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  • 1.
    Blomgren, Anna-Sara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Svahn, Kajsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Coping Strategies in Late Adolescence: Relationships to Parental Attachment and Time Perspective2016In: The Journal of Genetic Psychology, ISSN 0022-1325, E-ISSN 1940-0896, Vol. 177, no 3, p. 85-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors investigated adolescents' use of coping strategies in relation to attachment to parents and time perspective. Adolescents in Grade 3 upper secondary school (M age = 18.3 years, SD = 0.6 years; n = 160) completed the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment, the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, and the Brief COPE. Correlational analyses showed that attachment to parents was associated with a more favorable view of the past (higher past positive and lower past negative), a less fatalistic view of the present, and a more favorable view of the future (higher future positive and lower future negative). Parental attachment accounted for significant variance in composite coping scores (adaptive and maladaptive) when entered before, but not after, time perspective subscales in hierarchical regression analyses. However, time perspective (mainly present hedonistic and positive or negative future) predicted adaptive or maladaptive coping over and beyond attachment. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that most of the relationship between adolescents' attachment to parents and coping is mediated by individual differences in time perspective. By contrast, factors other than attachment to parents (e.g., temperament) must be considered to fully account for the relationship between time perspective and coping.

  • 2. Börjesson, A
    et al.
    Karlsson, T
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Nilsson, L
    Linopirdine (DUP 996): cholinergic treatment of older adults using successive and non-successive tests.1999In: Neuropsychobiology, ISSN 0302-282X, E-ISSN 1423-0224, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 78-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether cholinergic treatment of age-associated memory impairment with Linopirdine (DUP 996), a derivate of phenylindoline, affects explicit memory, implicit memory, and primary memory. We also assessed cognitive decision making in a reaction time test. Explicit memory was assessed by face recognition, word recall and a word recognition test, being part of a successive test paradigm. Implicit memory was assessed by primed word fragment completion in the same successive test paradigm. Primary memory was studied by means of digit recall. Thirty-eight elderly subjects fulfilled the criteria for memory impairment. Four groups of subjects were given 10, 20 or 30 mg of DUP 996 or placebo during 4 weeks. A double-blind procedure was applied. No significant treatment effects for recognition memory and priming were obtained in the successive test paradigm. Analysis of dependence/independence between tests did not show any clear pattern of treatment effects. The other explicit memory tests and the reaction time test showed no effect with DUP 996. Because of the range of the different tests used here, the result and the general evidence in other investigations of the cholinergic depletion among aged people, the conclusion is that DUP 996 does not improve memory performance either in explicit, implicit or primary tests.

  • 3.
    Davis, Paul A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Trotter, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Balancing time for health behaviors: associations of time perspective with physical activity and weight management in older adults2024In: American Journal of Health Promotion, ISSN 0890-1171, E-ISSN 2168-6602Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To examine associations between time perspective and health promotion behaviors of physical activity and weight management.

    Design: Quantitative cross-sectional.

    Setting: This study is part of the Betula project on aging, memory, and dementia in Northern Sweden.

    Subjects: 417 older adults aged between 55 and 85 years.

    Measures: Swedish-Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory; Physical Activity in the past year, past week, and in comparison with others of similar age; Weight Management = Body Mass Index (BMI; kg/m2).

    Results: After controlling for age, sex, and years of education, hierarchical linear regression indicated a Balanced Time Perspective was significantly associated with more physical activity in the past year (P =.04), the past week (P <.001), and in comparison with others (P <.01). Past Negative time perspective was associated with less physical activity in the past year (P =.03), and in comparison with others (P =.03). Present Fatalistic was associated with less physical activity during the past week (P =.03), and in comparison with others (P =.01). Present Hedonistic was associated with more physical activity the past week (P =.03), and in comparison with others (P =.03). Past Negative was associated with higher BMI (P =.02), and Future Negative were associated with lower BMI (P =.01). Taken collectively, greater positivity and flexibility across time perspectives was associated with more physical activity, whereas negative oriented time perspectives related with less physical activity and poorer weight management.

    Conclusion: Time perspective can be associated with health behaviors in older adults and have implications for health across the lifespan. Health promotion interventions may target older adults’ enjoyment of exercise and weight management in the present, rather than highlight potential negative health outcomes in the future. 

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  • 4. Ekström, Ingrid
    et al.
    Josefsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Larsson, Maria
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    Subjective olfactory loss in older adults concurs with long-term odor identification decline2019In: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 105-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Olfactory impairments may provide early indications of future health outcomes in older adults. Thus, an important question concerns whether these impairments can be self-assessed. Previous findings of cross-sectional studies indicate low correlations between self-reported olfactory function and objective olfactory performance. On the other hand, subjective olfactory impairments predict future dementia and mortality in longitudinal settings. No previous study has assessed the relationship between subjectively and objectively measured decline in olfaction over time. Based on data for 903 older adults derived from the Betula Study, a Swedish population-based prospective study, we tested whether rate-of-change in odor identification could be predicted from subjective olfactory decline over a time span of 10 years during which subjective and objective odor functions were assessed on 2 or 3 test occasions. Indeed, we found that participants who experienced subjective olfactory decline over the study period also had significantly steeper rates of decline in odor identification, even after adjusting for demographic, cognitive, and genetic factors that previously have been associated with performance in odor identification. This association was, however, not present in a subsample with baseline cognitive impairment. We interpret these results as evidence that when asked about whether they have an olfactory impairment or not, older persons are assessing intraindividual olfactory changes, rather than interindividual differences. Our results indicate that subjective olfactory loss reflects objective olfactory decline in cognitively intact older adults. This association might be harnessed to predict health outcomes and highlights the need to develop effective olfactory self-assessments.

