med fel fot2014Ingår i: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 2, s. 10-13Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Många VM-spelare är påfallande enfotade. Men att effektivt behandla bollen med båda fötterna bör vara en fördel för alla fotbollsspelare, oberoende nivå. En ny studie visar att fyra veckors enkel träning av den icke-dominanta foten ökar träffsäkerheten. Det finns i dag över 265 miljoner registrerade fotbollsspelare (1). Det är en siffra som ständigt ökar eftersom fler och fler kvinnor introduceras till sporten. Trots detta enorma intresse står mängden forskning med inriktning mot fotbollsprestationer inte i proportion till antalet aktiva spelare. Det gäller framför allt den kvantitativa forskningen, som undersöker effekterna av olika typer av träning för att förbättra fotbollsspecifika, tekniska färdigheter. Hittills har forskningen i första hand fokuserat på kvalitativa förklaringsmodeller av fotbollsfärdighet, coachning och taktik, biomekaniska undersökningar av fotbollssparkar, talangidentifiering och spelstrukturer. Även om sådan kunskap och erfarenhet säkerligen är viktigt för utvecklingen av sporten, finns det ett stort behov av fler vetenskapliga, processorienterade, kvantitativa studier för att utveckla och förfina vetenskapligt grundade träningsstrategier och modeller. En träningsstrategi som inte är vidare utforskad är kopplad till hur vi kan träna fotbollstekniska färdigheter med den icke-dominanta foten, och vilken effekt sådan träning har på prestationerna på fotbollsplanen.

  • 4.
    Sommer, Marius
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Effect of timing training in golf and soccer players: skill, movement organization, and brain activity2014Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Although trainers and athletes consider ‘good timing skills’ to be critical for optimal sport performance, little is known in regard to how sport-specific skills may benefit from timing training. Thus, assuming that all motor performances are mediated by an internal timing mechanism, enhanced motor timing is expected to have positive effects on both planning and execution of movement performance, and consequently on complex sports actions as golf or soccer. Accordingly, in order to increase our knowledge of the importance of motor timing and possible effects of timing training, this thesis examines the effects of synchronized metronome training (SMT), thought to improve the execution of motor programs and to enhance motor skills in golf and soccer players.

    Methods Study I examined the effects of SMT on motor timing abilities and its potential effect on golf shot accuracy and consistency in 25 experienced male golfers. Additionally, Study II examined the effects of SMT on the spatiotemporal movement organisation and dynamics of the golf swing performance, as captured by kinematic measurements and analyses in thirteen male golfers. Study III examined the effect of SMT on accuracy and variability in a soccer specific, cross-pass task in elite and sub-elite female soccer players. Moreover, the underlying brain activity was assessed by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the corresponding neural activity when passively observing the cross-pass task, and the possible pre- to post training effects.

    Results SMT was shown to improve motor timing ability, by means of less timing asynchrony and with associated changes in timing variability, in both golf- and soccer-players. Additionally, significant improvements in golf shot and soccer cross-pass performance, by means of significant increase in outcome accuracy combined with a decrease in outcome variability was found. From the kinematic investigation in Study II, results indicate that improved motor timing, as an effect of SMT, lead to a more coordinated and dynamic swing performance, and with decreased variability in the temporal structure of the swing motion. Finally, it was found that SMT induces changes in the activity of the action observation network (AON), underpinning action observation and action prediction, by means of decreased activation within bilateral cerebellum, fusiform gyrus and superior temporal gyrus. These findings hint at a more efficient pattern of neural recruitment during action observation, after SMT.

    Conclusion In summary, this thesis provides evidence that four weeks of SMT improved the participant’s motor timing and synchronization abilities, and showed influence on both behavioral and neurophysiological motor programs and skill performance in golf and soccer players. Thus, by improved outcome accuracy and decreased variability, affecting the coordinated movement pattern and organisation, as well as affecting the associated underlying brain activation.

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  • 5.
    Sommer, Marius
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Häger, Charlotte
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark.
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Timing Training in Female Soccer Players: Effects on Skilled Movement Performance and Brain Responses2018Ingår i: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, E-ISSN 1662-5161, Vol. 12, artikel-id 311Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Although trainers and athletes consider “good timing skills” critical for optimal sport performance, little is known in regard to how sport-specific skills may benefit from timing training. Accordingly, this study investigated the effects of timing training on soccer skill performance and the associated changes in functional brain response in elite- and sub-elite female soccer players. Twenty-five players (mean age 19.5 years; active in the highest or second highest divisions in Sweden), were randomly assigned to either an experimental- or a control group. The experimental group (n = 12) was subjected to a 4-week program (12 sessions) of synchronized metronome training (SMT). We evaluated effects on accuracy and variability in a soccer cross-pass task. The associated brain response was captured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while watching videos with soccer-specific actions. SMT improved soccer cross-pass performance, with a significant increase in outcome accuracy, combined with a decrease in outcome variability. SMT further induced changes in the underlying brain response associated with observing a highly familiar soccer-specific action, denoted as decreased activation in the cerebellum post SMT. Finally, decreased cerebellar activation was associated with improved cross-pass performance and sensorimotor synchronization. These findings suggest a more efficient neural recruitment during action observation after SMT. To our knowledge, this is the first controlled study providing behavioral and neurophysiological evidence that timing training may positively influence soccer-skill, while strengthening the action-perception coupling via enhanced sensorimotor synchronization abilities, and thus influencing the underlying brain responses.

