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  • 1.
    Hermassi, Mehrez
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik. Chemical Engineering Department, East Barcelona Engineering School, Barcelona TECHUPC, (Campus Diagonal-Besos), Sant Adria de Besos, Spain.
    Granados, M.
    Valderrama, C.
    Ayora, C.
    Cortina, J. L.
    Recovery of Rare Earth Elements from acidic mine waters by integration of a selective chelating ion-exchanger and a solvent impregnated resin2021Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, E-ISSN 2213-3437, Vol. 9, nr 5, artikel-id 105906Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A polymeric ion-exchange resin, incorporating methyl-amino-phosphonic (TP260) functionalities, and a solvent impregnated resin (SIR) incorporating tri-methylpentylphosphinic acid (TP272), were evaluated for the selective separation of Rare Earth Elements (REE) from Transition (TE), post -Transition (PTE), and Alkaline Earth (AE) Elements in acidic mine waters (AMW). The influence of the functional groups nature and the acidity dependence were studied and their effects on efficiencies for REE removal and separation from TE/PTE were analysed Both resins provided good separation factors of REE from TE/PTE by acidity control of the treated effluent once Fe (III), the major component in AMW, had been removed by precipitation. The TP272 resin, containing trimethylpentylphosphinic acid (Cyanex 272) onto the polymeric network, showed higher affinity towards Heavy REE (HRRE) than for Light REE (LRRE) by acidity control (pH > 4). Higher pre-concentration factors were achieved for TP272 impregnated resin (e.g., 20-30) in comparison with the TP260 phosphonic resin (2-5), as the pH extraction window is in the moderate pH region (1-5). The integration in series of both resins could be used to separate and recover HREE and LREE from TE/PTE from AMW generated concentrates could be used to recover REE as secondary resources for the clean energy technology industry.

  • 2.
    Hermassi, Mehrez
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Granados, M.
    Analytical Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Department, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
    Valderrama, C.
    Chemical Engineering Department, East Barcelona Engineering School, Barcelona TECHUPC, Sant Adrià de Besòs, Spain.
    Ayora, C.
    Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC), Barcelona, Spain.
    Cortina, J.L.
    Chemical Engineering Department, East Barcelona Engineering School, Barcelona TECHUPC, Eduard Maristany 10-14 (Campus Diagonal-Besòs), Sant Adrià de Besòs, Spain; Water Technology Center CETaqua, Cornellà de Llobregat, Spain.
    Recovery of rare earth elements from acidic mine waters: an unknown secondary resource2022Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 810, artikel-id 152258Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Acidic mine Drainage (AMD) is still considered one of the greatest mining sustainability challenges due to the large volumes of wastes generated and the high associated treatment cost. New regulation initiatives on sustainable development, circular economy and the need for strategic elements as Rare Earth Elements (REE) may overcome the traditional research initiatives directed to developing low cost treatment options and to develop research initiatives to identify the potential benefit of considering such AMD as a potential secondary resource. As an example, this study develops the integration of a three-stage process where REE are selectively separated from base metals (e.g. Fe, Al, Mn, Ca, Mg, Cd, Pb) and then concentrate to produce a rich REE by-product recovered as REE-phosphates. Selective separation of Fe (>99%) was achieved by total oxidation to Fe(III) and subsequent precipitation as schwertmannite at pH 3,6 ± 0.2. REE were then extracted from AMD using a sulfonic ion-exchange resin to produce concentrated REE sulfuric solutions up to 0.25 gREE/L. In a final stage selective separation of REE from Al(III), Ca(II) and Mg(II) and transitions elements (Cu, Zn, Ni) was achieved by precipitation with phosphate solutions under optimized pH control and total phosphate concentration. XRD analysis identified low-crystalline minerals. By using a thermal treatment the presence of PrPO4(s) and Cheralite (CePO4(s)) where Ce is substituted by La and Ca and Xenotime (YPO4(s)) were found as main minerals AlPO4(s) Ca,MgYPO4(s) were also identified.

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  • 3.
    Hermassi, Mehrez
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik. Chemical Engineering Department, East Barcelona Engineering School, Barcelona TECHUPC, Sant Adrià de Besòs, Spain.
    Granados, M.
    Valderrama, C.
    Skoglund, Nils
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Ayora, C.
    Cortina, J.L.
    Impact of functional group types in ion exchange resins on rare earth element recovery from treated acid mine waters2022Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 379, nr Part 2, artikel-id 134742Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ion-exchange (IX) resins incorporating single functional groups (sulfonic or amino-phosphonic) and two functional groups (sulfonic and phosphonic) were evaluated for selective recovery of Rare Earth Elements (REEs) from acidic mine waters (AMW). The composition of AMW solution, complexing properties of the functional group, and acidity were investigated as key parameters for concentration and separation of REEs from transition elements (TEs). Fe has to be removed from AMW to enable REE recovery and here the AMW was treated with NaOH solutions to reach pH 3.9 where Fe(III) was selectively removed (≤99%) by precipitation of schwertmannite. Single functional IX resin containing a sulfonic group displayed a higher REE recovery efficiency and separation ratio than observed for the bi-functional resin (sulfonic/phosphonic). Concentration factors for REEs between 30 and 40 were achieved using regeneration cycles with H2SO4. The performance of the aminophosphonic resin showed lower separation factors for REEs from TEs than the two resins containing sulfonic groups. IX resins performance was improved by tuning the acidity to match the functional group reactivity, where pH adjustment to the range of 0.5–2.0 provided the highest REE/TE separation factor for the single sulfonic resin followed by the bifunctional resin. The integration of an elution cycle using Na2-EDTA/NH4Cl mixtures strongly increases the concentration factors of REE and Light REE (LREE) concentration factors of up to 260 were achieved for the single functional sulfonic resin.

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