  • 5.
    Eriksson, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Psykologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Effects of perceived long-term stress on health and memory functioning2010In: Abstracts of the Psychonomic Society, 2010, p. 78-78Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study examined effects of perceived long-term stress on health and memory functioning in middle-aged individuals (40–60 years). Participants in the Betula study (Nilsson et al., 1997) describing themselves as being stressed in general over three measurement occasions (10 years in total) were compared with a matched (sex and education) group (n = 98) reporting no stress. The results revealed a higher incidence of depressive symptoms, flus, and not-healthy-ratings over time for the stress group. In addition, the stress group provided more negative subjective memory ratings, whereas time-related change in memory performance, indicative of a high degree of cognitive stability, did not differ from that of controls. Degree of perceived stress is discussed as a factor underlying variations in regard to the outcome of studies of perceived stress.

  • 6.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Blood Pressure Levels and Longitudinal Changes in Relation to Social Network Factors2016In: Psychological Topics, ISSN 1332-0742, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 59-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between social network variables and levels of and longitudinal changes in blood pressure in a middle-aged/older sample. The participants (50-75 years at baseline; n=1097) responded to questions concerning social relationships at baseline and their blood pressure (diastolic, systolic) was measured. Blood pressure levels were reassessed 5, 10, and 15 years later. Latent growth models with responses to questions concerning social relationships as predictors and basic demographic factors (age, sex) as covariates, unexpectedly indicated that a more limited social network (no close friend, few visits, little contact with friends in other ways, not living with someone, and a composite index based on all questions) was associated with significantly lower diastolic blood pressure levels. For systolic blood pressure a similar result was observed for one of the variables (lack of a close friend). In general, these effects diminished over time, as indexed by the positive relationship between several of the social variables and slope. The results were little affected by inclusion of additional covariates (e.g. measures of psychological distress, smoking/alcohol habits, and BMI) suggesting that the origins of this unexpected pattern of findings must probably be sought for in other subjectrelated factors, such as, for example, increased help seeking. Future studies should consider qualitative aspects (e.g. feelings of loneliness, quality of social relationships) in addition to structural aspects to provide a better understanding of these associations.

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  • 7.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Körning Ljungberg, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Reading Habits Among Older Adults in Relation to Level and 15-Year Changes in Verbal Fluency and Episodic Recall2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 1872Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this study was to investigate reading habits in older adults in relation to level and 15-year changes in verbal fluency and episodic recall. We examined a sample of 1157 participants (55 years at baseline) up to 15 years after the baseline assessment using latent growth curve modeling of cognitive measures with baseline reading frequency (books, weekly magazines) as a predictor of cognitive level (intercept) and rate of change (slope). Subgroup analyses were performed to investigate the role of an early adult g factor in the association between reading habits and cognitive ability in midlife. Frequent reading of books, but not of magazines, was associated with higher levels of verbal fluency and recall but unrelated to rate of longitudinal decline. Subgroup analyses indicated that the g factor in early adulthood predicted reading and cognitive level in midlife and this factor removed the current association between reading habits and level of cognitive ability (both cognitive factors). The results indicate an enduring relationship between book reading and level of cognitive ability across the adult life span and provide little support of the hypothesis that frequent reading protects against latelife cognitive decline. The extent to which book reading promotes cognitive functioning in childhood/youth remains to be demonstrated. Intervention studies may be useful in this regard.

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  • 8.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ger en aktiv livsstil bättre minne?2011In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 43-45Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det sägs ibland att aktivteter som stimulerar hjärnan förbättrar minnet. En rad studier indikerar också att olika typer av livsstilsfaktorer hänger samman med prestation i kognitiva test. De visar att dålig minnesförmåga är överrepresenterad hos dem som inte ägnar sig åt fritidsaktiviteter såsom att läsa, idrotta och lägga pussel.

  • 9.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Aging Research Center (ARC), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Social relationships and risk of dementia: a population-based study2015In: International psychogeriatrics, ISSN 1041-6102, E-ISSN 1741-203X, Vol. 27, no 8, p. 1391-1399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The objective was to examine whether aspects of social relationships in old age are associated with all-cause dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD).

    Methods: We studied 1,715 older adults (≥ 65 years) who were dementia-free at baseline over a period of up to 16 years. Data on living status, contact/visit frequency, satisfaction with contact frequency, and having/not having a close friend were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regressions with all-cause dementia or AD as the dependent variable. To control for reverse causality and to identify potential long-term effects, we additionally performed analyses with delayed entry.

    Results: We identified 373 incident cases of dementia (207 with AD) during follow-up. The variable visiting/visits from friends was associated with reduced risk of all-cause dementia. Further, a higher value on the relationships index (sum of all variables) was associated with reduced risk of all-cause dementia and AD. However, in analyses with delayed entry, restricted to participants with a survival time of three years or more, none of the social relationship variables was associated with all-cause dementia or AD.

    Conclusions: The results indicate that certain aspects of social relationships are associated with incident dementia or AD, but also that these associations may reflect reverse causality. Future studies aimed at identifying other factors of a person's social life that may have the potential to postpone dementia should consider the effects of reverse causality.

  • 10.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, L-G
    Leisure-time activity in old age as predictors of impending dementia: A 15-year prospective study2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the relationship between leisure activities and risk of dementia in a sample of healthy older individuals, dementia free at the beginning of the project. Data were drawn from a population-based longitudinal study (the Betula project) and the participants were followed up for 15 years. At baseline, participants were asked about their frequency of participation in 15 selected leisure activities. When age, gender, education, APOE and other potential confounders were controlled for, results revealed quite moderate effects on dementia after analysis of the activities separately. However, by weighting each activity into a mental, social and physical dimension (based on valuation by the participants), and then summarizing into a score for each dimension, we further investigated if level of engagement could predict impending dementia. Preliminary results indicate that the dimensions may have influence on the risk of dementia for certain age groups. The study also showed that the strongest predictor of dementia is being a carrier of the APOE ɛ4 allele. The outcomes are discussed in terms of important methodological difference between studies concerning the effects of leisure activities in preventing dementia diseases.