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  • 6.
    Sommer, Marius
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Häger, Charlotte
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering.
    Olsson, Carl Johan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Timing training in female soccer players: effects on motor skill and associated changes in functional brain activityManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 7.
    Sommer, Marius
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Häger, Charlotte
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering.
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Synchronized metronome training induces changes in the kinematic properties of the golf swing2014Ingår i: Sports Biomechanics, ISSN 1476-3141, E-ISSN 1752-6116, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. 1-16Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate possible effects of synchronized metronome training (SMT) on movement dynamics during golf swing performance, as captured by kinematic analysis. A one-group, between-test design was applied on thirteen male golfers (27.5 ± 4.6 years old, 12.7 ± 4.9 golf handicap) who completed twelve sessions of SMT over a four week period. Pre- and post-assessments of golf swings made with three different clubs (4-iron, 7-ironand pitching wedge) were performed using a three-dimensional motion capture system. Club peak velocity at three different swing phases andcross-correlation analysis of time-series signals were made on joint couplings(wrist-elbow-shoulder) of both arms, and between joints and the club, during the full golf swing. There were significantly higher cross-correlations between joint-couplings and concomitant changes of the associated phase-shift differences, as well as reduced phase-shift variability at post-test. No significant effect of SMT was found for the club peak velocities. We suggest that domain-general influences of SMT on the underlying brain-based motorcontrol strategies lead to a more coordinated movement pattern of the golf swing performance, which may explain previous observations of significantly improved golf shot accuracy and decreased variability after SMT.

  • 8.
    Sommer, Marius
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Bättre golfprestation med timingträning2011Ingår i: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, nr 1, s. 54-58Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 9.
    Sommer, Marius
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Effekten av synkroniserad metronomträning på sportprestation2009Ingår i: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN ISSN 1103-4629, nr 31, s. 31-32Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
  • 10.
    Sommer, Marius
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Improved motor-timing: effects of synchronized metronome training on golfshot accuracy2009Ingår i: Journal of Sports Sciences & Medicine. Free electronic journal, ISSN ISSN 1303-2968, Vol. 8, nr 4, s. 648-656Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the effect of synchronized metronome training (SMT) on motor timing and how this training might affect golf shot accuracy. Twenty-six experienced male golfers participated (mean age 27 years; mean golf handicap 12.6) in this study. Pre- and post-test investigations of golf shots made by three different clubs were conducted by use of a golf simulator. The golfers were randomized into two groups: a SMT group and a Control group. After the pre-test, the golfers in the SMT group completed a 4-week SMT program designed to improve their motor timing, the golfers in the Control group were merely training their golf-swings during the same time period. No differences between the two groups were found from the pre-test outcomes, either for motor timing scores or for golf shot accuracy.

    However, the post-test results after the 4-weeks SMT showed evident motor timing improvements. Additionally, significant improvements for golf shot accuracy were found for the SMT group and with less variability in their performance. No such improvements were found for the golfers in the Control group. As with previous studies that used a SMT program, this study’s results provide further evidence that motor timing can be improved by SMT and that such timing improvement also improves golf accuracy.

  • 11.
    Sommer, Marius
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Rönnqvist, Louise
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    The influence of training with the non-dominant foot on female soccer players’skill performance2014Ingår i: Word Conference on Science and Soccer 4.0.  WCSS Abstract Book, Portland, Oregon, USA., 2014, s. 36-36Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Modulation of lateral preference is suggested to be of importance for sports in which bilateral proficiency is advantageous for high performance. Evidence for such modulations in athlete’s laterality comes from soccer players, suggested as an effect of pronounced bilateral practice (1, 2). Thus, in line with evidence showing that lateralized practice may lead to a shift of manual dominance; our purpose of the present study was to investigate if extensive soccer-specific practice with the Non-dominant-foot (NdF) may positively affect soccer skill performance by means of accuracy and consistency.

    Methods Twenty-four elite and sub-elite players (age: 20.5 yrs) from outfield playing positions were randomized to a control- and NdF training-group. The NdF group trained specifically with their NdF on a variety of basic soccer skills (e.g. passing, trapping, juggling) during regular soccer practice, over a four week period (three sessions of 20 min a week). The controls continued their regular team practice. The first skill-test assessed the number of goals scored with the NdF, in a “turn and shoot” task, on a 1.0 x 2.44 meter target, 15 m away. The second task comprised a 25 m cross-pass on a ball in movement, in which accuracy and variability of the pass outcome was assessed.

    Results & Discussion Whereas the NdF group displayed a significant improvement in number of goals scored (1.8 +/- 0.5 goals) from pre- to post-test, the control group did not (-0.9 +/- 1.1 goals). For the cross-pass task the NpF group displayed a significant pre- to post-test improvement of the mean accuracy score by 1.6 +/- 0.5 meter, with concomitant reduced variability. No such effects were evident for the control group (0.2+/- 0.7 meters).

    Conclusion From an applied perspective, more frequent training with the NdF, in a fashion that does not require special equipment or distinct tutoring, seems to improve skilled use of the non-dominant foot, thus, that may lead to higher proficiency for players even on the elite-/and sub-elite level.

    References

    1. Teixeira, L. A., & Okazaki, V. H. A. (2007). Exp, Brain Res, 183, 417–423.

    2. Teixeira, L. A. et al (2011). Res. Q. Exerc. Sport, 82, 21–27

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