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  • 1.
    Asellus, Peter
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci Psychiat, Karolinska Univ Hosp, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nordström, P
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci Psychiat, Karolinska Univ Hosp, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jokinen, Jussi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry. Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci Psychiat, Karolinska Univ Hosp, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cholesterol and CSF 5-HIAA in attempted suicide2010In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 125, no 1-3, p. 388-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Low serum cholesterol has been linked to suicide and violent behaviour. The same kind of associations has been reported regarding low levels of 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and suicidal behaviour. The hypothesis of the link between serum cholesterol and suicide incorporate serotonin. It proposes that low cholesterol is related to altered serotonergic neurotransmission. A correlation between CSF 5-HIAA and serum cholesterol has been shown in animal studies, but has not been found in humans.

    AIM: To study the interrelationship between serum cholesterol and CSF 5-HIAA in suicide attempters. Since both cholesterol and CSF 5-HIAA are associated with suicide and violent suicide attempts, we also investigated the correlation with suicide, violent suicide attempt method, suicide intent, hopelessness and depression severity.

    METHODS: Serum total cholesterol and CSF 5-HIAA were measured in 42 medication free suicide attempters. Patients were assessed with Becks's Hopelessness scale (BHS), Suicide Intent Scale (SIS) and Montgomery-Asberg depression rating scale (MADRS) and followed-up for causes of death.

    RESULTS: Serum total cholesterol and CSF 5-HIAA showed a significant positive correlation adjusted for age, body mass index and substance abuse diagnosis. Cholesterol and CSF 5-HIAA levels did not differ between violent and non-violent suicide attempters or between suicide completers and survivors.

    CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that the serotonergic system may be connected to serum cholesterol in patients with a recent suicide attempt.

  • 2.
    Asellus, Peter
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience/Psychiatry, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, SE-171 76 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nordström, Peter
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience/Psychiatry, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, SE-171 76 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nordström, Anna-Lena
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience/Psychiatry, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, SE-171 76 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jokinen, Jussi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry. Department of Clinical Neuroscience/Psychiatry, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Solna, SE-171 76 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cholesterol and the "Cycle of Violence" in attempted suicide2014In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 215, no 3, p. 646-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An association between low levels of serum cholesterol and violent or suicidal behaviour has frequently been reported. However the role of serum cholesterol in the cycle of violence (Widom, 1989) has not been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate association between exposure to violence during childhood and used adult violence in suicide attempters with low and high serum cholesterol levels. 81 suicide attempters were assessed with the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scale (KIVS) measuring exposure to violence and expressed violent behaviour in childhood (between 6 and 14 years of age) and during adult life (15 years or older). We used median split to dichotomise groups below and above median serum cholesterol. In patients with serum cholesterol below median, the correlation between exposure to violence as a child and used adult violence was significant (rho=0.52, p=0.002), while in patients with serum cholesterol above median, the correlation between exposure to violence as a child and expressed violent behaviour as an adult was not significant (rho=0.25, p=0.2). Comorbid substance abuse predicted violent behaviour as an adult only in patients with serum cholesterol above median. Serum cholesterol may modify the effect of the "Cycle of Violence".

  • 3.
    Asellus, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Nordström, Peter
    Nordström, Anna-Lena
    Jokinen, Jussi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, R5, Karolinska University Hospital/Solna, Stockholm, Sweden.
    CSF Apolipoprotein E in attempted suicide2018In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 225, p. 246-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Cholesterol and cholesterol metabolism, involved in continued neural plasticity, has been associated to suicide and suicidal behavior. Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) plays an important role in the cholesterol metabolism. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether ApoE in cerebrospinal fluid was related to severity of suicidal behavior as measured by number of earlier suicide attempts, reversibility/interruptabilty and violent method of suicide attempt. Methods: CSF ApoE and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) were measured in 42 medication free suicide attempters. Earlier suicide attempts and the reversibility of suicide attempt method were assessed with the Suicide Intent Scale (SIS) and the Freeman Scale. Suicide attempts were classified according to violence of method. Results: CSF ApoE levels significantly negatively correlated to the scores on Freeman Reversibility and there was a trend for lower CSF ApoE levels in suicide attempters using a violent method. Patients with at least one earlier suicide attempt (repeaters) showed a trend for higher CSF ApoE levels compared to suicide attempters debuting with suicidal behavior at inclusion in the study. The correlation between CSF ApoE and 5-HIAA was not significant. Limitations: The main limitations to this study were a relatively small sample size and lack of a healthy control group. Conclusion: Irreversible suicide attempts, representing a high risk for completed suicide, may be associated with lower level of ApoE in CSF.

  • 4. Asellus, Peter
    et al.
    Nordström, Peter
    Nordström, Anna-Lena
    Jokinen, Jussi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry. Department of Clinical Neuroscience/Psychiatry, Karolinska Institutet, R5, Karolinska University Hospital/Solna.
    Plasma apolipoprotein E and severity of suicidal behaviour2016In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 190, p. 137-142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is evidence for association between low cholesterol levels and suicidal behaviour. Since apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is involved in the cholesterol metabolism in both the periphery and in the central nervous system; it may be of particular interest in the neurobiology of suicidal behaviour. Furthermore, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, one of the main biological systems implicated in both suicidal behaviour and early-life adversity, affect ApoE levels. Very few studies have assessed plasma ApoE in relation to suicidal behaviour. The purpose of this study was to investigate levels of ApoE in plasma in relation to the severity of suicidal behaviour and life-time adversity in the form of exposure to interpersonal violence in suicide attempters. A total of 100 suicide attempters (67 women and 33 men) were enroled in the study. Information on earlier suicide attempts and age at onset of suicidal behaviour was gathered using the Karolinska Suicide History Interview. The Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scale was used to assess exposure to interpersonal violence. Plasma ApoE was measured by immunonephelometry according to accredited routines. Patients with at least one earlier suicide attempt had significantly higher ApoE levels compared to suicide attempters debuting with suicidal behaviour at inclusion in the study. A higher number of earlier suicide attempts was significantly correlated with higher plasma ApoE levels. Age at onset was significantly negatively correlated with ApoE after adjusting for age. ApoE showed a significant positive correlation with exposure to interpersonal violence as a child in male suicide attempters. Our findings indicate that ApoE may be related to stress and trauma and the temporal severity of suicidal behaviour.

  • 5.
    Degerlund Maldi, Kinza
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Asellus, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Myléus, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Norström, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Cost-utility analysis of esketamine and electroconvulsive therapy in adults with treatment-resistant depression2021In: BMC Psychiatry, E-ISSN 1471-244X, Vol. 21, no 1, article id 610Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has long been used for treating individuals with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Esketamine has recently emerged as a new treatment for TRD due to its rapid antidepressant effects. To further inform the decision regarding choice of treatment, this paper aims to evaluate whether ECT or esketamine is the more cost-effective option.

    METHODS: The cost-effectiveness was derived as cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) using a Markov model from a societal and life-time perspective. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated. Health states included different depression and remission states and death. Data to populate the model was derived from randomised controlled trials and other research. Various sensitivity analyses were carried out to test the robustness of the model.

    RESULTS: The base case scenario shows that ECT is cost-effective compared to esketamine and yields more QALYs at a lower cost. The sensitivity analysis shows that ECT is cost-effective in all scenarios and ECT dominates esketamine in 12 scenarios.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study found that, from a cost-effectiveness point of view, ECT should be the first-hand option for individuals with TRD, when other first line treatments have failed. Considering the lack of economic evaluation of ECT and esketamine, this study is of great value to decision makers.

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