  • 11.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden .
    Leisure Activity in Old Age and Risk of Dementia: a 15-Year Prospective Study2014In: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences, ISSN 1079-5014, E-ISSN 1758-5368, Vol. 69, no 4, p. 493-501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate whether leisure activity is associated with incident dementia in an older sample.

    Method. We examined a sample of 1,475 elderly (>= 65 years) who were dementia free at baseline over a follow-up period of up to 15 years. In addition to analyses involving the total time period, separate analyses of three time periods were performed, 1-5, 6-10, and 11-15 years, following baseline measurement of leisure activity.

    Results. After controlling for a variety of potential confounders, analyses of data for the total time period revealed that higher levels of "Total activity" and "Social activity," but not "Mental activity," were associated with decreased risk of dementia. However, analyses of the separate time periods showed that this association was only significant in the first time period, 1-5 years after baseline.

    Discussion. The results from this study provide little support for the hypothesis that frequent engagement in leisure activities among elderly serve to protect against dementia diseases across a longer time frame. The finding of a relationship for the first time period, 1-5 years after baseline, could indicate short-term protective effects but could also reflect reverse causality.

  • 12.
    Eriksson, Terese
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Germundsjö, Linnea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Mindful self-compassion training reduces stress and burnout symptoms among practicing psychologists: a randomized controlled trial of a brief web-based intervention2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 2340Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aims of this study were (a) to examine the effects of a 6 weeks web-based mindful self-compassion program on stress and burnout symptoms in a group of practicing psychologists, and (b) to examine relationships between changes in self-compassion and self-coldness and changes in stress and burnout symptoms.

    Method: In a randomized controlled trial, 101 practicing psychologists were assigned to a training group (n = 51) or a wait-list control group (n = 49). The training encompassed 15min exercises per day, 6 days a week, for 6 weeks. The participants completed the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS), the Five Facets of Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ), the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and the Shirom Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ) pre and post intervention.

    Results: Eighty-one participants (n = 40 in the training group, n = 41 in the control group) took part in the pre and post intervention assessments. Selective gains for the intervention group were observed for SCS total scores (d = 0.86; d = 0.94 for the SCS), FFMQ scores (d = 0.60), while levels of self-coldness was reduced (d = 0.73). Critically, levels of perceived stress (d = 0.59) and burnout symptoms (d = 0.44 for SMBQ total) were additionally lowered post intervention. Finally, the results confirmed the hypothesis that the measures of distress would be more strongly related to self-coldness than self-compassion, a pattern seen in cross-sectional analyses and, for burnout, also in the longitudinal analyses.

    Conclusions: This training program appeared effective to increase self-compassion/reduce self-coldness, and to alleviate stress and symptoms of burnout and provide support of the distinction between self-compassion and self-coldness. Additional studies, preferably three-armed RCTs with long-term follow-up, are warranted to further evaluate the effectiveness of the program.

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  • 13.
    Hansson, Patrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Juslin, Peter
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Adult age differences in the realism of confidence judgments: overconfidence, format dependence, and cognitive predictors2008In: Psychology and Aging, ISSN 0882-7974, E-ISSN 1939-1498, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 531-544Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Realistic confidence judgments are essential to everyday functioning, but few studies have addressed the issue of age differences in overconfidence. Therefore, the authors examined this issue with probability judgment and intuitive confidence intervals in a sample of 122 healthy adults (ages:

    35-40, 55-60, 70-75 years). In line with predictions based on the naïve sampling model (P. Juslin, A. Winman, & P. Hansson, 2007), substantial format dependence was observed, with extreme overconfidence when confidence was expressed as an intuitive confidence interval but not when confidence was expressed as a probability judgment. Moreover, an age-related increase in overconfidence was selectively observed when confidence was expressed as intuitive confidence intervals. Structural equation modeling indicated that the age-related increases in overconfidence were mediated by a general cognitive ability factor that may reflect executive processes. Finally, the results indicated that part of the negative influence of increased age on general ability may be compensated for by an age-related increase in domain-relevant knowledge.(c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved

  • 14.
    Hasselberg, Aurora
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Cultivating self-kindness and attention to the present moment in the young: A pilot study of a two-week internet-delivered mindfulness and self-compassion program2020In: Cogent Psychology, E-ISSN 2331-1908, Vol. 7, no 1, article id 1769807Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a two-week web-based program targeting mindfulness and self-compassion. The program was developed with young adults in mind and involves 15 minutes of training per day, 5 days a week. In an RCT study, 56 participants (18–25 years) were randomly assigned to a training group or a wait-list control group. Thirty-five participants, 15 in the training group and 20 in the control group, completed assessments of self-compassion, mindfulness, and indicators of mental health (stress, emotion regulation, affect balance, time perspective) before and directly after the two-week period. Mixed linear analyses revealed several significant group-by-time interactions, with selective changes in the intervention group. The results revealed a large effect for self-compassion (d = 1.0) and a medium effect for mindfulness (d = 0.52; p =.07 for the interaction). Statistically significant group-by-time interactions and small to medium effects were observed for stress (d = 0.67, reduced scores), affect balance (d = 0.43; increased scores), cognitive appraisal (d = 0.43; increased scores) and a Present Hedonistic time perspective (d = 0.67; increased scores). No significant effects were observed for other time perspective dimensions or for a measure of expressive suppression. In spite of limitations, including a small sample, lack of an active control group and follow-up assessments, the results indicate that the program may have potential as one tool to reduce stress and improve mental health in young individuals. Further evaluations may, therefore, be motivated.

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  • 15. Henriksson, Jessica
    et al.
    Waasara, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Effects of Eight-Week-Web-Based Mindfulness Training on Pain Intensity, Pain Acceptance, and Life Satisfaction in Individuals With Chronic Pain2016In: Psychological Reports, ISSN 0033-2941, E-ISSN 1558-691X, Vol. 119, no 3, p. 586-607Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the effects of an eight-week-web-based mindfulness programdesigned for individuals with chronic pain. A sample of 107 participants with chronicpain (M¼51.0 years, SD¼9.3) were randomly assigned to a treatment group and acontrol group. The mindfulness program involved 20 minutes of training per day, sixdays a week, for eight weeks. During this period, the control group was invited to anonline discussion forum involving pain-related topics. A total of 77 participantscompleted the postintervention assessment (n¼36 in the treatment group, n¼41in the control group). The group assigned to mindfulness training showed increasedmindfulness skills (Cohen’s d¼1.18), reduced pain intensity (d¼0.47–0.82), reducedpain-related interference/suffering (d¼0.39–0.85), heightened pain acceptance(d¼0.66), reduced affective distress (d¼0.67), and higher ratings of life satisfaction(d¼0.54) following the training with no or minor changes up for the control group(d values 0.01–0.23), a pattern substantiated by significant group-by-time interactions.Despite limitations of this study, including a less than ideal control groupto isolate effects of mindfulness and lack of a long-term follow-up, the results appearpromising and may motivate further investigations.

  • 16.
    Kauppi, Karolina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet,Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordin Adolfsson, Annelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Pudas, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Effects of polygenic risk for Alzheimer's disease on rate of cognitive decline in normal aging2020In: Translational Psychiatry, E-ISSN 2158-3188, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most people's cognitive abilities decline with age, with significant and partly genetically driven, individual differences in rate of change. Although APOE 4 and genetic scores for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) have been related to cognitive decline during preclinical stages of dementia, there is limited knowledge concerning genetic factors implied in normal cognitive aging. In the present study, we examined three potential genetic predictors of age-related cognitive decline as follows: (1) the APOE 4 allele, (2) a polygenic score for general cognitive ability (PGS-cog), and (3) a polygenic risk score for late-onset AD (PRS-LOAD). We examined up to six time points of cognitive measurements in the longitudinal population-based Betula study, covering a 25-year follow-up period. Only participants that remained alive and non-demented until the most recent dementia screening (1-3 years after the last test occasion) were included (n=1087). Individual differences in rate of cognitive change (composite score) were predicted by the PRS-LOAD and APOE 4, but not by PGS-cog. To control for the possibility that the results reflected a preclinical state of Alzheimer's disease in some participants, we re-ran the analyses excluding cognitive data from the last test occasion to model cognitive change up-until a minimum of 6 years before potential onset of clinical Alzheimers. Strikingly, the association of PRS-LOAD, but not APOE 4, with cognitive change remained. The results indicate that PRS-LOAD predicts individual difference in rate of cognitive decline in normal aging, but it remains to be determined to what extent this reflects preclinical Alzheimer's disease brain pathophysiology and subsequent risk to develop the disease.

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  • 17.
    Lövdén, Martin
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wahlin, Åke
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden / Aging Research Center (ARC), Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Backman, Lars
    Aging Research Center (ARC), Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    The extent of stability and change in episodic and semantic memory in old age: Demographic predictors of level and change2004In: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences, ISSN 1079-5014, E-ISSN 1758-5368, Vol. 59, no 3, p. 130-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Structural stability and change in semantic and episodic memory performance as well as interindividual differences in 5-year changes in these constructs are examined within a sample of older adults (age rangeT1 = 60–80; n = 361). Interindividual differences in change were limited but significant. Stability coefficients were higher for semantic memory (.95) than for episodic memory (.87). Changes in episodic and semantic memory performance were strongly associated (r =.68). Across time, variances and covariances increased, and a tendency toward dedifferentiation in terms of increasing correlations was found. Chronological age was related to both level and change, but gender and education were only related to level of memory performance. Collectively, these results depict relatively high degrees of structural stability and stability of interindividual differences in declarative memory in old age.

     

  • 18.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kliegel, Matthias
    Department of Psychology, Dresden University of Technology, Dresden, Germany.
    Components of executive functioning in metamemory2010In: Applied neuropsychology, ISSN 0908-4282, E-ISSN 1532-4826, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 289-298Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined metamemory in relation to three basic executive functions (set shifting, working memory updating, and response inhibition) measured as latent variables. Young adults (Experiment 1) and middle-aged adults (Experiment 2) completed a set of executive functioning tasks and the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ). In Experiment 1, source recall and face recognition tasks were included as indicators of objective memory performance. In both experiments, analyses of the executive functioning data yielded a two-factor solution, with the updating and inhibition tasks constituting a common factor and the shifting tasks a separate factor. Self-reported memory problems showed low predictive validity, but subjective and objective memory performance were related to different components of executive functioning. In both experiments, set shifting, but not updating and inhibition, was related to PRMQ, whereas source recall showed the opposite pattern of correlations in Experiment 1. These findings suggest that metamemorial judgments reflect selective effects of executive functioning and that individual differences in mental flexibility contribute to self-beliefs of efficacy.

  • 19.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Sternäng, Ola
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Challenging the notion of an early-onset of cognitive decline.2009In: Neurobiology of Aging, ISSN 0197-4580, E-ISSN 1558-1497, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 521-524; discussion 530Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Salthouse claims that cognitive aging starts around 20 years of age. The basis for this claim is cross-sectional data. He dismisses longitudinal data, which typically show the cognitive decline to start much later, around 60 years of age. He states that longitudinal data cannot be trusted because they are flawed. There is a confounding between the effects of maturation and retest effects. We challenge Salthouse's strong claim on four accounts.

  • 20.
    Nowakowska, Iwona
    et al.
    Institute of Psychology, Maria Grzegorzewska University, Warsaw, Poland.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Future of nature, our future. A preregistered report on future time perspective, social value orientation, and pro-environmental outcomes based on data from Poland and Sweden2023In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 14, article id 1217139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The objective of the study was to examine the role of social value orientation and future time perspective to account for individual differences in pro-environmental behaviors, intentions, and opinions about the link between pro-environmental action and pandemic threat (three separate models) in Polish and Swedish samples expected to differ in rate of pro-environmental behaviors (higher in Sweden). We hypothesized that for Poland, future time perspective would be linked to pro-environmental outcomes only when social value orientation is average or high. In contrast, for Sweden, we expected a significant link between these variables regardless of social value orientation.

    Methods: In total, 301 (150 Polish, 151 Swedish) participants completed online surveys via Prolific.co research panel. We controlled for individualizing/binding moral foundations, present time perspectives, and selected demographic variables in the analyses.

    Results: In line with expectations, the individualizing moral foundations were a significant predictor across all three models. The data did not support our focal hypothesis regarding the interaction between future time perspective and social value orientation. For pro-environmental behaviors in the past 6 months, the future time perspective was a predictor only when social value orientation was low.

    Discussion: The results suggest that when encouraging more competitive (compared to altruistic) people to behave in a green way, it might be crucial to underline the future consequences and benefits, consistent with the future time perspective. The pro-environmental campaigns could, therefore, highlight how green behavior may bring personal gains in the future, which are typically valued by individualistic people, such as savings or social status.

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  • 21.
    Nyberg, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance (DRCMR), Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre, Denmark; Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen (ISMC), Copenhagen University Hospital Bispebjerg, Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Herlitz, Agneta
    Kauppi, Karolina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Ljungberg, Jessica K.
    Lövheim, Hugo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Geriatric Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Wallenberg Centre for Molecular Medicine at Umeå University (WCMM).
    Lundquist, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Nordin Adolfsson, Annelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Oudin, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health. Environment Society and Health, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University.
    Pudas, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stiernstedt, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Biological and environmental predictors of heterogeneity in neurocognitive ageing: Evidence from Betula and other longitudinal studies2020In: Ageing Research Reviews, ISSN 1568-1637, E-ISSN 1872-9649, Vol. 64, article id 101184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Individual differences in cognitive performance increase with advancing age, reflecting marked cognitive changes in some individuals along with little or no change in others. Genetic and lifestyle factors are assumed to influence cognitive performance in ageing by affecting the magnitude and extent of age-related brain changes (i.e., brain maintenance or atrophy), as well as the ability to recruit compensatory processes. The purpose of this review is to present findings from the Betula study and other longitudinal studies, with a focus on clarifying the role of key biological and environmental factors assumed to underlie individual differences in brain and cognitive ageing. We discuss the vital importance of sampling, analytic methods, consideration of non-ignorable dropout, and related issues for valid conclusions on factors that influence healthy neurocognitive ageing.

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  • 22.
    Nyström, Markus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. The Graduate School in Population Dynamics and Public Policy, Umeå university.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kormi-Nouri, Reza
    School of Law, Psychology and Social Work, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    To what extent is subjective well-being in late adulthood related to subjective and objective memory functioning?: Five-year cross-lagged panel analyses2019In: Aging & Mental Health, ISSN 1360-7863, E-ISSN 1364-6915, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 92-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Population aging motivated a focus in contemporary research on factors, e.g. cognitive functioning, that contribute to ‘aging well.’ However, something that has been overlooked is relation between memory functioning, determined by objective tests as well as subjective memory ratings, and subjective well-being (SWB).

    Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate cross-sectional and longitudinal (cross-lagged) relationships between episodic memory (both subjective and objective) and SWB.

    Method: A total of 586 older individuals (60–90 years) were assessed on multiple measures of the targeted constructs at baseline (Time 1) as part of the Betula cohort study. Five years later (Time 2), 354 of the participants returned for follow-up measurements and were included in cross-lagged panel analyses.

    Results: As expected, objective memory and subjective memory showed a pattern of cross-sectional age deficits and a mean level longitudinal decline was observed for objective memory. By contrast, SWB showed stable mean levels both across age and time. No cross-sectional or cross-lagged associations were observed between SWB and objective memory, whereas subjective memory and SWB showed a cross-sectional association.

    Conclusion: The results underscore that successful aging is a multifaceted construct with no or only weak associations between the investigated components. However, SWB and rate of change at the individual level should be considered to define successful aging.

  • 23.
    Olofsson, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Michael, Rönnlund
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Larsson, Maria
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Odor identification deficit as a predictor of five-year global cognitive change: Interactive effects with age and ApoE-ε42009In: Behavior Genetics, ISSN 0001-8244, E-ISSN 1573-3297, Vol. 39, no 5, p. 496-503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Olfactory impairments are present in common neurodegenerative disorders and predict conversion to dementia in non-demented individuals with cognitive impairment. In cognitively intact elderly, evidence is sparse regarding the role of olfactory deficits in predicting cognitive impairment. The present study investigated predictors of 5-year prospective decline in the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in a large (n = 501), population-based sample of elderly (65-90 years) individuals. All participants were genotyped for the ApoE gene, assessed for health factors, and were non-demented at the baseline assessment. After partialling out the influences of demographic and health-factors at baseline and dementia at follow-up, poor odor identification ability in combination with older age and the ApoE-epsilon4 allele predicted larger prospective global cognitive decline. This effect could not be produced by a vocabulary test. In sum, the findings suggest that an olfactory deficit can dissociate between benign and malign global cognitive development in non-demented, very old epsilon4-carriers, who are at high risk of developing dementia.

  • 24.
    Pudas, Sara
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    School Performance and Educational Attainment as Early-Life Predictors of Age-Related Memory Decline: Protective Influences in Later-Born Cohorts2019In: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences, ISSN 1079-5014, E-ISSN 1758-5368, Vol. 74, no 8, p. 1356-1365, article id gby137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Evidence is accumulating that early-life characteristics and experiences contribute significantly to differences in cognitive aging. This study investigated whether school performance at age 12 predicted late-life level and rate of memory change over 15–25 years, and whether its potential protective influence on memory change was mediated by educational attainment or income.

    Methods: Latent growth curve models were fitted to 15–25 year longitudinal memory data from a population-based sample, stratified on age cohorts (n = 227, born 1909–1935; n = 301, born 1938–1954).

    Results: A latent-level school grade variable significantly predicted both memory level and slope in later-born cohorts. Higher grades were associated with higher level and reduced decline, measured between ages 45 and 70 years, on average. In the earlier-born cohorts, grades predicted memory level, but not slope, measured between ages 66 and 81 years. Follow-up analyses indicated that the protective influence of higher school grades in later-born cohorts was partially mediated by educational attainment, but independent of income.

    Discussion: The results suggest that higher childhood school performance is protective against age-related cognitive decline in younger or later-born cohorts, for which further education has been more accessible. Education may exert such influence through increased cognitive reserve or more well-informed health- and lifestyle decisions.

  • 25.
    Pyszkowska, Anna
    et al.
    Institute of Psychology, University of Silesia in Katowice, Katowice, Poland.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Psychological Flexibility and Self-Compassion as Predictors of Well-Being: Mediating Role of a Balanced Time Perspective2021In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 12, article id 671746Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measures of psychological flexibility and self-compassion are strongly associated with well-being. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that these relationships are mediated by a balanced time perspective, a proposed ideal way of relating to the past, present, and future that may correspond with an ability to flexibly switch temporal focus. For this purpose, a Polish community sample (N = 421) responded to a web-survey including measures of psychological flexibility (AAQ-II), self-compassion (SCS), two measures of positive aspects of well-being (Satisfaction with Life, Quality of Life), and the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI). Structural equation models, involving a measure of deviation from a balanced time perspective (DBTP) as a mediator of relationships between latent-level psychological flexibility, self-compassion and well-being factors, were tested. We examined separate models for psychological flexibility and self-compassion and a model including both constructs. The results for separate models were consistent with partial mediation of relationships with well-being, both for psychological flexibility and self-compassion. Results for the analysis involving both constructs, suggested unique contributions of both to DBTP, which in turn predicted well-being, but the link between psychological flexibility and DBTP appeared to be the strongest. In further analyses, three ZTPI dimensions were identified as most critical, namely Past Positive, Present Fatalistic, and Past Negative, each of which were part of an indirect effect on well-being. Psychological flexibility in particular, showed a strong negative association with a Past Negative orientation. Taken together, the results indicate that time perspective is a factor to understand the links between psychological flexibility/self-compassion and well-being. While the results pertaining to self-compassion were consistent with results of a couple of prior studies, this is, to our knowledge, the first demonstration of a link between psychological flexibility and a balanced time perspective. These findings should be relevant for clinical research and practice.

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  • 26.
    Pyszkowska, Anna
    et al.
    Institute of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Silesia of Katowice, Katowice, Poland.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Deviations from the balanced time perspective, cognitive fusion, and self-compassion in individuals with or without a depression diagnosis: different mean profiles but common links to depressive symptoms2024In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 14, article id 1290676Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Prior research indicates that depressive symptoms in unselected or sub-clinical samples are associated with time perspective biases, including a more negative view of the past and a more fatalistic attitude toward the present. In the current study, we compared time perspective profiles for a clinical sample, with a depression diagnosis with that of a control group. Additionally, we considered a measure known as deviations from the balanced time perspective (DBTP) that capture deviations across time frames, not considered in previous studies. A second obejctive was to test a model involving DPTP as a mediator of the links between cognitive fusion and self-compassion with depressive symptoms.

    Method: In total, 300 individuals participated in the study, 150 participants with a depression diagnosis and 150 without a depression diagnoses. All participants filled in questions regarding background variables together with Polish adaptations of ZTPI, CFQ, SCS-S, and DASS-21 using a web-survey.

    Results: The results showed significantly higher scores on Past Negative and Present Fatalistic in the clinical sample. In line with the hypothesis the clinical group also displayed elevated DBTP scores (d = 0.75), a difference that remained significant when current symptoms were adjusted for. The results of structural equation modeling moreover indicate a major role of cognitive fusion (which, as expected, was strongly associated with DBTP) in predicting symptom burden, regardless of the clinical/non-clinical distinction, but. Still, DBTP accounted for significant (unique) variance in depressive symptoms. By contrast, the inclusion of cognitive fusion and DBTP eliminated the association of self-compassion and depressive symptoms.

    Conclusion: Taken together, the results indicate that levels of DBTP/fusion for persons with depression diagnosis is present regardless of current symptom burden. Thus, DBTP could be regarded as a risk factor of developing depression. Prospective research designs are needed to further evaluate the associations of the main constructs in this study and the extent to which they are predictive of future diagnosis and changes in symptom level.

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  • 27.
    Ronat, Lucas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical and Translational Biology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Centre de Recherche de l’Institut Universitaire de Gériatrie de Montréal, Neuroimaging of Emotions Lab, Montreal, QC; Canada Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Hanganu, Alexandru
    Centre de Recherche de l’Institut Universitaire de Gériatrie de Montréal, Neuroimaging of Emotions Lab, Montreal, QC, Canada; Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada.
    Pudas, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical and Translational Biology.
    Revised temperament and character inventory factors predict neuropsychiatric symptoms and aging-related cognitive decline across 25 years2024In: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, E-ISSN 1663-4365, Vol. 16, article id 1335336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Personality traits and neuropsychiatric symptoms such as neuroticism and depression share genetic overlap and have both been identified as risks factors for development of aging-related neurocognitive decline and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This study aimed to examine revised personality factors derived from the Temperament and Character Inventory, previously shown to be associated with psychiatric disorders, as predictors of neuropsychiatric, cognitive, and brain trajectories of participants from a population-based aging study.

    Methods: Mixed-effect linear regression analyses were conducted on data for the full sample (Nmax = 1,286), and a healthy subsample not converting to AD-dementia during 25-year follow-up (Nmax = 1,145), complemented with Cox proportional regression models to determine risk factors for conversion to clinical AD.

    Results: Two personality factors, Closeness to Experience (CE: avoidance of new stimuli, high anxiety, pessimistic anticipation, low reward seeking) and Tendence to Liabilities (TL: inability to change, low autonomy, unaware of the value of their existence) were associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, stress (CE), sleep disturbance (TL), as well as greater decline in memory, vocabulary and verbal fluency in the full sample. Higher CE was additionally associated with greater memory decline across 25 years in the healthy subsample, and faster right hippocampal volume reduction across 8 years in a neuroimaging subsample (N = 216). Most, but not all, personality-cognition associations persisted after controlling for diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Concerning risks for conversion to AD, higher age, and APOE-ε4, but none of the personality measures, were significant predictors.

    Conclusion: The results indicate that personality traits associated with psychiatric symptoms predict accelerated age-related neurocognitive declines even in the absence of neurodegenerative disease. The attenuation of some personality effects on cognition after adjustment for health indicators suggests that those effects may be partly mediated by somatic health. Taken together, the results further emphasize the importance of personality traits in neurocognitive aging and underscore the need for an integrative (biopsychosocial) perspective of normal and pathological age-related cognitive decline.

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  • 28.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    Backman, L
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stabilty, growth, and decline in adult life span development of declarative memory: Crosssectional and longitudinal data from a population-based study2005In: Psychology and Aging, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 3-18Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Deviations from a balanced time perspective in late adulthood: associations with current g and g in youth2018In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 71, p. 8-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated relations between general cognitive ability (g) and aspects of time perspective, i.e. habitual ways of relating to the past, present, and future, in a sample of older adults (60-90 years, N = 438). In main focus was a measure of deviations from a balanced time perspective (DBTP), reflecting the differences between proposed ideal and observed score profile on the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (S-ZTPI). A current g factor reflecting four cognitive markers was negatively related to DBTP (beta = -0.31), with a higher estimate (beta = -0.40) for a latent DBTP factor. For a subset of male participants (n = 129), cognitive test score from age 18 were retrieved. In that sample the g factor in youth predicted DBTP scores obtained around 52 years later (beta = -0.31, p < .01) nearly as well as current g (beta = -0.39). In line with prior studies, the Present Fatalistic dimension was a main source of the covariation of g and DBTP, but deviation scores for each of the three temporal frames (past, present, future) were significantly associated with g as well. Variations in recent stress did not account for these associations. Multi-group latent level analyses revealed a magnified g-DBTP association in old-old age (beta = -0.57 and beta = -0.81 in the old-old group for a latent DBTP factor), with a similar pattern for Present Fatalistic and Past Negative. Together, the results demonstrate a substantial association between g and time perspective in late adulthood, a relationship that may have been established early as judged from a relation to the age 18 g factor. A magnified association in in old-old age might reflect a more noticeable impact of age-related cognitive deficits on everyday functioning and thereby aspects of time perspective (e.g. increase present fatalism). Impairments in cognitive processes that allow for a flexible shift between temporal frames could also be factor, something which needs to be evaluated in future studies.

  • 30.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Time Perspective Biases Are Associated With Poor Sleep Quality, Daytime Sleepiness, and Lower Levels of Subjective Well-Being Among Older Adults2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 1356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the extent to which individual differences in time perspective, i.e., habitual way of relating to the personal past, present, and future, are associated with sleep quality and daytime sleepiness in a sample of older adults. The participants (N = 437, 60-90 years) completed the Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire (KSQ), a the Swedish version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (S-ZTPI), and two ratings of subjective well-being (SWB) (life satisfaction, happiness). Based on established relationships between dimension of time perspective and other variables (e.g., depression) and relations between negative retrospection (rumination) and negative prospection (worry) in prior studies, we expected higher scores on Past Negative and Future Negative to be linked to poor sleep quality and (indirectly) increased daytime sleepiness. Moreover, we examined the possibility that variations in perceived sleep and sleepiness during the day mediates the expected association between an aggregate measure of deviations from a so called balanced time perspective (DBTP) and SWB. In regression analyses controlling for demographic factors (age, sex, and work status), higher scores on Past Negative and Future Negative predicted poorer sleep quality and higher levels of daytime sleepiness. Additionally, most of the association between time perspective and daytime sleepiness was accounted for by individual differences in sleep quality. Finally, structural equation modeling yielded results consistent with the hypothesis that variations in sleep mediate part of the negative relationship between DBTP and SWB. Given that good sleep is essential to multiple aspects of health, future studies evaluating relationships between time perspective and adverse health outcomes should consider sleep quality as a potentially contributing factor.

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  • 31.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carlstedt, Berit
    Blomstedt, Yulia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Secular trends in cognitive test performance: Swedish conscript data 1970-19932013In: Intelligence, ISSN 0160-2896, E-ISSN 1873-7935, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 19-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated time-related patterns in levels of cognitive performance during the period from 1970 to 1993 based on data from Swedish draft boards. The conscripts, including more than a million 18-19-year old men, had taken one of two versions of the Swedish enlistment battery (SEB67; 1970-1979 or SEB80; 1980-1993), each composed of four subtests. The results revealed significant Flynn effects, with estimated gains of 1.2-1.5 IQ-units per decade. The effect seem to hold across ability levels, even though tendencies of more pronounced effects in the lower half of the ability distribution was observed. The largest gains were for visuospatial tests (Paper Form Board and Metal Folding), with little change, even slight losses during the second sub-period, for tests of verbal knowledge (Concept Discrimination and Synonyms) and a mixed pattern for a test of technical comprehension (losses followed by gains). Finally, comparisons of trends in cognitive performance and in standing height show that the gains in cognitive performance over the years from 1980 to 1993 occurred in the absence of overall gains in height which speaks against nutrition as the cause of the Flynn effects. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 32.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Del Missier, Fabio
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Fatalistic Decision Maker: Time Perspective, Working Memory, and Older Adults’ Decision-Making Competence2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 2038Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior research indicates that time perspective (TP; views of past, present, and future) is related to decision-making style. By contrast, no prior study considered relations between TP and decision-making competence. We therefore investigated associations between dimensions of the Swedish Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (S-ZTPI) and performance on the Adult Decision-Making Competence (A-DMC) battery in a sample of older adults (60–90 years, N = 346). A structural equation model involving four A-DMC components as indicators of a general DMC factor and the six TP dimensions as the predictors revealed a significant negative association between the Present Fatalistic dimension and DMC. Given that age-related differences were apparent in DMC and that Present Fatalistic orientation increased with age, we tested a model by which the age-related differences in DMC were mediated by age-related differences in Present Fatalistic attitudes and in working memory. The results were consistent with full mediation of the age effects, with Present Fatalistic and working memory jointly accounting for a substantial amount of the variance in DMC (51%). The finding that DMC among older adults, in particular more cognitively demanding aspects such as applying decision rules, can be undermined by increased present fatalistic attitudes and declines in working memory is discussed in terms of theoretical frameworks highlighting the contribution of both motivational and cognitive factors to effective decision making.

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  • 33.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    Karlsson, E
    The relation between dimensions of attachment and internalizing or externalizing problems during adolescence2006In: JOURNAL OF GENETIC PSYCHOLOGY, ISSN 0022-1325, Vol. 167, no 1, p. 47-63Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    Karlsson, E
    Laggnas, E
    Larsson, L
    Lindström, T
    Risky decision making across three arenas of choice: Are younger and older adults differently susceptible to framing effects?2005In: JOURNAL OF GENERAL PSYCHOLOGY, ISSN 0022-1309, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 81-92Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Koudriavtseva, Antonina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Germundsjö, Linnea
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eriksson, Terese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carelli, Maria Grazia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Mindfulness Promotes a More Balanced Time Perspective: Correlational and Intervention-Based Evidence2019In: Mindfulness, ISSN 1868-8527, E-ISSN 1868-8535, Vol. 10, no 8, p. 1579-1591Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship between mindfulness and aspects of time perspective (TP, i.e., habitual views of past, present, future).

    Methods: We examined cross-sectional associations between an established measure of mindfulness (FFMQ) and an extended version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (Swedish ZTPI; S-ZTPI) in a sample with little experience of mindfulness training (n = 212). In addition, we evaluated the effects of two mindfulness-based interventions (a mindfulness instructor course involving 29 participants and a mindful self-compassion program, n = 40 for the intervention group, n = 41 for controls) on mindfulness and measures of TP including an aggregate measure of deviations from a proposed optimal, or balanced, time perspective (DBTP).

    Results: Cross-sectional data were consistent with a model by which part of the relationship between mindfulness and perceived stress is mediated by reduced DBTP. Global mindfulness scores showed the strongest (negative) associations with the S-ZTPI scales Future Negative and Past Negative. Comparisons of pre/post-intervention data revealed significant mindfulness-based intervention-related reductions of DBTP (Cohen’s d = − 0.46), with lowered scores on Past Negative and Future Negative and a small increase on Past Positive.

    Conclusions: The results support the notion that a higher level of mindfulness promotes a more balanced time perspective, with a reduced focus on negative aspects of the past and negative anticipations of the future. Relations to repetitive negative thought processes (rumination, worry) and a potential bidirectional influence of mindfulness and aspects of time perspective are discussed.

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  • 36.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Löwdén, Martin
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Cross-Sectional versus Longitudinal age Gradients of Tower of Hanoi Performance: The Role of Practice Effects and Cohort Differences in Education2007In: Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition, ISSN 1382-5585, E-ISSN 1744-4128, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 40-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined 5-year longitudinal changes in Tower of Hanoi (TOH) performance in a population-based sample of adults (35–85 years initially; n = 1480). An age-matched sample (n = 433) was included to estimate practice effects. The longitudinal age gradients differed substantially from the cross-sectional age gradients. This was the case even when practice effects, that were substantial in magnitude across the young/middle-aged groups, were controlled for. Instead of a continuous age-related deficit in performance from 35 and onwards, longitudinal data showed slowing of performance and increases of illegal moves past age 65. Cohort-related differences in educational attainment did not account for this discrepancy. Further analyses revealed a positive relation between practice-related gains and explicit memory of having performed the task at the first test occasion and a positive association between latent changes in TOH and Block Design, in line with cross-sectional findings. In conclusion, the results demonstrate a pattern of age-related changes indicating a late-onset decline of TOH performance and underscore the need to control for retest effects in longitudinal aging research.

  • 37.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    The Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ): Factorial structure, relations to global subjective memory ratings, and Swedish norms2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 11-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The factorial structure of the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ; Smith et al., 2000) was examined in a Swedish population based sample (N= 540, age range; 35–90 years). Concurrent validity was assessed by relating PRMQ to global ratings of memory. Confirmatory factor analyses of the PRMQ items indicated a superior fit of a three-factor model, with prospective and retrospective memory as orthogonal factors and episodic memory as a common factor. Furthermore, the PRMQ scales correlated with the global ratings of memory, suggesting that each rating contributed with unique variance in predicting PRMQ scores. Given differences in levels of complaints as compared with prior research (Crawford et al., 2003) norms for the Swedish version are provided. In conclusion, the present findings extend earlier work by providing additional support for the construct and concurrent validity of the PRMQ scales.

  • 38.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Adult life-span patterns in WAIS-R Block Design performance: Cross-sectional versus longitudinal age gradients and relations to demographic factors2006In: INTELLIGENCE, ISSN 0160-2896, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 63-78Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Rönnlund, Michael